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In general, bootstrapping refers to a self-starting process, supposed to proceed without external input. In computer technology the term refers to the process of loading the basic software into the memory of a computer after power-on or general reset the operating system which will take care of loading other software as needed; the term appears to have originated in the early 19th-century United States. A more practical and common interpretation is that the phrase infers that when a person wants to succeed, the first thing they need to do before hard work, is to put on their boots. In this sense, the phrase makes perfect sense, as most working Americans put their shoes or boots on as the last item of clothing before they start for work. Tall boots may have a tab, loop or handle at the top known as a bootstrap, allowing one to use fingers or a boot hook tool to help pulling the boots on; the saying "to pull oneself up by one's bootstraps" was in use during the 19th century as an example of an impossible task.

The idiom dates at least to 1834, when it appeared in the Workingman's Advocate: "It is conjectured that Mr. Murphee will now be enabled to hand himself over the Cumberland river or a barn yard fence by the straps of his boots." In 1860 it appeared in a comment on philosophy of mind: "The attempt of the mind to analyze itself an effort analogous to one who would lift himself by his own bootstraps." Bootstrap as a metaphor, meaning to better oneself by one's own unaided efforts, was in use in 1922. This metaphor spawned additional metaphors for a series of self-sustaining processes that proceed without external help; the term is sometimes attributed to a story in Rudolf Erich Raspe's The Surprising Adventures of Baron Munchausen, but in that story Baron Munchausen pulls himself out of a swamp by his hair, not by his bootstraps – and no explicit reference to bootstraps has been found elsewhere in the various versions of the Munchausen tales. Booting is the process of starting a computer with regard to starting its software.

The process involves a chain of stages, in which at each stage a smaller, simpler program loads and executes the larger, more complicated program of the next stage. It is in this sense that the computer "pulls itself up by its bootstraps", i.e. it improves itself by its own efforts. Booting is a chain of events that starts with execution of hardware-based procedures and may hand-off to firmware and software, loaded into main memory. Booting involves processes such as performing self-tests, loading configuration settings, loading a BIOS, resident monitors, a hypervisor, an operating system, or utility software; the computer term bootstrap began as a metaphor in the 1950s. In computers, pressing a bootstrap button caused a hardwired program to read a bootstrap program from an input unit; the computer would execute the bootstrap program, which caused it to read more program instructions. It became a self-sustaining process that proceeded without external help from manually entered instructions; as a computing term, bootstrap has been used since at least 1953.

Bootstrapping can refer to the development of successively more complex, faster programming environments. The simplest environment will be a basic text editor and an assembler program. Using these tools, one can write a more complex text editor, a simple compiler for a higher-level language and so on, until one can have a graphical IDE and an high-level programming language. Bootstrapping refers to an early technique for computer program development on new hardware; the technique described in this paragraph has been replaced by the use of a cross compiler executed by a pre-existing computer. Bootstrapping in program development began during the 1950s when each program was constructed on paper in decimal code or in binary code, bit by bit, because there was no high-level computer language, no compiler, no assembler, no linker. A tiny assembler program was hand-coded for a new computer which converted a few instructions into binary or decimal code: A1; this simple assembler program was rewritten in its just-defined assembly language but with extensions that would enable the use of some additional mnemonics for more complex operation codes.

The enhanced assembler's source program was assembled by its predecessor's executable into binary or decimal code to give A2, the cycle repeated, until the entire instruction set was coded, branch addresses were automatically calculated, other conveniences established. This was. Compilers, linkers and utilities were coded in assembly language, further continuing the bootstrapping process of developing complex software systems by using simpler software; the term was championed by Doug Engelbart to refer to his belief that organizations could better evolve by improving the process they use for improvement. His SRI team that developed the NLS hypertext system applied this strategy by using the tool they had developed to improve the tool; the development of compilers for new programming languages first developed in an existing language but rewritten in the new language and compiled by itself, is another example of the bootstrapping notion. Using an existing language to bootstrap a new language is one way to solve the "chicken or the egg" causality dilem

Slavery in Africa

This article discusses systems and effects of slavery within Africa. See Arab slave trade, Atlantic slave trade and Slavery in contemporary Africa for other discussions. Slavery has been widespread in Africa, still continues today in some countries. Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of Africa, as they were in much of the ancient world. In many African societies where slavery was prevalent, the enslaved people were not treated as chattel slaves and were given certain rights in a system similar to indentured servitude elsewhere in the world; when the Arab slave trade and Atlantic slave trade began, many of the local slave systems began supplying captives for slave markets outside Africa. Slavery in historical Africa was practiced in many different forms: Debt slavery, enslavement of war captives, military slavery, slavery for prostitution and criminal slavery were all practiced in various parts of Africa. Slavery for domestic and court purposes was widespread throughout Africa.

Plantation slavery occurred on the eastern coast of Africa and in parts of West Africa. The importance of domestic plantation slavery increased during the 19th century due to the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade. Many African states dependent on the international slave trade reoriented their economies towards legitimate commerce worked by slave labor. Multiple forms of slavery and servitude have existed throughout African history and were shaped by indigenous practices of slavery as well as the Roman institution of slavery, the Islamic institutions of slavery via the Arab slave trade, the Atlantic slave trade. Slavery was a part of the economic structure of African societies for many centuries, although the extent varied. Ibn Battuta, who visited the ancient kingdom of Mali in the mid-14th century, recounts that the local inhabitants vied with each other in the number of slaves and servants they had, was himself given a slave boy as a "hospitality gift." In sub-Saharan Africa, the slave relationships were complex, with rights and freedoms given to individuals held in slavery and restrictions on sale and treatment by their masters.

Many communities had hierarchies between different types of slaves: for example, differentiating between those, born into slavery and those, captured through war. The forms of slavery in Africa were related to kinship structures. In many African communities, where land could not be owned, enslavement of individuals was used as a means to increase the influence a person had and expand connections; this made slaves a permanent part of a master's lineage and the children of slaves could become connected with the larger family ties. Children of slaves born into families could be integrated into the master's kinship group and rise to prominent positions within society to the level of chief in some instances. However, stigma remained attached and there could be strict separations between slave members of a kinship group and those related to the master. Chattel slavery is a specific servitude relationship where the slave is treated as the property of the owner; as such, the owner is free to sell, trade, or treat the slave as he would other pieces of property and the children of the slave are retained as the property of the master.

There is evidence of long histories of chattel slavery in the Nile river valley and Northern Africa, but evidence is incomplete about the extent and practices of chattel slavery throughout much of the rest of the continent prior to written records by Arab or European traders.. Many slave relationships in Africa revolved around domestic slavery, where slaves would work in the house of the master but retain some freedoms. Domestic slaves could be considered part of the master's household and would not be sold to others without extreme cause; the slaves could own the profits from their labour, could marry and pass the land on to their children in many cases. Pawnship, or debt bondage slavery, involves the use of people as collateral to secure the repayment of debt. Slave labor is performed by a relative of the debtor. Pawnship was a common form of collateral in West Africa, it involved the pledge of a person or a member of that person's family, to serve another person providing credit. Pawnship was related to, yet distinct from, slavery in most conceptualizations, because the arrangement could include limited, specific terms of service to be provided and because kinship ties would protect the person from being sold into slavery.

Pawnship was a common practice throughout West Africa prior to European contact, including amongst the Akan people, the Ewe people, the Ga people, the Yoruba people, the Edo people. Military slavery involved the acquisition and training of conscripted military units which would retain the identity of military slaves after their service. Slave soldier groups would be run by a Patron, who could be the head of a government or an independent warlord, who would send his troops out for money and his own political interests; this was most significant in the Nile valley, with slave military units organized by various Islamic authorities, with the war chiefs of Western Africa. The military units in Sudan were formed in the 1800s through large-scale military raiding in the area, the countries of Sudan and South Sudan. Moreover, a considerable number of the men born between 1800 and 1849 in West African regions and abducted as slaves to serve in the army in Dutch Indonesia. I

Eco-friendly dentistry

Eco-friendly dentistry aims at reducing the detrimental impact of dental services on the environment while still being able to adhere to the regulations and standards of the dental industries in their respective countries. There are no official governing agencies. Dental offices in the United States of America can be recognised as eco-friendly offices by becoming members of the Eco Dentistry Association. Within England there are audit programmes available from the National Union of Students such as the Green Impact tool. People who want to be involved and discuss sustainable dentistry in a free and open forum are invited to be members at the Centre for Sustainable Healthcare; the term eco-friendly dentistry has roots originating from the environmental movement and environmentalism, which, in the Western world, is perceived as having begun in the 1960s and 1970s. The rise of this movement is credited to Rachel Carson and author of the book Silent Spring. Subsequently, legislation in many countries throughout the world began gaining momentum in the 1970s and continues to the present day.

Eco-friendliness has meaning in another context as a marketing term. It is used by companies to appeal to consumers of goods and services as having a low impact on the environment. Market research has found that an increasing number of consumers purchase goods and services that appeal to the values of environmental philosophy; the dental industry has adopted the concept of eco-friendliness both in a well-meaning, philosophical context and as a marketing term so that patients who subscribe to principles of sustainability can choose to visit these offices. The term has been criticised as being used for "greenwashing", the practice of deceptively promoting a product or service as environmentally friendly. Legislation in countries around the world have Trade Commissions and such to stop companies profiting with baseless claims on their goods and services. Individuals and bodies that work in the dental industry have subsequently adopted the principles of sustainability and environmentalism and as an advertisement to patients and consumers.

The Eco Dentistry Association is an accreditation organisation in the United States which has proposed outcomes towards becoming more sustainable. In 2008, the Eco Dentistry Association was co-founded by Dr. Fred Pockrass and his wife, Ina Pockrass; the Eco Dentistry Association provides "education and connection" to patients and dentists who practice green dentistry. The EDA aims to help dentists "come up with safe and reusable alternatives that lower a dentists' operating cost by replacing paper with digital media whenever possible." As of February 2011, the EDA has 600 members.. After the inception of the EDA, the dental industry in America saw more dentists and oral surgeons choosing to make their offices environmentally friendly. In 2011, The Australian Dental Association implemented a policy of sustainability to provide guidelines to assist in the environmental sustainability of dental offices in Australia. In August 2017 the FDA adopted a sustainability in dentistry policy There is a growing amount of scientific information regarding the carbon footprint of the dental industry.

These include papers by Duane relating to work carried out in Scotland and more England. Public Health England published a report on the carbon footprint of NHS England dentistry; the report based on 2014 data provides a number of recommendations for the dental team in England to consider. The report demonstrated the considerable contribution of staff and patient travel to the overall carbon footprint. To be environmentally responsible, offices can incorporate the four R's of environmental responsibility; the four R's are: reduce, recycle & rethink. Having a paperless dental office reduces or eliminates the use of paper by going digital; this involves converting patient files, medical histories and other documentation to an electronic system. Going paperless not only makes information sharing easier and accessible but is a great way of keeping personal information secure; this saves money, boosts productivity and saves space as there is no need for any filing cabinets and is a great way of ensuring clinical records are more accurate.

Using digital radiography allows to keep all the patients' records in one spot, reduces the amount of radiation exposure and images and clinical photographs can be shared without losing the quality of the image. In many countries around the world there are strict mandatory limits on the use of mercury and the levels found in wastewater. Mercury is traditionally used in dental restorations known as amalgam. In October 2013, Australia's Department of the Environment and Energy signed The Minamata Convention in a call for the reduction of amalgam usage by means of nine measures aiming to phase out the use of amalgam. Mercury can be released into the environment when amalgam is placed and polished or removed from a patient mouth and can be either rinsed into sewage systems or disposed of in landfill. By complying with the Australian Dental Association Policy 6.11 and the current edition of the International Organization for Standardization ISO11143 Dentistry – Amalgam Separators, reducing the amount of mercury entering the environment by means of installing amalgam separators and traps to collect and separate amalgam waste before it enters the sewage system.

Amalgam, collected from traps is collected and recycled for reuse. With the phasing out of manual processing of radiographs and switching to digital radiography allows for offices not having to purchase developing li

Alternaria citri

Alternaria citri is a fungal plant pathogen. Alternaria citri is an ascomycete fungal plant pathogen. Certain lemon, orange and grapefruit species are susceptible hosts for this pathogen; the host is more susceptible to disease under ideal environmental conditions consisting of dry, warm summers and cool, moist winters. One symptom of the pathogen is the black rot, produced; the black hyphae that forms on the surface of the plant is a sign of the actual pathogen. While healthy and uninfected fruits will display a particular hue, a plant infected by A. citri will possess atypical and more brightly colored fruits which signifies presence of the pathogen. Little research on the specific disease cycle of Alernaria citri has been conducted because its life cycle is so similar to Alternaria alternata; the life cycle of Alternaria alternata can be used as a proxy for information on Alternaria citri. However, Alternaria citri does not produces external signs or symptoms on leaves and stems, like Alternaria alternata.

Signs and symptoms of Alternaria citri do not develop. Alternaria alternata has no known resting sexual stage. Instead, it overwinters in infected plant debris through asexual spores called conidia, their production can begin in as few as ten days after the first symptoms appear, can continue for to up to fifty days. Because of this, the life cycle is known as poly-cyclic. Alternaria alternata's conidia disperse via air currents, their release from the lesions can be triggered by rainfall, or just a sudden increase in humidity; when the conidium lands on a leaf, it will wait until the nighttime dew, germinate. It can either enter through the stomata, or penetrate directly through the top of the leaf, using its appressorium, infecting the leaf within 12 hours. In the orchard, Alternaria citri is more to contaminate overripe and damaged fruit; the longer the fruit are stored, the more black rot will develop. Alternaria citri is more to be found in hot, semi-arid areas compared to humid areas. Prior experiments have shown that the pathogen can grow in pHs between 2.7 and 8.0 with 5.4 being the optimum condition.

For temperature, Alternaria citri can grow between 15 and 35 °C with 25 °C as the ideal temperature for growth. As stated in Environment, Alternaria citri infects stressed and overripe fruit. One management practice therefore, is to prevent stress of the fruit. By keeping the fruit and plant healthy the navel is less to split and become infected. One way to stop stress is to supply adequate amounts of plant macronutrients. To prevent over ripened fruit from getting infected, harvesting at optimum maturity is advised by clipping the fruit and not snapping it. Snapping refers to the act of damaging the stalk end of the fruit; the exposed tissue of healthy fruits increased the chances of infection from diseased fruits by having a wound for the pathogen to enter. Because fungicides have proved to be unhelpful in stopping the infection of citrus fruits, the use of resistant plants have proven to be the most advantageous form of management. Resistant plants have been produced by breeding hybrid cultivars from existing resistant cultivars, irradiation, or gene modification.

Alternaria citri can be found worldwide, in areas that produce citrus. Without proper management, the disease can lead to huge losses for citrus growers. In 1901, 10 to 30% of citrus crops in California were lost due to Alternaria citri. Another source states that in India, between 1988 and 1990, more than 20% of mandarins in transport were lost to the disease. In general, the pathogen is most found in navel orange orchards as the "navel" of the orange allows for easier infection compared to other citrus fruits; the pathogen can interfere with juice processing. The disease can be a problem with juice companies as accidental processing of an infected fruit will leave pieces of black tissue in the juice, making the product unsellable. Another complication with black rot is the potential delay in harvest time. A common management practice is to let the infected fruits drop prematurely in order to prevent contamination of the healthy crop. However, this tactic may delay harvest beyond the optimal time for fruit maturity.

Alternaria citri may infect a plant through wounds on the plant surface or through the end of the stem of the fruit at the location called a stylet where natural openings exist. Once the pathogen has entered a susceptible host, infection may begin; the infection route for the pathogen is limited to internal tissues during the growth period in the field and causes internal decay. In turn, the internal decay causes the fruits to drop prematurely. No external symptoms or signs are visible when the fruit is still attached at the stalk end during development and is intact without any disruption to the peel; the observable signs and symptoms are harvested. This occurs because the fruits become detached from the stalk end, providing an exit route for the infection to spread to the peel that it is no longer intact; as the infection spreads further, the fruit becomes macerated, or softened, black rot develops. A key enzyme produced by the pathogen known as endopolygalaturonase is influential in the success of the pathogen.

EndoPG is an endogenous polygalacturonase, a cell wall degrading enzyme that helps the pathogen take over the plant's nutrient source. A. citri that lack the ability to produce endoPG due to mutation have limited success because they are unable to penetrate through the cell wall. Index Fungorum USDA ARS Fungal Database


The Kagzi pronounced kagdi are a Muslim community found in the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in India. The term Kagzi in Urdu means a manufacturer of paper, from paper. There are, in fact, two distinct Kagzi communities, with their own customs and origin myths, one found in Gujarat and the other in Maharashtra The Gujarat Kagzi claim to have come to Ahmedabad have from Bukhara in Central Asia, at the invitation of Sultan Ahmad Shah; the community have always been associated with the manufacture of paper, many still reside in the Shahpur area of Ahmedabad their original settlement in Gujarat. Numerous Kagzi families live in Kagziwaad, Rajaji's Pole and Munshi ka dehla localities in Shahpur, part of the old city, they are fair skinned and light eyed. In Maharashtra, the Kagzi claim to be descended from soldiers of the Tughlaq armies that invaded the Deccan, they are now found in the districts of Aurangabad, Pune and Nasik. The Maharashtra Kagzi speak the Dakhani dialect of Urdu; the Gujarat Kagzi are divided into a number of clans, the main ones being the Mehtar, Raddiwala, Khanzada and Mirza.

Their traditional occupation has been affected by the growth of paper mills, many Kagzis have abandoned their paper manufacturing. Many have taken to farming; the Ahmadabad Kagzi Jamaat is their caste association, deals with the various problems of the community. The Maharashtra Kagzi are divided into a number of territorial groupings, such as the Yawalwale and Kalekhwale; each of these territorial groupings has a caste association, known as a jamaat. Although marriages are permitted within these groupings, they are rare; the Kaghzi have seen a complete decline in their traditional occupation, most are now either businessmen or involved in other occupations. They are one of the more successful Muslim community in Maharashtra, have a active caste association, the Kagzi Jamaat, which deals with issues of community welfare, they belong to the Sunni sect, have been affected by the Barelvi Deobandi split among the Sunnis.. Muslim Kadia


Venturethree is an independent brand company based in London, specialising in brand strategy, brand expression and brand experience. Venturethree was founded in 1999 by Philip Orwell and Michael Zur-Szpiro. Before founding venturethree, Philip Orwell was a director at Wolff Olins. Michael Zur-Szpiro was the founder of Aroma Café, a chain of coffee shops, sold to McDonald's in 1999. Before that, Michael worked at Boston Consulting Group. Paul Townsin and Graham Jones joined venturethree in 2001 from Wolff Olins, where Paul Townsin was Creative Director. In the same year, the company moved into its Shepherd's Market studio, designed by Brinkworth, expanding this Mayfair base in 2006. In January 2013 the company moved to a new studio, designed by Ab Rogers Design, in the former Royal Military Asylum at the Duke of York's Headquarters in Chelsea, now known as Cavalry Square. Venturethree works in many sectors including media, retail, corporate and non-profit; the official venturethree website