Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux
The Nouveau Stade de Bordeaux, currently known as the Matmut Atlantique for sponsorship purposes, is a football stadium in Bordeaux, France. Construction began in 2014 and ended in April 2015, the stadium was opened on 18 May 2015. The first match was Bordeaux against Montpellier on 23 May 2015, the stadium, with a capacity of 43,000 spectators, became the new home of FC Girondins de Bordeaux. The stadium hosted the semi-finals of the 2014–15 Top 14 season in rugby union, on 7 September 2015, it hosted the France national team in a 2–1 friendly win over Serbia
An overhead line or overhead wire is used to transmit electrical energy to trams, trolleybuses, or trains. Overhead line is designed on the principle of one or more overhead wires situated over rail tracks, the feeder stations are usually fed from a high-voltage electrical grid. Electric trains that collect their current from overhead lines use a device such as a pantograph and it presses against the underside of the lowest overhead wire, the contact wire. Current collectors are electrically conductive and allow current to flow through to the train or tram, non-electric locomotives may pass along these tracks without affecting the overhead line, although there may be difficulties with overhead clearance. Alternative electrical power transmission schemes for trains include third rail, ground-level power supply and this article does not cover regenerative braking, where the traction motors act as generators to retard movement and return power to the overhead. To achieve good high-speed current collection, it is necessary to keep the wire geometry within defined limits.
This is usually achieved by supporting the wire from a second wire known as the messenger wire or catenary. This wire approximates the path of a wire strung between two points, a catenary curve, thus the use of catenary to describe this wire or sometimes the whole system. This wire is attached to the wire at regular intervals by vertical wires known as droppers or drop wires. It is supported regularly at structures, by a pulley, the whole system is subjected to a mechanical tension. As the contact wire makes contact with the pantograph, the insert on top of the pantograph is worn down. The straight wire between supports will cause the wire to cross over the whole surface of the pantograph as the train travels around the curve, causing uniform wear. On straight track, the wire is zigzagged slightly to the left. The movement of the wire across the head of the pantograph is called the sweep. The zigzagging of the line is not required for trolley poles. Depot areas tend to have only a wire and are known as simple equipment or trolley wire.
When overhead line systems were first conceived, good current collection was only at low speeds. Compound equipment - uses a second wire, known as the auxiliary
Ground-level power supply
Ground-level power supply, known as surface current collection and Alimentation par le Sol, is a modern method of third-rail electrical pick-up for street trams. It was invented for the Bordeaux tramway, which was constructed from 2000, until 2011, this was the only place it was used, with proposals to install it elsewhere. Reims has adopted this technology for its new Reims Tramway, which was opened in 2011, as have Angers, ground-level power supply is used, primarily for aesthetic reasons, as an alternative to overhead lines. Conduit current collection was used in historic tram systems in Washington, Paris, Marseilles, Budapest, in Prague on the Charles Bridge a system invented by František Křižík was used, similar to todays APS. Unlike the track-side third rail used by most metro trains and some railways, APS does not pose a danger to people or animals and so can be used in pedestrian areas. APS uses a third rail placed between the rails, divided electrically into ten-metre rail segments with three-metre neutral sections between.
Each tram has two power collection shoes, next to which are antennas that send signals to energise the power rail segments as the tram passes over them. At any one time, two consecutive segments under the tram will be live, modern ground-level current collection was pioneered by the Bordeaux tramway in France. Facing complaints both from the public and the French Ministry of Culture, planners developed APS as a way of replicating the conduit system. APS was developed by Innorail, a subsidiary of Spie Enertrans but was sold to Alstom when Spie was acquired by Amec, there are 12 km of APS tramway in the three-line network of 43.3 km as of 2008. Bordeaux Citadis trams use pantographs and electric lines in outlying areas. Before use in Bordeaux, APS was tested and proved viable on a section of reserved-track in the French city of Marseille. Problems have included water-logging, when the water does not drain quickly enough after heavy rain, in July 2006, it was announced that two new French tram systems would be using APS over part of their networks.
These are located in Angers and Reims, with both opening in 2011. The Dubai Tram, which opened in 2014, is equipped with APS over its entire passenger length. The predecessors of APS were developed around 1900, and used by several companies in Paris. Associated with these systems were the inventors Dolter and Diatto, each contact contained a fuse, which would be blown by an earthed safety shoe on the rear of the tram should the contact not have switched out. This proved to be unsatisfactory because the strong currents melted down the switch contacts, another system of ground-level power supply was used by Budapest trams from 1887
The volt is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. One volt is defined as the difference in potential between two points of a conducting wire when an electric current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power between those points. It is equal to the difference between two parallel, infinite planes spaced 1 meter apart that create an electric field of 1 newton per coulomb. Additionally, it is the difference between two points that will impart one joule of energy per coulomb of charge that passes through it. It can be expressed as amperes times ohms, watts per ampere, or joules per coulomb, for the Josephson constant, KJ = 2e/h, the conventional value KJ-90 is used, K J-90 =0.4835979 GHz μ V. This standard is typically realized using an array of several thousand or tens of thousands of junctions. Empirically, several experiments have shown that the method is independent of device design, measurement setup, etc. in the water-flow analogy sometimes used to explain electric circuits by comparing them with water-filled pipes, voltage is likened to difference in water pressure.
Current is proportional to the diameter of the pipe or the amount of water flowing at that pressure. A resistor would be a reduced diameter somewhere in the piping, the relationship between voltage and current is defined by Ohms Law. Ohms Law is analogous to the Hagen–Poiseuille equation, as both are linear models relating flux and potential in their respective systems, the voltage produced by each electrochemical cell in a battery is determined by the chemistry of that cell. Cells can be combined in series for multiples of that voltage, mechanical generators can usually be constructed to any voltage in a range of feasibility. High-voltage electric power lines,110 kV and up Lightning, Varies greatly. Volta had determined that the most effective pair of metals to produce electricity was zinc. In 1861, Latimer Clark and Sir Charles Bright coined the name volt for the unit of resistance, by 1873, the British Association for the Advancement of Science had defined the volt and farad. In 1881, the International Electrical Congress, now the International Electrotechnical Commission and they made the volt equal to 108 cgs units of voltage, the cgs system at the time being the customary system of units in science.
At that time, the volt was defined as the difference across a conductor when a current of one ampere dissipates one watt of power. The international volt was defined in 1893 as 1/1.434 of the emf of a Clark cell and this definition was abandoned in 1908 in favor of a definition based on the international ohm and international ampere until the entire set of reproducible units was abandoned in 1948. Prior to the development of the Josephson junction voltage standard, the volt was maintained in laboratories using specially constructed batteries called standard cells
In rail transport, track gauge is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a network must have running gear that is compatible with the track gauge, as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still frequently used as a descriptor of a route or network. There is a distinction between the gauge and actual gauge at some locality, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, the nominal track gauge is the distance between the inner faces of the rails. In current practice, it is specified at a distance below the rail head as the inner faces of the rail head are not necessarily vertical. In some cases in the earliest days of railways, the company saw itself as an infrastructure provider only. Colloquially the wagons might be referred to as four-foot gauge wagons and this nominal value does not equate to the flange spacing, as some freedom is allowed for.
An infrastructure manager might specify new or replacement track components at a variation from the nominal gauge for pragmatic reasons. Track is defined in old Imperial units or in universally accepted metric units or SI units, Imperial units were established in United Kingdom by The Weights and Measures Act of 1824. In addition, there are constraints, such as the load-carrying capacity of axles. Narrow gauge railways usually cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, as well as smaller bridges, smaller tunnels. Narrow gauge is often used in mountainous terrain, where the savings in civil engineering work can be substantial. Broader gauge railways are generally expensive to build and require wider curves. There is no single perfect gauge, because different environments and economic considerations come into play, a narrow gauge is superior if ones main considerations are economy and tight curvature. For direct, unimpeded routes with high traffic, a broad gauge may be preferable, the Standard, and 46 gauges are designed to strike a reasonable balance between these factors.
In addition to the general trade-off, another important factor is standardization, once a standard has been chosen, and equipment and training calibrated to that standard, conversion becomes difficult and expensive. This makes it easier to adopt an existing standard than to invent a new one and this is true of many technologies, including railroad gauges. The reduced cost, greater efficiency, and greater economic opportunity offered by the use of a common standard explains why a number of gauges predominate worldwide
A housing estate is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development. The exact form may vary from country to country, accordingly, a housing estate is usually built by a single contractor, with only a few styles of house or building design, so they tend to be uniform in appearance. In the British Isles, the term is quite broad, and can include anything from high rise government-subsidised housing, right through to more upmarket, developer-led suburban tract housing. Housing estates are the form of residential design used in new towns. Such estates are designed to minimise through-traffic flows, and to provide recreational space in the form of parks. The use of the term may have arisen from an area of housing being built on what had been an estate as towns and cities expanded in. Reduction of the phrase to mere estate is common in the United Kingdom and Ireland, bahria Town is largest private housing society in Asia. Bahria has been featured by international magazines and news agencies such as GlobalPost, Los Angeles Times and Emirates 24/7, gated communities in Pakistan are targeted towards upper middle class and upper class, and are mostly immune from problems of law enforcement.
Housing estates were produced by local corporations or by private developers. The former tended to be a means of producing public housing leading to monotenure estates full of houses often known as council estates. The latter can refer to higher end tract housing for the middle class, in addition, the problems incurred by the early attempts at high density tower-block housing turned people away from this style of living. The resulting demand for land has many towns and cities increase enormously in size for only moderate increases in population. This has been largely at the expense of rural and greenfield land, the demand for housing continues to rise, and in the UK at least has precipitated a significant housing crisis. In the UK, some of the post war new towns were constructed en masse from housing estates rather than as organic growth from a population centre, in the former Czechoslovakia during the Communist era a construction of large housing estates was an important part of urban planning.
The government wanted to provide large quantities of affordable housing and to slash costs by employing uniform designs over the whole country and they sought to foster a collectivistic nature in the people. Large housing estates of concrete panel buildings now dominate the suburbs of Prague, the largest such suburb in the former Czechoslovakia and central Europe can be found in Petržalka, a part of the Slovak capital of Bratislava. They may vary in scale, and are located in the remote or less accessible parts of the territory. Although some units are destined exclusively for rental, some of the flats within each development are earmarked for sale at prices which are lower than for private developments
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electrification has many advantages but requires significant capital expenditure, selection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic. Different systems are used for urban and intercity areas, some electric locomotives can switch to different supply voltages to allow flexibility in operation, Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is typically generated in large and relatively efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network, some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway usually provides its own lines and transformers.
Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track usually takes one of two forms. The first is a line or catenary wire suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Locomotives or multiple units pick up power from the wire with pantographs on their roofs that press a conductive strip against it with a spring or air pressure. Examples are described in this article, the second is a third rail mounted at track level and contacted by a sliding pickup shoe. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems usually use the rails as the return conductor. In comparison to the alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer substantially better energy efficiency, lower emissions. Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, and more responsive and they have no local emissions, an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service, the limited clearances available under catenaries may preclude efficient double-stack container service.
Possible lethal electric current due to risk of contact with high-voltage contact wires, overhead wires are safer than third rails, but they are often considered unsightly. These are independent of the system used, so that. The permissible range of voltages allowed for the voltages is as stated in standards BS EN50163. These take into account the number of trains drawing current and their distance from the substation, railways must operate at variable speeds. Until the mid 1980s this was only practical with the brush-type DC motor, since such conversion was not well developed in the late 19th century and early 20th century, most early electrified railways used DC and many still do, particularly rapid transit and trams
A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains. This combines the flexibility and accessibility with a trains greater speed. There is a train-tram, which is a train modified to run on tramlines. The tram-train often is a type of interurban, i. e. they link separate towns or cities, according to George W. Hilton and John F. Most tram-trains are standard gauge, which facilitates sharing track with main-line trains, exceptions include Alicante Tram and Nordhausen which are metre gauge. The Karlsruhe and Saarbrücken systems use ‘PZB’ or ‘Indusi’ automatic train protection, the idea is not new, In the early 20th century, interurban streetcar lines often operated on the same tracks as steam trains, until crash standards prevented track sharing. In 1924, in Hobart, sharing of tracks between tram and train was proposed, the difference between modern tram-trains and the older interurbans and radial railways is that tram-trains are built to meet mainline railway standards, rather than ignoring them.
An exception is the USAs River Line in New Jersey which runs along freight tracks with time separation, passenger trains run by day, and freight by night. River Line - diesel multiple units using main line tracks between Trenton, New Jersey and Camden, New Jersey in a agreement with the freight companies. UTA TRAX uses former Denver and Rio Grande tracks as well as street trackage to service Salt Lake City, between the hours of midnight and six A. M. Union Pacific freight trains use much of the trackage, up to just past 2500 S to service a number of industries along the line, the planned line to Herzogenaurach replicates a former mainline rail line Grenoble, France Groningen, Netherlands île de France, France. The system is called Tram Express by the transport authority STIF,3 lines are scheduled, the light train rolling stock will only roll on national rail network in northern line. In the Western line a short section of 3.6 km is an urban section of the 19 km line. The southern line is a 20 km line,10 km will be tram section, seville has one metro line and one tram line that are not connected, but the long-term intention is to link the metro and tram systems.
The stretch between Szeged and Hódmezővásárhely is in the planning phase, the tender for the acquisition of rolling stock is underway as of January 2017. If the trial proves successful, similar schemes could be rolled out across the UK, in March 2008 the UK Department for Transport released details of a plan to trial diesel tram-trains on the Penistone Line for two years starting in 2010. Instead single-voltage electric tram-trains will be trialled between Rotherham and Sheffield, a tram-train trial in the Manchester area was ruled out as the Department for Transport wanted to try low-floor tram-trains, whereas Manchester Metrolink cars have high floors. In August 2009 the Liverpool Daily Post reported that a new Merseyrail tram-train link to Liverpool John Lennon Airport was under consideration, the Merseyrail Northern Line and the City Line between Liverpool Lime Street and Liverpool South Parkway were being assessed
Blanquefort or Blancafòrt is a commune in the Gironde department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France. Blanquefort is a commune of the Bordeaux metropolitan area. The commune consists of historic Blanquefort and Caychac, which is out from central Bordeaux and was formerly a commune in its own right. Blanquefort is well connected to the rest of the agglomeration by the Bordeaux bus services and it has a train station with regular services to central Bordeaux. The Bordeaux tram system is projected to connect with Blanquefort in 2013, which is located in a famous wine-producing area, has a notable educational institution for viticulture. The oldest signs of habitation in the commune are pieces of pottery dating back to 2000 BC. Tiles and coins from the Roman occupation have been found around the site of the fortress, in the ninth century, a first medieval fortification was built. The white stone gave the fort the name White Fort, in Latin Blanca Fortis, during the English occupation of Aquitaine, the fortifications were expanded into a royal fortress at the end of the thirteenth century by Edward I of England.
At the end of the Hundred Years War, the fortress became French, a wine-producing village grew around the fortifications, probably worked predominantly by serfs. Blanquefort is located in a region which has been notable for wine production since ancient times, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, a number of small chateaux were constructed in the prosperous village by wealthy wine merchants. The economy of the village focussed on wine production, in the seventeenth century, the Château Dillon was built in Blanquefort by the Dillon family which migrated to Blanquefort from Ireland. During the French Revolution, as part of the central Gironde, the village was well within the territory of the federalist insurrection of 1793. Unfortunately, no records exist which discuss the politics of the village during revolution. In 1900, the population was 2000, from the beginning of the twentieth century, the reliance of the village economy on wine production became a problem as economic crises took their toll.
In 1962, the village created an industrial zone on former marshland. Combined with its proximity to Bordeaux, this led to a growth of the village. In the early twenty-first century, as a result of Bordeauxs continuing expansion, since 1972, Blanquefort has been the location of a Ford transmission plant which occupies a 103 hectare site in the industrial zone. Despite recent reports that the plant has been sold by Ford in response to their need for money, haut-Médoc AOC Communes of the Gironde department INSEE