Boromir is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's legendarium, he appears in the first two volumes of The Lord of the Rings, is mentioned in the last volume, The Return of the King. He was the elder brother of Faramir. In the course of the story Boromir joined the Fellowship of the Ring. Boromir is portrayed as a noble character who believed passionately in the greatness of his kingdom and fought indomitably for it, his great stamina and physical strength, together with a forceful and commanding personality, made him a admired commander in Gondor's army and the favourite of his father Denethor. As a member of the Fellowship, his desperation to save his country drove him to betray his companions and attempt to seize the Ring, but he was redeemed by his repentance and brave last stand. Boromir was the son of Denethor Finduilas, he had a younger brother Faramir. A year after Faramin was born their father became Steward of Gondor and Boromir became heir apparent, inheriting the Horn of Gondor.
When Boromir's mother Finduilas died, he was only 10. Denethor became sombre and detached from his family, which drove the brothers Faramir and Boromir to confide and depend on each other. Denethor always favoured Boromir over Faramir—Denethor loved Boromir "too much, perhaps. Boromir, more fearless and daring, always helped Faramir. Boromir was made Captain of the White Tower. In response to prophetic dreams that came to Faramir and to himself, Boromir claims the quest of riding to Rivendell, his journey lasts a hundred and eleven days, he travels through "roads forgotten" to reach Rivendell, though, as he says, "few knew where it lay". Boromir loses his horse while crossing the Greyflood and travels the rest of the way on foot Boromir first appears in The Lord of the Rings arriving at Rivendell just as the Council of Elrond is commencing. There he tells of Gondor's attempts to keep the power of Mordor at bay, he attempts to persuade the Council to let him take the One Ring to defend Gondor, but is told that it would corrupt and destroy its user, alert Sauron to its presence.
He accepts this for the moment. He agrees to accompany Aragorn to Minas Tirith, since their path lies with the Fellowship for the first of the journey, so they pledge as part of the Fellowship of the Ring to protect the Ring-bearer, Frodo. Boromir accompanies Frodo south from Rivendell with the Fellowship. Before departing, he sounds the Horn of Gondor, saying he "would not go forth like a thief into the night". On the journey south, Boromir questions the wisdom of their leader Gandalf. Boromir proves himself a valuable companion on the Fellowship's attempt to pass over the Misty Mountains: he advises that firewood be collected before the attempt to climb Caradhras, this saves them from freezing in a blizzard. In the retreat from Caradhras, Boromir proves his strength and stamina as he burrows through shoulder-high snowbanks alongside Aragorn to clear the path back down the mountain; the Fellowship passes under the mountains through the caverns of Moria, where Gandalf is killed, Aragorn becomes their new guide.
At the borders of the Elven realm of Lothlórien, Boromir is unnerved by the thought of entering—he pleads with Aragorn to find another way "though it led through a hedge of swords", citing stories of elvish witchcraft, the "strange paths" they had been taking which had caused Gandalf's death. Once in Lórien, Boromir is disturbed by Galadriel's testing of his mind. On parting, Galadriel gives Boromir an Elven-cloak. Boromir always planned to go to Minas Tirith, despite the consensus reached at Rivendell that it must be destroyed in Mordor, he urges the Fellowship to accompany him to Minas Tirith before going on to Mordor; as Frodo ponders his course from Parth Galen, Boromir urges Frodo to use the Ring in Gondor's defence rather than to "throw it away". He succumbs to the temptation to take the Ring for himself, justifying this by his duty to his people and his belief in his own integrity. After seeing that Frodo was unconvinced, Boromir half begs, half commands him to at least lend the Ring, when Frodo still refuses, Boromir leaps to seize it.
Frodo vanishes by intending to continue the quest alone. Boromir, realizing his betrayal repents of his actions and weeps. Searching unsuccessfully for Frodo, he tells the Fellowship of Frodo's disappearance, though not of his own misdeeds; the hobbits in a frenzy scatter to look for Frodo. Aragorn, who suspects Boromir's part in Frodo's flight, orders him to follow and protect Merry and Pippin; the Fellowship is attacked by a band of orcs. During the fighting against Orcs, Boromir is mortally wounded by arrows while defending Merry and Pippin; the fighting is described through Pippin's eyes: Blasts from Boromir's horn alert Aragorn, but he comes too late to prevent the hobbits' capture. As Boromir lies dying, he remorsefully confesses to attempting to take the Ring from Frodo, he urges Aragorn to save Minas Tirith, as he. Aragorn reassures him that he has not failed, that "few have gained such a victory". Aragorn and Legolas place Boromir's body in one of their Elven boats, with his sword, cloak, broken horn, the weapons of his slain foes about him.
They set the boat adrift in the river toward the Falls of Rauros, sing a "Lament of the Winds" as his funeral song. Three days Faramir, to his and their father's great grief, finds the boat bearing his dead brother fl
The 2018 Nigeria Women Premier League began on April 7 in a game featuring defending champions Nasarawa Amazons from Nasarawa State and FC Robo of Lagos State. The date was decided following a congress held in Ikeja on March 3. Prior to the game, a maiden super cup named the NWFL Champions Shield match was played between Aiteo Cup winners, Rivers Angels and Nasarawa Amazons to open the new season. At the end of the 2017 season, Sure Babes of Ilorin, Jokodolu Babes of Ogbomosho and Taraba Queens of Taraba State were promoted to compete in the elite division pending registration procedures, while Saadatu Amazons of Minna and Heartland Queens of Owerri were relegated to the pro league. In May 2018, the league went on a mid-season break due to the 2018 FIFA World Cup, this was further elongated after an emerging NFF leadership crisis. In August 2018, it was announced that the remaining games of the league will commence September 12; the teams are divided into two groups of eight teams, of which the top two teams from each group will play in a super 4 mini-tournament tagged the NWPL Super 4 at the end of the season to determine the overall winner of the league.
Each team is to play every team in her group twice on a home and away basis. The last placed teams in each group will be relegated to the pro league. Note In a week 8 fixture, FC Robo defeated Abia Angels with Nigerian international, Rasheedat Ajibade scoring 4 goals in the game; the division two teams seeking to gain promotion ahead of the 2019 Nigeria Women Premier League were Moje Queens of Kwara State, Police Machine of Akwa Ibom, Saadatu Amazons of Minna, Gift of Life, Invincible Angels of Gboko, Dream Stars of Lagos and Faith Hill Queens. In November 2018, it was confirmed that Dream Stars and Invincible Angels will be promoted to the elite division; as of end of season
De Ira is a Latin work by Seneca. The work defines and explains anger within the context of Stoic philosophy, offers therapeutic advice on how to prevent and control anger. Seneca's main sources were Stoic. J. Fillion-Lahille has argued that the first book of the De Ira was inspired by the Stoic philosopher Chrysippus' treatise On Passions, whereas the second and third drew from a Stoic philosopher, who had written a treatise On Passions and differed from Chrysippus in giving a bigger role to irrational aspects of the soul. However, more recent research has shown that this view of Posidonius' criticism of Chrysippus was due to Galen's systematic distorsion of their thinking, that Posidonius' theory of emotions was substantially identical with that of Chrysippus. In consequence, although Seneca may have used both treatises by Chrysippus and Posidonius, his main inspiration is now thought to be chrysippean. Seneca may have known works written by the Peripatetic philosopher Theophrastus, whom he takes as philosophical adversary in the first book.
Parallels have been suggested with the Epicurean philosopher Philodemus, who had written a work On Anger. The exact date of the writing of the work is unknown, apart from an earliest date, deduced from repeated references by Seneca to the episodic anger of Caligula, who died 24 January 41 AD. Seneca refers to his brother by his native name, rather than his adoptive one, which he bore by 52/53 AD, suggesting the work may date from the mid 40s AD. Book III begins with its own introduction on the horrors of anger, can be read on its own, which has led to suggestions that it was devised either as a appendix to the work, or that it was a separate treatise in its own right. Ira is defined as anger, rage, passion, indignation - to be angry. De Ira consists of three books, it is part of Seneca's series of Dialogi. The essay is addressed to Lucius Annaeus Novatus; the work’s first sentence reads: You have asked me Novatus to write on how anger can be mitigated Although split into three books, De Ira is divided into two parts.
The first part deals with theoretical questions. The first part begins with a preamble on the horrors of anger, followed by definitions of anger, it continues with questions such as whether anger is natural, whether it can be moderate, whether it is involuntary, whether it can be erased altogether. The second part begins with advice on how the avoidance of bad temper can be taught to both children and adults; this is followed by numerous snippets of advice on how anger can be forestalled or extinguished, many anecdotes are given of examples to be imitated or avoided. The work concludes with a few tips on mollifying other people, followed by Seneca's summing-up. De Ira is written within the context of Stoicism, which sought to guide people out of a life enslaved to the vices, to the freedom of a life characterised by virtue; this is achievable by the development of an understanding of how to control the passions, anger being classified as a passion, to make these subject to reason. As a Stoic, Seneca believed the relationship of the passions to reason are that the passions arise in a rational mind as a result of a mis-perceiving or misunderstanding of reality.
A passion is a defective belief, they occur. Seneca states that his therapy has two main aims: one is that we do not become angry, the other is that we do no wrong when we are angry. Much of the advice is devoted to the first aim of preventing anger. Seneca does offer some practical advice on restraining anger although after this he resumes his theme of preventing anger. For the Stoics anger was contrary to human nature, vengeance considered an evil, which explains Seneca's emphasis on anger prevention; the fact that he offers advice on restraining anger shows an awareness that his audience is one of male Roman aristocrats for whom anger was a part of everyday routine. The work survives due to being a part of the Codex Ambrosianus manuscript which dates from the 11th century. Belief John M. Cooper, J. F. Procope. Seneca: Moral and Political Essays. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521348188 Robert A. Kaster, Martha C. Nussbaum. Seneca: Anger, Revenge. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226748421 Works related to Of Anger at Wikisource University of Minnesota, Morris - Selections from De Ira - Full text of "Moral essays.
With an English translation by J. W. Basore
Brigadier-General Dennis Colburn Draper was the Chief Constable of the Toronto Police Department from 1928 to 1946. Draper was raised in Sutton in the Brome region of Quebec, he studied law at McGill University but dropped out before completing his studies in order to accept a position with the International Paper Company in Quebec. Active in the Canadian Militia prior to 1914, when World War I broke out, he enlisted with the 5th Canadian Mounted Rifles and went overseas with the rank of major, he received a field promotion to lieutenant colonel in 1918 and made commanding officer of the unit and was subsequently promoted to brigadier general and put in command of the 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade. During the war, Draper received a Distinguished Service Order for gallantry at the Battle of Mount Sorrel and the Bar to his D. S. O. for his conduct at the Battle of Passchendaele. He was decorated at the Battle of Arras and the Battle of Amiens, he was appointed a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 1919 New Year Honours, for services rendered in connection with military operations in France and Flanders.
In the 1917 federal election, Draper was the governing Conservative Party's candidate in Brome and lost by less than 500 votes. A retired Brigadier-General in the Canadian Army with no background in police work as well as a failed Conservative candidate, Draper was brought to Toronto because the police commission believed they needed a strict disciplinarian to reorganize the force along military lines, they approached the Defence Department which recommended Draper, who after the war was working for the Abitibi Power and Paper Company. Mayor Sam McBride opposed Draper's appointment arguing that the new chief should be promoted from within the force. At the time, the police department was dominated by cliques and promotion was a matter of fraternal connections with the Orange Order and Masonic Order as well as personal friendships. Draper is credited with breaking up that culture. However, his ignorance of police work and police methods was resented within the force as was his disciplinarianism which, at one point, led to police constables holding a strike vote.
Draper was criticised for a series of scandals. In 1933, he ordered a drunk driving charge against the son of a federal Conservative cabinet minister withdrawn; this resulted in demands from Toronto City Council that he resign but Draper survived with support from the federal Conservative government. Several years Draper himself was charged with dangerous driving in 1941 following an incident in which four people were injured near Cobourg, which again elicited cries for his dismissal. However, Draper won the support of the city's business community and political elite by using the police force to break strikes and disrupt left-wing groups. Draper is best remembered for organizing a Red Squad within the police department to suppress strikes and left wing meetings, political rallies and demonstrations in the 1930s; the Red Squad targeted the Communist Party of Canada and the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation as well as trade unions and demonstrations of the unemployed during the Great Depression.
Radical public meetings held weekly on the front lawn of Queen's Park were dispersed by Toronto police officers on horseback, nicknamed "Draper's Dragoons" personally led by Draper himself. The police would beat people over the head with truncheons. In 1933, under Draper's command, the police attempted to disrupt open air meetings of the Toronto Central Unemployed Council climaxing in a face off at Toronto's Allen Gardens on August 15 where police tried to stop a crowd of 2000 from gathering to hear speeches; when they failed, officers on motorcycles encircled the crowd, pointing their exhaust pipes inward towards the gathered open air meeting in order to project a fog of exhaust which the Toronto Daily Star compared to a poison gas attack during World War I. The demonstrators, many of whom were war veterans, battled with police for two hours; the Police Commission subsequently ordered Draper to restrain his men from interfering with public meetings unless a law had been broken. Conversely, Draper did little to stop the 1933 Riot at Christie Pits two days in which youth members of local Swastika clubs battled Jewish youth for more than four hours.
Police Chief Dennis Draper was asked why there were only two policemen at the park that day when there had been prior indications of trouble and the fact that two nights before, in contrast with his force's sending dozens of police on horseback and motorcycle to disrupt the left wing meeting at Allan Gardens. Draper dismissed the riot, saying that "Hebrew people arrived and caused trouble."Suspicious of "foreigners", the Draper lobbied the City of Toronto to pass legislation banning public speeches in languages other than English Yiddish, curtailing union organization among Toronto's vast immigrant populations working in sweat shops. Draper resigned as chief on January 18, 1946, at what was reported to be the age of 72, following a general housecleaning of the police department and the encouraged retirement of a number of long serving officers by the police commission
The austral was the currency of Argentina between June 15, 1985 and December 31, 1991. It was subdivided into 100 centavos; the symbol was an uppercase A with an extra horizontal line, code point U+20B3 ₳ AUSTRAL SIGN. This symbol appeared on all coins issued in this currency, to distinguish them from earlier currencies; the ISO 4217 code is ARA. Finance Minister Juan Vital Sourrouille devised the Austral plan; the austral replaced the peso argentino at a rate of 1 austral = 1000 pesos argentinos. In 1992, the austral was itself replaced by the peso convertible at a rate of 1 peso convertible = 10,000 australes. In 1985, coins were introduced for 1, 5, 10 and 50 centavos; the 1⁄2 centavo was only issued in 1985, whilst production of the 1 centavo ceased in 1987, 5 centavo ceased in 1988, that of the other centavo coins ended in 1989. In 1989, 1, 5 and 10 austral coins were issued, followed in 1990 and 1991 by 100, 500 and 1,000 austral denominations. In 1985, provisional issues were made consisting of 1000, 5000 and 10,000 peso argentino notes over stamped with the values 1, 5 and 10 australes.
Between 1985 and 1991, the following notes were issued by the Banco Central: All banknotes except the provisional types show on the back an image of Liberty with a torch and shield. The provisional banknotes were produced from modified peso ley plates. On the obverses, the word PESOS were erased, whilst the reverse designs substituted the picture with the denomination written in words without spaces in several rows; the denomination was shown on both faces in the form A 10 MIL, A 50 MIL and A 500 MIL. Official website of the Banco Central de la República Argentina Argentine Notes
Eva Philbin was an Irish chemist who became the first woman president of the Institute of Chemistry of Ireland. Born Eva Maria Ryder in Ballina, County Mayo, Philbin received her B. Sc with first class honors and M. Sc from University College Galway. While at University College Galway she worked under Tom Dillon where they worked on identifying carbohydrates in seaweed, she began her career in 1939 as an industrial chemist and was chief chemist at Hygeia Ltd in Galway during World War II. At Hygeia she was responsible for developing alternative sources for chemicals that were unavailable due to the war. In 1945, Philbin joined the staff at Dublin. There she collaborated with Professor Thomas S. Wheeler to establish an active research school in Natural Product Chemistry. In 1958, Philbin was awarded a doctorate of science from the National University of Ireland for her published work on flavinoids. Philbin became organic chemistry professor in 1962 and in 1963, took over as head of the chemistry department at UCD following the death of Prof. Wheeler.
She continued to work on flavinoids, related compounds and potential anti-cancer agents through collaborations with other UCD staff. Over her long career, Philbin became a fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry and a member of the Council of the Royal Irish Academy and the Natural Science Council. Philbin became the first women to chair the National Science Council, was the first female senior vice-president of the Royal Irish Academy, was the first women president of the Institute of Chemistry in 1966. Since 2007, the Institute of Chemistry of Ireland Annual Award for Chemistry lectures series has been named in her honor as the Eva Philbin Public Lecture Series. Philbin's interests ranged beyond science, taking a strong interest in the treatment of those with learning difficulties, leading her to take up the chair of the Consultative Council on Mental Handicap as well as becoming honorary treasurer of the National Association for the Mentally Handicapped of Ireland, her eldest daughter Eimear married historian John Bowman.
Philbin died in 2005, aged 91. List of Eva Philbin's Scientific Contributions, Researchgate Pioneering Women Professors