Telegraph and Texas Register
Not to be confused with The Texas Register, maintained by the Secretary of State of Texas Telegraph and Texas Register was the second permanent newspaper in Texas. Conceived as the Telegraph and Texas Planter, the newspaper was renamed shortly before it began publication, to reflect its new mission to be "a faithful register of passing events". Owners Gail Borden, John Pettit Borden, Joseph Baker founded the paper in San Felipe de Austin, a community long at the center of Texas politics; the first issue was printed on October 1835, days after the outbreak of the Texas Revolution. The Telegraph continued to report news of the war and the formation of the new Republic of Texas through the end of March 1836; as the Mexican Army approached the colonies in eastern Texas, most residents fled eastward. The owners of the Telegraph and their printing press evacuated on March 30 with the rear guard of the Texian Army; the press was reestablished in Harrisburg. On April 14, Mexican soldiers threw it into Buffalo Bayou.
The newspaper was reestablished in August 1836 in Columbia. When the 1st Texas Congress named Houston the new capital of the Republic, the Telegraph was relocated to Houston. Faced with financial losses, the Bordens sold the paper to Francis W. Moore, Jr. and Jacob Cruger in 1837. Under Moore's leadership, the newspaper became "the most influential news organ of the Republic of Texas". In 1846, following the annexation of Texas to the United States, the newspaper changed its name to Democratic Telegraph and Texas Register. Moore purchased Cruger's shares in 1851 sold the entire newspaper in 1854; the new owner transformed it into a tri-weekly instead of a weekly. When the paper was sold again in 1856, Edward H. Cushing became chief editor, he guided the newspaper through the difficulties of the American Civil War printing on wallpaper when newsprint was scarce. Following the war, the paper went through a series of owners and declined until it was shuttered at the end of 1873. In March 1874 it was resurrected and held the largest circulation any newspaper in Houston had received.
It closed permanently in 1877. In February 1835, brothers John and Gail Borden entered a partnership with Joseph Baker to publish a newspaper. Although none of the three had any previous printing experience, Baker was considered "one of the best informed men in the colony on the Texas-Mexican situation", he was the secretary of the ayuntamiento of San Felipe de Austin, a community which had long been at the center of Texas politics, he could read Spanish well. Because San Felipe was centrally located among the colonies in eastern Texas, the group chose that location for their newspaper enterprise, hoping it would be easier to gather and distribute news, they announced their venture in an advertisement in the March 15 edition of The Texas Republican, promising that the new paper and Texas Planter, would be "a tool to no party, but would fearlessly expose crime and critical error wherever met with". The advertisement vowed that the new newspaper would "be ready to advocate such principles and measures as have a tendency to promote union between Texas and the Mexican Confederation, as well as to oppose everything tending to dissolve or weaken the connexion between them."The first issue was published October 10, 1835, days after the Texas Revolution began.
By this time, the owners had changed the name to Texas Register. In an editorial, the owners explained that the paper's original name had been chosen when "the engrossing object was the accumulating of wealth and consequent aggrandizement of the country. Since that time affairs have assumed an different aspect, the all-absorbing question is how to protect ourselves, what we possess." The newspaper was therefore renamed to reflect their new goal of serving as "a faithful register of passing events". The inaugural edition contained letters from Stephen F. Austin, a report on the development of the Texian Army, translations of several Mexican documents, reports from the Committees of Correspondance and Safety in several other communities; as editor, Gail Borden strived to be somewhat objective, avoiding blatantly biased or partisan opinions unless a counterpart was provided. The newspaper was published weekly; each issue contained eight pages, with three columns of text. In earlier issues, the first page contained poetry and an article reprinted from another newspaper.
Issues had advertisements printed on the front page. The second page was miscellaneous news; the remaining pages were filled with ads, articles from other newspapers, local news. The first two pages would contain reprints of released official documents. Readers could purchase six- or twelve-month subscriptions; those who paid in advance were charged only $5 per year. An extra dollar was added if the subscription was paid at the end of the first six months, the price was increased to $7 if the subscription was paid at the end of the year. Advertisements were limited to 8 lines; the first time the advertisement appeared in the paper, advertisers were charged $1. Each subsequent insertion was worth 50 cents. By November 1, they had collected less than $75; the small skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales had occurred on October 2. Over the next few weeks, men began gathering at Gonzales to form an army. John Borden joined them, his brother Thomas took his place in the newspaper partnership. Gail Borden wrote to Austin on October 10 that both his brother Thomas and Joseph Baker wanted to join the army.
All were worr
The Comanche are a Native American nation from the Great Plains whose historic territory consisted of most of present-day northwestern Texas and adjacent areas in eastern New Mexico, southeastern Colorado, southwestern Kansas, western Oklahoma, northern Chihuahua. The Comanche people are federally recognized as the Comanche Nation, headquartered in Lawton, Oklahoma; the Comanche were the dominant tribe on the southern Great Plains in the 19th centuries. They are characterized as "Lords of the Plains" and, reflecting their prominence, they presided over a large area called Comancheria which a modern historian has characterized as the "Comanche Empire." Comanche power was based on bison, horses and raiding. They hunted the bison of the Great Plains for food and skins, they took captives from weaker tribes during warfare, using them as slaves or selling them to the Spanish and Mexican settlers. They took thousands of captives from the Spanish and American settlers and incorporated them into Comanche society.
Decimated by European diseases and encroachment by Americans on Comancheria, the Comanche were defeated by the United States army in 1875 and confined to a reservation in Oklahoma. In the 21st century, the Comanche Nation has 17,000 members, around 7,000 of whom reside in tribal jurisdictional area around Lawton, Fort Sill, the surrounding areas of southwestern Oklahoma; the Comanche Homecoming Annual Dance is held annually in Oklahoma, in mid-July. The Comanche language is a Numic language of the Uto-Aztecan family, sometimes classified as a Shoshoni dialect. Only about 1% of Comanches speak their language today; the name "Comanche" is from the Ute name for them, kɨmantsi, but known to the French as Padoucas, an adaption of their Sioux name, among themselves as Nʉmʉnʉ. The Comanche Nation is headquartered in Oklahoma, their tribal jurisdictional area is located in Caddo, Cotton, Jefferson, Kiowa and Tillman Counties. Membership of the tribe requires a 1/8 blood quantum; the tribe issues tribal vehicle tags.
They have their own Department of Higher Education awarding scholarships and financial aid for members' college educations. Additionally, they operate the Comanche Nation College in Lawton, they own four casinos. The casinos are Comanche Nation Casino in Lawton. In 2002, the tribe founded a two-year tribal college in Lawton, it has since closed. Each July, Comanches from across the United States gather to celebrate their heritage and culture in Walters at the annual Comanche Homecoming powwow; the Comanche Nation Fair is held every September. The Comanche Little Ponies host two annual dances—one over New Year's and one in May; the Comanche emerged as a distinct group shortly before 1700, when they broke off from the Shoshone people living along the upper Platte River in Wyoming. In 1680, the Comanche acquired horses from the Pueblo Indians after the Pueblo Revolt, they separated from the Shoshone after this, as the horses allowed them greater mobility in their search for better hunting grounds. The horse was a key element in the emergence of a distinctive Comanche culture.
It was of such strategic importance that some scholars suggested that the Comanche broke away from the Shoshone and moved southward to search for additional sources of horses among the settlers of New Spain to the south The Comanche may have been the first group of Plains natives to incorporate the horse into their culture and may have introduced the animal to the other Plains peoples. From Natchitoches in Spanish Louisiana, Athanase de Mézières reported in 1770 that the Comanches were "so skilful in horsemanship that they have no equal, so daring that they never ask for or grant truces, in possession of such a territory that... they only just fall short of possessing all of the conveniences of the earth, have no need to covet the trade pursued by the rest of the Indians."Their original migration took them to the southern Great Plains, into a sweep of territory extending from the Arkansas River to central Texas. They reached present-day New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle by 1700, forcing the Lipan Apache people southward, defeating them in a nine-day battle along the Rio del Fierro in 1723.
The river may be the location mentioned by Athanase de Mézières in 1772, containing "a mass of metal which the Indians say is hard, thick and composed of iron", which they "venerate...as an extraordinary manifestation of nature", the Comanche's calling it Ta-pic-ta-carre, Po-i-wisht-carre, or Po-a-cat-le-pi-le-carre, the general area containing a "large number of meteoric masses". By 1777, the Lipan Apache had retreated to the Mescalero Apache to Coahuila. During that time, their population increased because of the abundance of buffalo, an influx of Shoshone migrants, their adoption of significant numbers of women and children taken captive from rival groups; the Comanche never formed a single cohesive tribal unit, but were divided into a dozen autonomous groups, called bands. These groups shared the same language and culture, fought each other, they were estimate
Texas's 19th congressional district
Texas' Nineteenth Congressional District of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves the upper midwestern portion of the state of Texas The district includes portions of the State from Lubbock to Abilene. The current Representative from the 19th District is Republican Jodey Arrington. District 19's current boundaries were drawn up during the controversial 2003 Texas State Legislature Redistricting made famous by the Texas Eleven; the district was redrawn in such a way that two Congressional incumbents and Democrat Charlie Stenholm, were pitted against one another in the 2004 Congressional elections. Neugebauer won with over 58% of the vote; the border runs along the western boundary with New Mexico, runs along county borders to include far reaching cities. The area is predominantly rural, with the exceptions of Abilene and Lubbock, includes many state parks and farms; this is one of the most conservative districts in the nation. It has not supported a Democratic presidential candidate since 1964.
Republicans have held the seat since 1985. In the last three decades, a Democrat has only won 40 percent of the vote in this district twice, in 1984 and 2004. Much of this region continued to elect conservative Democrats to local offices and the Texas Legislature until 1994. Since the mid-1990s, Republicans have dominated every level of government. There are no elected Democrats left above the county level, Republicans win most races by 70 percent or more of the vote; the district voted 77% for George W. Bush in 2004 and 71% for John McCain in 2008. List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present "Current Election History". Office of the Secretary of State of Texas. Archived from the original on November 8, 2006.
Retrieved November 20, 2012
U.S. Route 180
U. S. Route 180 is an east–west United States highway. Like many three-digit routes, US 180 no longer meets its "parent", US 80. US 80 was decommissioned west of Mesquite and was replaced in Texas by Interstate 20 and Interstate 10 resulting in U. S. 180 being longer than U. S. 80. The highway's eastern terminus is in Hudson Oaks, Texas, at an intersection with Interstate 20, its western terminus is unclear. Signage at an intersection with State Route 64 in Valle, Arizona 40 miles northwest of Flagstaff indicates that the route ends at SR 64, consistent with the AASHTO U. S. Highway logs. However, many maps continue the US 180 designation to the south rim of the Grand Canyon at Grand Canyon Village. Signage at the SR 64 intersection as late as 2011 indicated that US 180 continues north concurrent with the route. However, no signage along the route exists past this intersection until SR 64 turns east towards Cameron, Arizona. At this intersection, signage makes no mention of US 180 nor is there any mention at the terminus of SR 64 at US 89.
Four National Parks can be accessed on the highway, Grand Canyon National Park, Petrified Forest National Park, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Carlsbad Caverns National Park. It passes through the San Francisco Peaks, the highest mountains in Arizona. In Flagstaff, US 180 is concurrent with Interstate 40 Business and historic U. S. Route 66 for a short distance through the city. US 180 joins the former routing of Route 66 in the center of Flagstaff and follows the roadway to where it merges with Interstate 40 east of the city. From the western terminus of the overlap, the intersection with eastbound Interstate 40 is two miles to the east, the intersection with westbound Interstate 40 and with Interstate 17 is three miles to the southwest. US 180 shares numbering with Interstate 40 from Arizona, to Holbrook, Arizona. At Holbrook, US 180 follows Interstate 40 Business along South Navajo Boulevard. Shortly after following South Navajo Boulevard, however, US 180 follows a south-southeast route, running by the Petrified Forest National Park and continuing South-Southeast to and through a small branch of the Zuni Indian Reservation, to St. Johns, Apache County, Arizona where it meets U.
S. Route 191. After meeting up with US 191, US 180 continues south to the town of Eagar, Arizona where the two routes enter the Apache National Forest and split at the town of Alpine, Arizona 4–6 miles from the Arizona-New Mexico border. After entering New Mexico from just east of Alpine, Arizona, US 180 continues south until Silver City, New Mexico. From Silver City, US 180 travels just east for 4–6 miles, meeting up with New Mexico State Road 90, New Mexico State Road 15, New Mexico State Road 152. US 180 now travels southeast for 50 miles to Deming, New Mexico, where US 180 meets up with Interstate 10. From Deming, US 180 follows Interstate 10 through Las Cruces, New Mexico, enters Texas at Anthony, New Mexico; the route is concurrent with Interstate 10 through the west and central portions of El Paso and separates from I-10 at Paisano Drive, joining U. S. Route 62. US 62/180 is concurrent with Montana Avenue in East Central El Paso, continues to be called Montana Avenue until it reaches RM 2775.
US 62/180 travels east, going past the spur RM 2775 through the southern end of the Guadalupe Mountains National Park, past the southern face of Guadalupe Peak towards New Mexico and Carlsbad Caverns National Park. Continuing though Carlsbad, New Mexico, US 180 and US 62 travels toward Texas running through Hobbs, New Mexico, exiting New Mexico just east of Hobbs. US 180 is now a divided highway west of Carlsbad where it used to be a two-lane highway until around 2008. US 180 is a divided highway in the entire state. Speed limit was now 70 west and 70 east of Carlsbad to about 15 miles west of Hobbs. After re-entering Texas from just east of Hobbs, New Mexico, US 180 splits from US 62 at Seminole, Texas. US 180 continues eastward running through the towns of: Lamesa, Snyder, Anson and Breckenridge. For the last portion of its length, the road runs through the scenic Palo Pinto Mountains, exiting them at Metcalf Gap. Towns in this final portion include Mineral Wells and Cool. US 180 comes into contact with Interstate 20 just east of Weatherford and ends in Hudson Oaks, Texas.
In Texas, US 180 intersects U. S. Highway 385, U. S. Highway 87, U. S. Highway 84, U. S. Highway 83, U. S. Highway 277, U. S. Highway 283, U. S. Highway 183, U. S. Highway 281, Interstate 20; the speed limit is 75 mph in Culberson counties except through Guadalupe Pass. Beginning just over 1/2 mile east of mile marker 52 to the state line at FM 652. U. S. Route 260 was a spur of U. S. Route 60, established in 1931, it connected Springerville and Holbrook, replaced the former western end of US 70. In 1935, US 260 was extended eastward to US 80 near New Mexico. In 1962, the entire route of US 260 became part of a western extension of US 180. Arizona SR 64 in Valle US 89 in Flagstaff I‑40 in Flagstaff; the highways travel concurrently to Holbrook. US 191 in St. Johns; the highways travel concurrently to Alpine. US 60 in Springerville; the highways travel concurrently through Springerville. New Mexico I‑10 / US 70 in Deming. I-10/US 180 travels concurrently to El Paso, Texas. US 70/US 180 travels concurrently to Las Cruces.
I‑25 / US 85 on the Las Cruces–University Park line. US 85/US 180 travels concurrently to Texas. Texas US
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
Gail is an unincorporated small town in Borden County, United States. Located at the junction of U. S. Highway 180 and Farm to Market Road 669, it is the county seat of Borden County; as of the 2010 Census, the population was 231. The town and county are named for Jr. the inventor of condensed milk. Gail Mountain is located on the southwest edge of town; the 20th annual Christmas lighting of the star atop Gail Mountain was held on November 29, 2013. Mushaway Peak, a small but conspicuous butte, is located 4 miles southeast. Founded in 1891 to coincide with the organization of Borden County, Gail has served as county seat for the duration of its existence. Borden County had remained quite sparsely populated until 1903, when the locally famed "War of Ribbons", inspired by a state-sanctioned land grab, took place; the conflict took its name from the practice of established ranchers displaying their affiliation and identity by way of a blue ribbon on their sleeves, whereas new settlers to the area designated theirs with a placed red ribbon.
By 1910, Gail was home to more than 700 residents, though this would fall to 600 by 1912, the community remained the economic and administrative hub of Borden County. Changes in agricultural practices and patterns, coupled with the impact of the Great Depression, hindered the town and county's prosperity. By 1936, Gail's population had dwindled to 250 residents, by 1980, it had fallen to around 190; the census of 2010 counted 231 residents in Gail. The Borden County Jail opened in 1896. Built at a cost of $4,500 by the Diebold Safe and Lock Company, it had 2-foot-thick outside walls made of stone from Gail Mountain, 0.3-foot hardened steel plates in the cell walls and floor. In 1956, two prisoners objected to Sheriff Sid Reeder's attempt to place them into one of the jail's cells when they noticed a rattlesnake sleeping inside. A historic marker was placed outside the jail in 1967. John R. "Rich" Anderson, owner of the 64,000-acre Muleshoe Ranch near Gail, won the 1992 National Cattleman's Association Environmental Stewardship Award.
His achievement was recognized by the Texas House of Representatives. Gail is located near the center of Borden County. U. S. Route 180 runs through the town, leading west 31 miles to Lamesa. Big Spring along FM 669 is 40 miles to the south, Lubbock is 72 miles to the north. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, Gail has an area of 2.0 square miles, of which 0.008 square miles, or 0.38%, is covered by water. Climate type occurs on the periphery of the true deserts in low-latitude semiarid steppe regions; the Köppen climate classification subtype for this climate is BSk. Gail is served by the Borden County Independent School District, is home to the Borden County High School Coyotes; the school's Coyote Stadium is a six-man football venue and can seat 350. Borden County Courthouse - a 1939 one-story brick building with cast concrete detail Borden County Historical Museum Clinton D. "Casey" Vincent, flying ace, second youngest general in U. S. Air Force history Gail, Texas, is the name given to a Census Designated Place which includes the town proper.
The town is additionally the locus of the United States Postal Service's Zip Code of 79738
Surveying or land surveying is the technique and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor; these points are on the surface of the Earth, they are used to establish maps and boundaries for ownership, such as building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales. Surveyors work with elements of geometry, regression analysis, engineering, programming languages, the law, they use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, surveying software. Surveying has been an element in the development of the human environment since the beginning of recorded history; the planning and execution of most forms of construction require it. It is used in transport, communications and the definition of legal boundaries for land ownership.
It is an important tool for research in many other scientific disciplines. The International Federation of Surveyors defines the function of surveying as: A surveyor is a professional person with the academic qualifications and technical expertise to conduct one, or more, of the following activities. Surveying has occurred since humans built the first large structures. In ancient Egypt, a rope stretcher would use simple geometry to re-establish boundaries after the annual floods of the Nile River; the perfect squareness and north-south orientation of the Great Pyramid of Giza, built c. 2700 BC, affirm the Egyptians' command of surveying. The Groma instrument originated in Mesopotamia; the prehistoric monument at Stonehenge was set out by prehistoric surveyors using peg and rope geometry. The mathematician Liu Hui described ways of measuring distant objects in his work Haidao Suanjing or The Sea Island Mathematical Manual, published in 263 AD; the Romans recognized land surveying as a profession.
They established the basic measurements under which the Roman Empire was divided, such as a tax register of conquered lands. Roman surveyors were known as Gromatici. In medieval Europe, beating the bounds maintained the boundaries of a village or parish; this was the practice of gathering a group of residents and walking around the parish or village to establish a communal memory of the boundaries. Young boys were included to ensure the memory lasted as long as possible. In England, William the Conqueror commissioned the Domesday Book in 1086, it recorded the names of all the land owners, the area of land they owned, the quality of the land, specific information of the area's content and inhabitants. It did not include maps showing exact locations. Abel Foullon described a plane table in 1551, but it is thought that the instrument was in use earlier as his description is of a developed instrument. Gunter's chain was introduced in 1620 by English mathematician Edmund Gunter, it enabled plots of land to be surveyed and plotted for legal and commercial purposes.
Leonard Digges described a Theodolite that measured horizontal angles in his book A geometric practice named Pantometria. Joshua Habermel created a theodolite with a compass and tripod in 1576. Johnathon Sission was the first to incorporate a telescope on a theodolite in 1725. In the 18th century, modern techniques and instruments for surveying began to be used. Jesse Ramsden introduced the first precision theodolite in 1787, it was an instrument for measuring angles in vertical planes. He created his great theodolite using an accurate dividing engine of his own design. Ramsden's theodolite represented a great step forward in the instrument's accuracy. William Gascoigne invented an instrument that used a telescope with an installed crosshair as a target device, in 1640. James Watt developed an optical meter for the measuring of distance in 1771. Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius introduced the modern systematic use of triangulation. In 1615 he surveyed the distance from Alkmaar to Breda 72 miles.
He underestimated this distance by 3.5%. The survey was a chain of quadrangles containing 33 triangles in all. Snell showed, he showed how to resection, or calculate, the position of a point inside a triangle using the angles cast between the vertices at the unknown point. These could be measured more than bearings of the vertices, which depended on a compass, his work established the idea of surveying a primary network of control points, locating subsidiary points inside the primary network later. Between 1733 and 1740, Jacques Cassini and his son César undertook the first triangulation of France, they included a re-surveying of the meridian arc, leading to the publication in 1745 of the first map of France constructed on rigorous principles. By this time triangulation methods were well established for local map-making, it was only towards the end of the 18th century that detailed triangulation network surveys mapped whole countries. In 1784, a team from Gene