Mark Twain National Forest
Mark Twain National Forest is a U. S. National Forest located in the southern half of Missouri. MTNF was established on September 11, 1939, it is named for a Missouri native. The MTNF covers 3,068,800 acres of which 1,506,100 acres is public owned, 78,000 acres of which are Wilderness, National Scenic River area. MTNF represents 11 % of all forested land in Missouri. MTNF is divided into six distinct ranger districts: Ava-Cassville-Willow Springs, Eleven Point, Houston-Rolla, Cedar Creek, Poplar Bluff, Potosi-Fredericktown, the Salem; the six ranger districts comprise nine overall unique tracts of forests. Its headquarters are in Missouri; some unique features of the Mark Twain include Greer Spring, the largest spring on National Forest land and part of the Eleven Point National Scenic River, pumps an average of 214 million gallons of water per day into the river. The public can visit the Glade Top Trail National Scenic Byway, which offers views of over 30 miles to the Boston Mountains in Arkansas.
The 350-mile Ozark Trail system winds through much of the National Forest. The Mark Twain National Forest, as we know it today, was created on February 17, 1976; the Mark Twain National forest has a rather unusual history – for it was once known as both the Clark National Forest and the Mark Twain National Forest – both being proclaimed on September 11, 1939. In June 1973 the Clark and Mark Twain NF were brought under one headquarters in Rolla and became known as the National forests in Missouri. On Feb. 17, 1976, the forests were renamed the Mark Twain National Forest. Missouri’s only national forest, The Mark Twain, encompasses 1.5 million acres within the Ozark Highlands. Located across southern Missouri and northern Arkansas, the Ozark Highlands are an ancient landscape characterized by large permanent springs, over 5,000 caves, rocky barren glades, old volcanic mountains and nationally recognized streams. Portions of the Ozarks were the areas glaciated. In the 1870s, citizens of southern Missouri began an era of extensive logging of the state's native oak and pine forests.
Lumber mills were commonplace, but by the 1920s they had disappeared, along with much of the state's native forests. Thus, in 1939 President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the MTNF into existence. In March 1933, he created the Emergency Conservation Work Act, better known as the Civilian Conservation Corps. In the area that would become Mark Twain National Forest, hundreds of young men at over fifty CCC sites worked at building roads and planting hundreds of acres of pine to preserve and enhance the natural resources of southern Missouri. Many of their contributions can still be visited and enjoyed today including the Rolla Ranger Station Historic District and Winona Ranger Station Historic District. Although it is far from being the largest National Forest in acreage, Mark Twain National Forest is located in more counties than any other; as of September 30, 2007, its 1,490,862 acres were spread over parts of 29 counties in southern and central Missouri. "Mark Twain National Forest". USDA Forest Service.
Retrieved February 6, 2006
Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer and frontiersman, whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his settlement of what is now Kentucky, it was still considered part of Virginia but was on the western side of the Appalachian Mountains from most European-American settlements. As a young adult, Boone supplemented his farm income by hunting and trapping game, selling their pelts in the fur market. Through this occupational interest, Boone first learned the easy routes to the area. Despite some resistance from American Indian tribes such as the Shawnee, in 1775, Boone blazed his Wilderness Road from North Carolina and Tennessee through Cumberland Gap in the Cumberland Mountains into Kentucky. There, he founded the village of Boonesborough, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.
Boone served as a militia officer during the Revolutionary War, which, in Kentucky, was fought between the American settlers and British-allied Native Americans, who hoped to expel the Americans. Boone was captured by Shawnee warriors in 1778, he alerted Boonesborough that the Shawnee were planning an attack. Although outnumbered, Americans repelled the Shawnee warriors in the Siege of Boonesborough. Boone was elected to the first of his three terms in the Virginia General Assembly during the Revolutionary War, he fought in the Battle of Blue Licks in 1782. Blue Licks, a Shawnee victory over the Patriots, was one of the last battles of the Revolutionary War, coming after the main fighting ended in October 1781. Following the war, Boone worked as a surveyor and merchant, but fell into debt through failed Kentucky land speculation. Frustrated with the legal problems resulting from his land claims, in 1799, Boone emigrated to eastern Missouri, where he spent most of the last two decades of his life.
Boone remains an iconic figure in American history. He was a legend in his own lifetime after an account of his adventures was published in 1784, framing him as the typical American frontiersman. After his death, he was the subject of heroic tall tales and works of fiction, his adventures—real and legendary—were influential in creating the archetypal frontier hero of American folklore. In American popular culture, he is remembered as one of the foremost early frontiersmen; the epic Daniel Boone mythology overshadows the historical details of his life. Daniel Boone was of English West Welsh ancestry; because the Gregorian calendar was adopted during his lifetime, Boone's birth date is sometimes given as November 2, 1734, although Boone used the October date. The Boone family belonged to the Religious Society of Friends, called "Quakers", were persecuted in England for their dissenting beliefs. Daniel's father, Squire Boone emigrated from the small town of Bradninch, Devon to Pennsylvania in 1713, to join William Penn's colony of dissenters.
Squire Boone's parents, George Boone III and Mary Maugridge, followed their son to Pennsylvania in 1717, in 1720 built a log cabin at Boonecroft. In 1720, Squire Boone, who worked as a weaver and a blacksmith, married Sarah Morgan. Sarah's family were Quakers from Wales, had settled in 1708 in the area which became Towamencin Township of Montgomery County. In 1731, the Boones moved to Exeter Township in the Oley Valley of Berks County, near the modern city of Reading. There they built a log cabin preserved today as the Daniel Boone Homestead. Daniel Boone was born there, the sixth of eleven children; the Daniel Boone Homestead is four miles from the Mordecai Lincoln House, making the Squire Boone family neighbors of Mordecai Lincoln, the great-great-grandfather of future president Abraham Lincoln. Mordecai's son named Abraham, married Ann Boone, a first cousin of Daniel. Daniel Boone spent his early years on what was the edge of the frontier. Several Lenape Indian villages were nearby; the pacifist Pennsylvania Quakers had good relations with the Native Americans, but the steady growth of the white population compelled many Indians to move further west.
Boone was given his first rifle at the age of 12. He learned to hunt from the Lenape. Folk tales have emphasized Boone's skills as a hunter. In one story, the young Boone was hunting in the woods with some other boys, when the howl of a panther scattered all but Boone, he calmly shot the predator through the heart just as it leaped at him. The validity of this claim is contested, but the story was told so that it became part of his popular image. In Boone's youth, his family became a source of controversy in the local Quaker community when two of the oldest children married outside the endogamous community, in present-day Lower Gwynedd Township, Pennsylvania. In 1742, Boone's parents were compelled to apologize publicly after their eldest child, married John Willcockson, a "worldling"; because the young couple had "kept company", they were considered "married without benefit of clergy". When the Boones' oldest son Israel married a "worldling" in 1747, Squire Boone stood by him. Both men were expelled from the Quakers.
In 1750, Squire Boone moved the family to North Carolina. Daniel Boone did not attend church again, he had all of his children baptized. The Boones
Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Randolph County, Missouri
Randolph County is a county located in the northern portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,414, its county seat is Huntsville. The county was organized January 22, 1829 and named for U. S. Representative and U. S. Senator John Randolph of Roanoke of Virginia. Randolph County comprises the Moberly, MO Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Columbia-Moberly-Mexico, MO Combined Statistical Area. Randolph County was settled by migrants from the Upper Southern states Kentucky and Tennessee, they brought slaves and slaveholding traditions with them, started cultivating crops similar to those in Middle Tennessee and Kentucky: hemp and tobacco. Randolph was one of several counties settled by Southerners to the north and south of the Missouri River. Given their culture and traditions, this area became known as Little Dixie, Randolph County was at its heart. Randolph County was home to the last of nine 5-star generals of the American military. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 488 square miles, of which 483 square miles is land and 5.1 square miles is water. Macon County Monroe County Shelby County Audrain County Boone County Howard County Chariton County U. S. Route 24 U. S. Route 63 Route 3 As of the census of 2000, there were 24,663 people, 9,199 households, 6,236 families residing in the county; the population density was 51 people per square mile. There were 10,740 housing units at an average density of 22 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.58% White, 7.03% Black or African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.24% from other races, 1.26% from two or more races. 1.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 24.1% were of German, 21.4% American, 10.9% English and 9.1% Irish ancestry. There were 9,199 households out of which 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.70% were married couples living together, 11.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.20% were non-families.
27.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.80% under the age of 18, 9.60% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.40% from 45 to 64, 14.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 107.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,464, the median income for a family was $39,268. Males had a median income of $26,878 versus $20,366 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,010. About 9.20% of families and 12.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.10% of those under age 18 and 13.20% of those age 65 or over. Higbee R-VIII School District – Higbee Higbee Elementary School Higbee High School Moberly School District – Moberly North Park Elementary School South Park Elementary School Gratz Brown Elementary School Moberly Middle School Moberly High School Northeast Randolph County R-IV School District – Cairo Northeast Randolph County Elementary School Northeast Randolph County High School Renick R-V School District – Renick Renick Elementary School Westran R-I School District – Huntsville Westran Elementary School Westran Middle School Westran High School St. Pius X Elementary School – Moberly – Roman Catholic Maranatha Seventh-day Adventist School – Moberly – Seventh-day Adventist Central Christian College of the Bible – Moberly – A private, four-year Christian Churches and Churches of Christ university.
Moberly Area Community College – Moberly – A public, two-year community college. Little Dixie Regional Libraries The Republican Party controls politics at the local level in Randolph County. Republicans hold all but three of the elected positions in the county. Most of Randolph County is a part of Missouri’s 6th District in the Missouri House of Representatives; the southern portions of the county are in the 44th, 47th, 48th Districts. District 6 — Tim Remole. District 44 — Cheri Toalson-Reisch. District 47 — Chuck Basye. District 48 — Dave Muntzel. All of Randolph County is a part of Missouri’s 18th District in the Missouri Senate, represented by Brian Munzlinger (R-Williamstown All of Randolph County is included in Missouri’s 4th Congressional District and is represented by Vicky Hartzler in the U. S. House of Representatives. Clark Clifton Hill Higbee Huntsville Moberly Cairo Jacksonville Renick National Register of Historic Places listings in Randolph County, Missouri Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Randolph County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books
Cooper County, Missouri
Cooper County is a county located in the central portion of the U. S. state of Missouri. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,601, its county seat is Boonville. The county was organized December 17, 1818 and named for Sarshell Cooper, a frontier settler, killed by Native Americans near Arrow Rock in 1814, it is a part of Missouri metropolitan area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 569 square miles, of which 565 square miles is land and 4.4 square miles is water. Howard County Boone County Moniteau County Morgan County Pettis County Saline County Big Muddy National Fish and Wildlife Refuge As of the 2000 census, there were 16,670 people, 5,932 households and 4,140 families residing in the county; the population density was 30 per square mile. There were 6,676 housing units at an average density of 12 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 89.05% White, 8.96% Black or African American, 0.36% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.28% from other races, 1.11% from two or more races.
0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 38.1% were of German, 18.7% American, 8.1% English and 8.0% Irish ancestry. There were 5,932 households, of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.40% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.20% were non-families. 26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.97. Age distribution was 22.80% under the age of 18, 14.00% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 20.60% from 45 to 64, 15.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 117.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.00 males. The median household income was $35,313, the median family income was $41,526. Males had a median income of $28,513 versus $20,965 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,648.
About 8.30% of families and 10.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.80% of those under age 18 and 8.30% of those age 65 or over. Blackwater R-II School District – Blackwater Blackwater Elementary School Boonville R-I School District – Boonville Hannah Cole Primary School David Barton Elementary School Laura Speed Elliott Middle School Boonville High School Cooper County R-IV School District – Bunceton Bunceton Elementary School Bunceton High School Otterville R-VI School District – Otterville Otterville Elementary School Otterville High School Pilot Grove C-4 School District – Pilot Grove Pilot Grove Elementary School Pilot Grove Middle School Pilot Grove High School Prairie Home R-V School District – Prairie Home Prairie Home Elementary School Prairie Home High School Saints Peter & Paul School – Boonville – Roman Catholic Zion Lutheran School – Bunceton – Lutheran St. Joseph Elementary School – Pilot Grove – Roman Catholic Boonville/Cooper Branch Library The Republican Party predominantly controls politics at the local level in Cooper County.
Republicans hold all but one of the elected positions in the county. Cooper County is divided into three legislative districts in the Missouri House of Representatives, all of which elected Republicans, but one is vacant. District 47 — Chuck Basye. Consists of areas east of the city of Boonville. District 48 — Dave Muntzel. Consists of the communities of Blackwater, Bunceton and Pilot Grove. District 50 —. Consists of the community of Prairie Home and much of the rest of the eastern portion of the county. All of Cooper County is a part of Missouri’s 19th District in the Missouri Senate and is represented by Caleb Rowden. All of Cooper County is included in Missouri’s 4th Congressional District and is represented by Vicky Hartzler in the U. S. House of Representatives. Former U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton received more votes, a total of 1,019, than any candidate from either party in Cooper County during the 2008 presidential primary. Blackwater Boonville Bunceton Otterville Pilot Grove Prairie Home Windsor Place Wooldridge Bellair Clifton City Pisgah Speed Cooper County is divided into 14 townships: Country music singer Sara Evans was born in Cooper County.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Cooper County, Missouri Cooper County Information from MO-River. Net Digitized 1930 Plat Book of Cooper County from University of Missouri Division of Special Collections and Rare Books Cooper County Sheriff's Office
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865. The Confederacy was formed by seven secessionist slave-holding states—South Carolina, Florida, Georgia and Texas—in the Lower South region of the United States, whose economy was dependent upon agriculture cotton, a plantation system that relied upon the labor of African-American slaves; each state declared its secession from the United States, which became known as the Union during the ensuing civil war, following the November 1860 election of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln to the U. S. presidency on a platform which opposed the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Before Lincoln took office in March, a new Confederate government was established in February 1861, considered illegal by the government of the United States. States volunteered militia units and the new government hastened to form its own Confederate States Army from scratch overnight.
After the American Civil War began in April, four slave states of the Upper South—Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina—also declared their secession and joined the Confederacy. The Confederacy accepted Missouri and Kentucky as members, although neither declared secession nor were they largely controlled by Confederate forces; the government of the United States rejected the claims of secession and considered the Confederacy illegally founded. The War began with the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter on April 12, 1861, a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy as an independent country, although Great Britain and France granted it belligerent status, which allowed Confederate agents to contract with private concerns for arms and other supplies. In early 1865, after four years of heavy fighting which led to 620,000–850,000 military deaths, all the Confederate forces surrendered and the Confederacy vanished; the war lacked a formal end.
By 1865 Jefferson Davis, the President of the Confederate States of America for the duration of the civil war, lamented that the Confederacy had "disappeared". On February 22, 1862, the Confederate Constitution of seven state signatories – Mississippi, South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia and Texas – replaced the Provisional Constitution of February 8, 1861, with one stating in its preamble a desire for a "permanent federal government". Four additional slave-holding states – Virginia, Arkansas and North Carolina – declared their secession and joined the Confederacy following a call by U. S. President Abraham Lincoln for troops from each state to recapture Sumter and other seized federal properties in the South. Missouri and Kentucky were represented by partisan factions adopting the forms of state governments without control of substantial territory or population in either case; the antebellum state governments in both maintained their representation in the Union. Fighting for the Confederacy were two of the "Five Civilized Tribes" – the Choctaw and the Chickasaw – in Indian Territory and a new, but uncontrolled, Confederate Territory of Arizona.
Efforts by certain factions in Maryland to secede were halted by federal imposition of martial law. A Unionist government was formed in opposition to the secessionist state government in Richmond and administered the western parts of Virginia, occupied by Federal troops; the Restored Government recognized the new state of West Virginia, admitted to the Union during the war on June 20, 1863, re-located to Alexandria for the rest of the war. Confederate control over its claimed territory and population in congressional districts shrank from 73% to 34% during the course of the American Civil War due to the Union's successful overland campaigns, its control of the inland waterways into the South, its blockade of the southern coast. With the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the Union made abolition of slavery a war goal; as Union forces moved southward, large numbers of plantation slaves were freed. Many joined the Union lines, enrolling in service as soldiers and laborers; the most notable advance was Sherman's "March to the Sea" in late 1864.
Much of the Confederacy's infrastructure was destroyed, including telegraphs and bridges. Plantations in the path of Sherman's forces were damaged. Internal movement became difficult for Southerners, weakening the economy and limiting army mobility; these losses created an insurmountable disadvantage in men and finance. Public support for Confederate President Jefferson Davis's administration eroded over time due to repeated military reverses, economic hardships, allegations of autocratic government. After four years of campaigning, Richmond was captured by Union forces in April 1865. A few days General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant signalling the collapse of the Confederacy. President Davis was captured on May 10, 1865, jailed in preparation for a treason trial, never held; the initial Confederacy was established in the Montgomery Convention in February 1861 by seven states (South Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government