Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux
The Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux also known as the Matmut Atlantique for sponsorship purposes, is a football stadium in Bordeaux, France. It is the home of seats 41,458 spectators. Construction began in 2014 and ended in April 2015; the stadium was opened on 18 May 2015. The first match was Bordeaux against Montpellier on 23 May 2015, the final day of the league season; the hosts won 2–1, with both goals by Diego Rolan. The stadium hosted the semi-finals of the 2014–15 Top 14 season in rugby union, hosted five matches in UEFA Euro 2016, including one quarter-final. On 7 September 2015, it hosted the France national team in a 2–1 friendly win over Serbia. In September 2016, the ground was chosen as the host of the 2018 Coupe de la Ligue Final as part of plans to host the event at various venues outside of Paris. French-Canadian singer, Céline Dion, performed the first concert at the stadium on 29 June 2017; the stadium was listed as one of six to host football in Paris' bid for the 2024 Summer Olympics, chosen in July 2017.
In November 2017, after the French bid won, the stadium was confirmed as one of nine to host the 2023 Rugby World Cup
Jacques Chaban-Delmas was a French Gaullist politician. He served as Prime Minister under Georges Pompidou from 1969 to 1972, he was the Mayor of a deputy for the Gironde département. Jacques Chaban-Delmas was born Jacques Michel Pierre Delmas in Paris, he studied at the Lycée Lakanal before attending the École Libre des Sciences Politiques. In the resistance underground, his final nom de guerre was Chaban; as a general of brigade in the resistance, he took part in the Parisian insurrection of August 1944, with general de Gaulle. He was the youngest French general since François Séverin Marceau-Desgraviers, during the First French Empire. A member of the Radical Party, he joined the Gaullist Rally of the French People, which opposed the Fourth Republic's governments. In 1947, he became mayor of Bordeaux, for 48 years his electoral fief; as a member of the National Assembly, he sat with the RPF. In 1953, when the RPF group split, Chaban-Delmas became head of the Union of Republicans for Social Action and president of the National Centre of Social Republicans party.
He "tied up" with centre-left parties and joined Pierre Mendès-France's cabinet one year as Minister of Public Works. He took part in the centre-left coalition Republican Front, he was France's Defence Minister in 1957–1958. His governmental participation during the Fourth Republic inspired the distrust of de Gaulle and some Gaullists. Following Gen. de Gaulle's return to power in 1958, Chaban-Delmas agreed to the advent of the French Fifth Republic and the new Constitution. He took part in the foundation of the Union for the New Republic and was elected, against de Gaulle's will, chairman of the National Assembly, he kept this function until the end of de Gaulle's presidency in 1969. Unlike some Gaullists, for instance, Jacques Soustelle, he supported de Gaulle's policy to end the Algerian War of Independence. During the 1959 UNR Congress, he was the first politician to evoke a "reserved presidential domain," composed chiefly of defence and diplomacy; this interpretation of the Constitution of 1958 has survived.
In 1969, when Georges Pompidou acceded to the presidency, he chose Chaban-Delmas, who had concluded that the May 68 crisis was the consequence of a strained and conflicted society, as prime minister. Chaban-Delmas tried to promote what he called "a new society", based on dialogue between the different social forces in French society. Amongst other reforms, government authority over the mass media was relaxed, while legislation was passed on social welfare coverage for the poor and elderly which consolidated France's profile as a welfare state. In addition, regular increases were made to the minimum wage which prevented greater wage disparities. A new legal aid scheme was introduced, along with a number of new social welfare benefits; as a result of his social policies, Chaban-Delmas was viewed as too "progressive" by the "conservative" wing of the Gaullist movement. He was suspected of wanting to "tie up" again with the centre-left. Indeed, his advisers who inspired the "new society" programme were considered as close to the centre-left.
Besides, a latent conflict opposed Chaban-Delmas to the presidential circle. They accused him of trying to weaken the presidency in favour of himself; the satirical paper Le Canard Enchaîné accused him of breaking the law through tax evasion and in 1972, Chaban-Delmas canvassed for a vote of confidence in the Assembly. He did obtain this. Two years following the death in office of President Pompidou, Chaban-Delmas ran for the presidency himself, he was supported by the "lords of gaullism", but 43 personalities close to the late president, led by Jacques Chirac, published the Call of the 43 in favour of the candidacy of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. Chaban-Delmas was defeated on the first ballot of the 1974 presidential election, winning only 15.10% of the vote. Chirac became President Giscard d'Estaing's prime minister. Chaban-Delmas stood in the Gaullist Party and, in spite of Chirac's leadership, returned to the chair of the National Assembly. Due to his friendship with President Mitterrand, his name was mentioned as a possible prime minister during the first "cohabitation", but he instead became president of the National Assembly for the third time and Chirac again became premier.
Chaban-Delmas retired towards the end of his eighth term as Mayor of Bordeaux. Governmental functions Prime minister: 1969–1972 Minister of Public Works and Tourism: June–August 1954 / 1954–1955 Minister of Housing and Reconstruction: September–November 1954 Minister of State: 1956–1957 Minister of Defence and Armed Forces: 1957–1958 Electoral mandates National Assembly of France President of the National Assembly: 1958–1969 / 1978–1981 / 1986–1988 Member of the National Assembly for the Gironde 2nd: 1946–1969 / 1972–1997. Elected in June 1946, reelected in November 1946, 1951, 1956, 1958, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973, 1978, 1981, 1988, 1993. Regional Council President of the Regional Council of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Regional councillor of Aquitaine: 1974–1979 / 1985–1988. Elected in 1986. Municipal Council Mayor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 1983, 1989. Municipal councillor of Bordeaux: 1947–1995. Reelected in 1953, 1959, 1965, 1971, 1977, 19
Ground-level power supply
Ground-level power supply known as surface current collection and Alimentation Par le Sol, is a modern method of third-rail electrical pick-up for street trams instead of more common overhead lines, thus it is one of the methods that could allow construction of catenary-free light rail system. It was invented for the Bordeaux tramway, constructed from 2000 and opened in 2003. From 2011, the technology has been used as part of other systems around the world, with Reims Tramway, Angers tramway and Dubai Tram all having adopted the technology. Ground-level power supply is used for aesthetic reasons, as an alternative to overhead lines, it is different from the conduit current collection system as it involves burying a third and fourth rail in an underground conduit between the running rails. Conduit current collection was used in historic tram systems in Washington, Paris, Marseilles, Vienna and London, it fell into disuse because overhead wires proved much less expensive and troublesome for street railways and because in Manhattan, Paris and West Berlin, all trams were replaced by buses for reasons unrelated to the power supply issue.
In Prague on the Charles Bridge, a system invented by František Křižík was used, similar to today's APS. Unlike the track-side third rail used by most metro trains and some main-line railways, APS does not pose a danger to people or animals and so can be used in pedestrian areas and city streets. APS uses a third rail placed between the running rails, divided electrically into ten-metre rail segments with three-metre neutral sections between; each tram has two power collection shoes, next to which are antennas that send radio signals to energise the power rail segments as the tram passes over them. At any one time, two consecutive segments under the tram will be live. Modern ground-level current collection was pioneered by the Bordeaux tramway in France; the public had assumed that the new system would use a traditional conduit system, like that of the Bordeaux trams which ran prior to 1958 and objected when they learned that it was not considered safe and that overhead wires were to be used instead.
Facing complaints both from the public and the French Ministry of Culture, planners developed APS as a modern way of replicating the conduit system. APS was developed by Innorail, a subsidiary of Spie Enertrans but was sold to Alstom when Spie was acquired by Amec. There are 12 km of APS tramway in the three-line network of 43.3 km as of 2008. Bordeaux Citadis trams use pantographs and electric overhead lines in outlying areas. Before use in Bordeaux, APS was tested and proved viable on a short section of reserved-track in the French city of Marseille. Bordeaux has experienced problems, with APS being so temperamental that, at one stage, the Mayor issued an ultimatum that if reliability could not be guaranteed, it would have to be replaced with overhead wires. Problems have included water-logging, when the water does not drain enough after heavy rain. In July 2006, it was announced that two new French tram systems would be using APS over part of their networks; these are located in Angers and Reims, with both systems opening in 2011.
A couple of months it was announced that Orléans would use APS on a section of its second tram line, which opened in 2012, that Tours would use APS on sections of its new network which began service in 2013. APS is in use in two other tram systems outside France; the first of these, the Dubai Tram opened in 2014, is equipped with APS over its entire passenger route length, thus trams do not use their pantographs unless travelling within the depot area. In June 2016, the first phase of the VLT Carioca network opened in Rio de Brazil; this system uses APS, however where this was deemed impractical, the trams employ SRS, Alstom's proprietary supercapacitor-based energy storage system. Alstom is installing APS in two other tram systems: the CBD and South East Light Rail line in Sydney and the Tranvía Cuatro Ríos de Cuenca in Cuenca, Ecuador. Both lines are conventional overhead wires elsewhere. In 2017, another ground-level power supply technology, TramWave, developed by Italian company Ansaldo entered commercial application via the opening of Zhuhai tram Line 1 first phase in China, it is said to be the first 100% low-floor tram system adopting ground level power supply technology.
In the year, Western Suburb Line in Beijing will be opened with the same technology from Ansaldo. The technology have been licensed to CRRC Dalian and all the technologies were transferred to China. Other cities that have or are in the process of proposing the use of APS and similar systems include: Nice, France TRAMMET, Spain Gestione Servizio tramviario, Italy Tramway de Marseille, France Environmentally Friendly Linkage System, Hong Kong - proposal by opponents of the monorail system to use APS instead; the predecessors of APS were developed around 1900, used by several tramway companies in Paris and in England. Associated with these systems were Diatto. There were two main differences from APS: Power was supplied not from rails but from studs, set in the road at intervals Switching in of the contacts was done by strong electromagnets beneath each car; each contact contained a fuse, which would be blown by an earthed safety shoe on the rear of the tram should the contact not h
Bordeaux Métropole is the métropole, an intercommunal structure, centred on the city of Bordeaux. It is located in the Nouvelle Aquitaine region, in South West France, it was created in January 2015. Its population was 774,929 in 2014. Bordeaux Métropole encompasses only the center of the metropolitan area of Bordeaux. Communes further away from the center of the metropolitan area have formed their own intercommunal structures, such as: Community of Communes of Montesquieu: 30,883 inhabitants Community of Communes of Cestas - Canéjan: 22,041 inhabitants Community of Communes of the Saint-Loubès Area: 21,366 inhabitants etc; the Urban Community of Bordeaux known by its French initials CUB, was created in 1966 by the law of 31 December on urban communities which instituted the urban communities of Bordeaux, Lille and Strasbourg. On January 1, 2015, the Métropole replaced the Urban Community in accordance with a law of January 2014; the 28 communes of Bordeaux Métropole are: The Metropolitan Council consists of 101 members, one of them being the president Alain Juppé, the mayor of Bordeaux.
Bordeaux Métropole website
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, electromotive force. It is named after the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta. One volt is defined as the difference in electric potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points, it is equal to the potential difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the potential difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it, it can be expressed in terms of SI base units as V = potential energy charge = J C = kg ⋅ m 2 A ⋅ s 3. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, equivalent to electronvolts per elementary charge: V = A ⋅ Ω = W A = J C = eV e; the "conventional" volt, V90, defined in 1987 by the 18th General Conference on Weights and Measures and in use from 1990, is implemented using the Josephson effect for exact frequency-to-voltage conversion, combined with the caesium frequency standard.
For the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the "conventional" value KJ-90 is used: K J-90 = 0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is realized using a series-connected array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions, excited by microwave signals between 10 and 80 GHz. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. and no correction terms are required in a practical implementation. In the water-flow analogy, sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure. Current is proportional to the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping and a capacitor/inductor could be likened to a "U" shaped pipe where a higher water level on one side could store energy temporarily; the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohm's law. Ohm's Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems.
The voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. See Galvanic cell § Cell voltage. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, or additional circuitry added to adjust the voltage to a different level. Mechanical generators can be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. Nominal voltages of familiar sources: Nerve cell resting potential: ~75 mV Single-cell, rechargeable NiMH or NiCd battery: 1.2 V Single-cell, non-rechargeable: alkaline battery: 1.5 V. Some antique vehicles use 6.3 volts. Electric vehicle battery: 400 V when charged Household mains electricity AC: 100 V in Japan 120 V in North America, 230 V in Europe, Asia and Australia Rapid transit third rail: 600–750 V High-speed train overhead power lines: 25 kV at 50 Hz, but see the List of railway electrification systems and 25 kV at 60 Hz for exceptions. High-voltage electric power transmission lines: 110 kV and up Lightning: Varies often around 100 MV.
In 1800, as the result of a professional disagreement over the galvanic response advocated by Luigi Galvani, Alessandro Volta developed the so-called voltaic pile, a forerunner of the battery, which produced a steady electric current. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of dissimilar metals to produce electricity was zinc and silver. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name "volt" for the unit of resistance. By 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission, approved the volt as the unit for electromotive force, they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new