Specialty foods are foods that are typically considered as unique and high-value food items made in small quantities from high-quality ingredients. Consumers typically pay higher prices for specialty foods, and may perceive them as having various benefits compared to non-specialty foods, compared to staple foods, specialty foods may have higher prices due to more expensive ingredients and labor. Some food stores specialize in or predominantly purvey specialty foods, several organizations exist that promote specialty foods and its purveyors. The term specialty foods does not have a standard definition, Food processors and consumers may be confused by the term due to its potential ambiguity. Foods that have described as specialty foods include, Artisanal foods. Specialty coffee – sometimes referred to as artisanal coffee, stinky tofu – has been described as a local specialty food in the Old City of Shanghai. Taboo food and drink is a way to find other speciality foods. Some specialty foods may be ethnic specialties, Foods that have been described as specialty foods as per not precisely corresponding into other food categories include, Kimchi.
Royal jelly, bee pollen and propolis, in China, specialty foods have been described as having important roles in the food culture. Some Chinese recipes may be footnoted with a statement that ingredients may only be available in specialty food stores, in the United States, specialty foods and their purveyors are regulated by both federal and state agencies. As of March 2015 in the United States, the number of bean-to-bar chocolate manufacturers had increased to at least 60, the Fine Chocolate Industry Association stated that this represented a tenfold increase in the past decade thats outpacing growth in Europe. In 2012 in the United States, the specialty foods market sector was experiencing significant growth, with its growth rate at 8–10%. In 2010, specialty foods comprised 13. 1% of total food sales. In 2010 in Oakland, California it was reported that abandoned industrial spaces previously occupied by food producers were being inhabited by small specialty food companies. In 1998, the U. S.
state of California had the second-highest amount of specialty and this has been attributed as possible due a diverse variety of unique fruits and vegetables that can be grown in Southern California. In terms of food-place association perceptions, Vermont has been described as being associated with homemade-style specialty items, some companies, grocery stores and food stores specialize in or predominantly purvey specialty foods. Some of these include, Asian markets and supermarkets Boulder Specialty Brands Inc. The organization oversees its Specialty Food Foundation, a foundation that works to reduce hunger and increase food recovery efforts via grantmaking, education, in New Yorks Finger Lakes region, the Worker Ownership Resource Center established the Specialty Food Network
Charing Cross railway station
Charing Cross railway station is a central London railway terminus on the Strand in the City of Westminster. It is the terminus of the South Eastern Main Line to Dover, all trains are operated by Southeastern, which provides the majority of commuter and regional services to south-east London and Kent. It is connected to Charing Cross tube station on the London Underground and it is one of 19 stations in the United Kingdom that are managed by Network Rail. Charing Cross is the 14th busiest station in the country, the tracks approach the station from Hungerford Bridge over the River Thames. There is an office and shopping complex above the station, known as Embankment Place, the original station building was built on the site of the Hungerford Market by the South Eastern Railway and opened on 11 January 1864. The station was designed by Sir John Hawkshaw, with a single wrought iron roof arching over the six platforms on its relatively cramped site. It is built on an arched viaduct, the level of the rails above the ground varying from 13 feet at the north-east end to 27 feet at the bridge abutment at the south-east end.
A year the Charing Cross Hotel, designed by Edward Middleton Barry, opened on 15 May 1865 and gave the station an ornate frontage in the French Renaissance style. Contemporary with the Charing Cross Hotel was a replica of the Eleanor Cross in Red Mansfield stone, designed by Edward Middleton Barry and it was based on the original 13th-century Whitehall Cross that had been demolished in 1647. Distances in London are officially measured from the site of the cross, now the statue of Charles I facing Whitehall. The condition of the cross deteriorated until it was in such a condition that it was placed on the English Heritage At Risk Register in 2008. A ten-month project to repair and restore the cross was completed in August 2010. A 77-foot length of the elegant original roof structure, comprising the two end bays at the south of the station, and part of the wall collapsed at 3,45 pm on 5 December 1905. A gang of men were employed at the time in repairing and painting the section of roof which fell.
Shortly after 3,30 pm, the roof emitted a loud noise, part of the roof began to sag and the western wall began to crack. It was another 12 minutes before the collapse occurred, which enabled trains and platforms to be evacuated, the roof and debris fell across four passenger trains standing in platforms 3,4,5 and 6, blocking all tracks were. The part of the wall that fell had crashed through the wall and roof of the neighbouring Royal Avenue Theatre in Northumberland Avenue. At the Board Of Trade Inquiry into the accident, expert witnesses expressed doubts about the design of the roof, the South Eastern and Chatham Railway decided not to repair the roof but to replace it
In general, it is the sale of goods to anyone other than a standard consumer. Wholesalers frequently physically assemble and grade goods in large lots, break bulk, while wholesalers of most products usually operate from independent premises, wholesale marketing for foodstuffs can take place at specific wholesale markets where all traders are congregated. Traditionally, wholesalers were closer to the markets they supplied than the source from which they got the products, with the advent of the internet and e-procurement there are an increasing number of wholesalers located nearer to the manufacturers in China and Southeast Asia. Often, in the United States, wholesalers are not required to charge their buyers sales tax, the alternative to selling wholesale to distributors or retailers is to sell retail either through company owned stores or online. Advantages include receiving a slice of the price paid by the consumer. Top U. S wholesalers according to report in 2012. Cash and carry Distribution Jobbing house Retail Supply chain Supply network B2B
West End of London
Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross. The West End covers much of the boroughs of Westminster and Camden, while the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city. It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in which to rent office space and it was close to the royal seat of power at Westminster, and is largely contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops. The areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, as the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were covered by the document but were treated as adjacent areas to the West End.
According to Ed Glinerts West End Chronicles the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Covent Garden, one of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called West End. This covers a area that defined by Glinert, Soho. The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575, the New West End Company is a business improvement district and runs services including street cleaning and security on Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street. NWEC runs the Red Caps service, the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus
The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus is a 2009 British-Canadian-French fantasy film directed by Terry Gilliam and written by Gilliam and Charles McKeown. Ledgers role was recast with Johnny Depp, Jude Law, the Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus interweaves several plot lines in a nonlinear arrangement. The film made its premiere during the 62nd Cannes Film Festival. The film, which was budgeted at $30 million, grossed more than $60 million in its theatrical release. The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus was nominated for two Academy Awards in the categories Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design, Doctor Parnassus theater troupe, which includes sleight of hand expert Anton, confidant Percy, and Parnassus daughter Valentina, performs outside a London pub. The troupes main attraction is a magical Imaginarium, which offers whoever enters it a choice between difficult self-fulfillment or easy ignorance, after a drunkard is swayed to the latter, Parnassus says he has lost another one to Mr. Nick, a suave personification of the Devil.
Mr. Nick reminds Parnassus that in three days Valentina turns 16, and her soul will be his, hundreds of years ago Mr. Nick tricked Parnassus into gaining immortality, after making a wager similar to his current predicament. As the troupe crosses a bridge, Anton spies someone hanging beneath it and they rescue the man, who spits out a golden pipe when revived. Claiming to have amnesia, he joins the troupe as a barker, Parnassus becomes despondent over the impending loss of his daughter. Mr. Nick visits Parnassus, revealing the man is a disgraced philanthropist named Tony. He offers Parnassus a wager, Valentina can stay with whoever wins five souls first, Tony convinces the troupe to remodel the show into a more modern act. While performing, Tony lures a posh woman into the Imaginarium and follows her, the womans imagination changes Tonys face, upon discovering this, he dances elegantly with her, and they spy a motel run by Mr. Nick. Tony convinces the woman to take a gondola toward a pyramid alone, Tony falls back out of the Imaginarium, returning his face to normal, the woman exits shortly after and gives the troupe a vast sum of money.
When three other women enter, each emerges elated, and thus Parnassus wins three more souls, four Russian gangsters, to whom Tony owes money, are taken by Mr. Nick when they chase Tony into the Imaginarium. The score becomes four souls apiece, in exchange, any child he fathered would become Mr. Nicks property at age 16. Valentina attempts to run away, but Tony enters the Imaginarium to give his soul to Parnassus, in exchange, Valentina returns as he tries to enter the mirror, but Anton blocks them, having discovered that Tony is a fraudulent charity scammer. Tony fights off Anton, pushes Valentina into the Imaginarium and joins her, influenced by Valentinas desires, Tonys face changes again, and they float along a beautiful river in a gondola. After an impoverished child disrupts their boat trip, Tony transforms into a philanthropist speaking at a fundraiser, following the pair into the Imaginarium, appears as an outspoken child and exposes Tony as a fraud
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Southwark Street is a major street in Bankside in the London Borough of Southwark, in London England, just south of the River Thames. It runs between Blackfriars Road to the west and Borough High Street to the east and it connects the access routes for London Bridge, Southwark Bridge and Blackfriars Bridge. At the eastern end to the north is Borough Market, the road forms part of the A3200, which continues with Stamford Street to the west. The street was the first to be made by the Board and was completed in 1864 and it was driven across a densely occupied part of the parish and crosses older roads and streets which created oddly shaped plots for redevelopment. Under the street, a tunnel was constructed with passages to carry utilities such as gas, water. This was a feature for the time. During the first decade of the existence, many large commercial buildings were built along the street. The Hop Exchange, of 1874, is the most notable building at the northern side filling most of the quadrant formed by the street and the railway viaduct.
Built in the 1870s, the former Menier Chocolate Factory factory on Southwark Street was converted to a complex that incorporates an art gallery, restaurant. In 1932 Borough Market built a gateway with administrative offices at Nos 6 and 8. In 1958 the Trustees erected an office building at the junction with Stoney Street St Margarets House. At No 110, the western-end of the street, is the headquarters of IPC Media at the Blue Fin Building completed in 2007, the building on the south-west corner of the junction with Great Guildford Street is, numbered 59½. Under the railway bridge at Southwark Street, near London Bridge — photographic 360° interactive panorama
Edward VI of England
Edward VI was King of England and Ireland from 28 January 1547 until his death. He was crowned on 20 February at the age of nine, the son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, Edward was Englands first monarch to be raised as a Protestant. During his reign, the realm was governed by a Regency Council because he never reached his majority, the Council was first led by his uncle Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, and by John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick, from 1551 Duke of Northumberland. Edwards reign was marked by problems and social unrest that, in 1549, erupted into riot. An expensive war with Scotland, at first successful, ended with military withdrawal from Scotland as well as Boulogne-sur-Mer in exchange for peace, the transformation of the Church into a recognisably Protestant body occurred under Edward, who took great interest in religious matters. Although his father, Henry VIII, had severed the link between the Church of England and Rome, Henry VIII had never permitted the renunciation of Catholic doctrine or ceremony.
The architect of these reforms was Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, in February 1553, at age 15, Edward fell ill. When his sickness was discovered to be terminal, he and his Council drew up a Devise for the Succession, Edward named his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey, as his heir and excluded his half-sisters and Elizabeth. This decision was disputed following Edwards death, and Jane was deposed by Mary nine days after becoming queen, during her reign, Mary reversed Edwards Protestant reforms, which nonetheless became the basis of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement of 1559. Edward was born on 12 October 1537 in his mothers room inside Hampton Court Palace and he was the son of King Henry VIII by his third wife, Jane Seymour. Throughout the realm, the people greeted the birth of a male heir, te Deums were sung in churches, bonfires lit, and their was shott at the Tower that night above two thousand gonnes. The Queen, fell ill on 23 October from presumed postnatal complications, Henry VIII wrote to Francis I of France that Divine Providence.
Hath mingled my joy with bitterness of the death of her who brought me this happiness, Edward was a healthy baby who suckled strongly from the outset. His father was delighted with him, in May 1538, Henry was observed dallying with him in his arms, and so holding him in a window to the sight and great comfort of the people. That September, the Lord Chancellor, Lord Audley, reported Edwards rapid growth and vigour, the tradition that Edward VI was a sickly boy has been challenged by more recent historians. At the age of four, he fell ill with a quartan fever. Edward was initially placed in the care of Margaret Bryan, lady mistress of the princes household and she was succeeded by Blanche Herbert, Lady Troy. Until the age of six, Edward was brought up, as he put it in his Chronicle, the formal royal household established around Edward was, at first, under Sir William Sidney, and Sir Richard Page, stepfather of Edward Seymours wife, Anne Stanhope
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban (film)
Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban is a 2004 British-American fantasy film directed by Alfonso Cuarón and distributed by Warner Bros. It is based on the novel of the name by J. K. Rowling. The film, which is the third instalment in the Harry Potter film series, was written by Steve Kloves and produced by Chris Columbus, David Heyman, and Mark Radcliffe. The story follows Harry Potters third year at Hogwarts as he is informed that a prisoner named Sirius Black has escaped from Azkaban intending to kill him. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harrys best friends Ron Weasley and it features well-known actors in supporting roles, including Gary Oldman, David Thewlis, Michael Gambon, Emma Thompson and Timothy Spall. It is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets and is followed by Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire. The film was released on 31 May 2004 in the United Kingdom and on 4 June 2004 in North America, as the first Harry Potter film released into IMAX theatres and it is the last Harry Potter film to be released on VHS.
The film was nominated for two Academy Awards, Best Original Music Score and Best Visual Effects at the 77th Academy Awards in 2005. It marked a change in the film series tone and direction and is widely considered to be the best Harry Potter film by many critics. Harry Potter, now aged 13, has been spending another dissatisfying summer at Privet Drive, when Uncle Vernons sister, insults Harrys parents, he becomes angry and accidentally causes her to inflate and float away. Harry flees with his luggage, fed up with his life with the Dursleys, the Knight Bus delivers Harry to the Leaky Cauldron, where he is forgiven by Minister of Magic Cornelius Fudge for using magic outside of Hogwarts. The trio are returning to Hogwarts for the year on the Hogwarts Express when dementors suddenly board the train. One enters the compartment, causing Harry to pass out. New Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Lupin repels the dementor with a Patronus Charm, at Hogwarts, headmaster Albus Dumbledore announces that dementors will be guarding the school while Sirius is at large.
Hogwarts groundskeeper Hagrid is announced as the new Care of Magical Creatures teacher, his first class goes awry when Draco Malfoy deliberately provokes a hippogriff, dracos father Lucius Malfoy has Buckbeak sentenced to death. The Fat Ladys portrait, which guards the Gryffindor quarters, is found ruined and hiding in another painting, the Fat Lady tells Dumbledore that Sirius Black has entered the castle. During a stormy Quidditch match, dementors attack Harry, causing him to fall off his broomstick, at Hogsmeade, Harry is shocked to learn that not only had Sirius Black been his parents best friend and betrayed them to Voldemort, but that Sirius is his godfather. Lupin privately teaches Harry to defend himself against dementors, using the Patronus Charm, after Harry and Hermione witness Buckbeaks execution, Rons pet rat Scabbers bites him and escapes
Borough Market, Halifax
Borough Market is a Victorian covered market in Halifax, West Yorkshire, England. The market occupies a town centre site between Southgate, Albion Street and Market Street, the glass and wrought iron covered marketplace, surrounded by stone built shops and accommodation, was built between 1891 and 1896 and opened by the future King George V and Queen Mary. The design included three houses on the Market Street side and fishmongers shops on Albion Street with the remaining exterior shops all being butchers shops. The award winning market is open six days a week with some 125 market stalls, the site had previously been occupied by a red brick Georgian market place built in 1790. A nearby slaughterhouse had ended the practice of slaughtering animals in the street, trade had been concentrated here since 1810 when an Act of Parliament had been obtained which forbade street trading in other parts of the town. Another Act of Parliament in 1853 allowed Halifax council to buy New Market, as it was known, the Markets and Fairs Committee decided in 1890 to replace the overflowing market place with a new structure.
Local architects Joseph and John Leeming were engaged to draw up plans, a £50,000 loan was obtained by the Corporation the following year, with the final cost rising to £130,000, which was £20,000 over budget. Work began in October 1892 and progressed slowly, until the market was opened on 25 July 1896 by the Duke and Duchess of York. They opened the Royal Halifax Infirmary on the same day, opening hours at the outset were 8 am to 8 pm on Mondays to Wednesdays, with half day closing on Thursdays,8 am to 4 pm. Fridays were 8 am to 9 pm and Saturdays 6 am to 10.30 pm, the buildings stonework was cleaned in 1973, the same year that Southgate was made into a pedestrian area, with the road raised to pavement level. In 1987 the Civic Trust gave the market an award for its renovated Victorian shop fronts, in 1993 the central clock, often used as a rendezvous point, was refurbished using more than fifty square feet of gold leaf. In 1995 the Halifax Centre Strategy Report recommended moving the fishmongers on Albion Street inside the market and replacing them with units to improve attractiveness.
The multi-storey buildings contain living quarters, originally for market traders and managers, water was originally drawn from a well near the Market Street entrance. The pubs were the Wheatsheaf, renamed the Portman and Pickles, the Saddle, the Portman and Pickles was named after Eric Portman and Wilfred Pickles. At the centre of the market an 18 metre high octagonal lantern is supported by decorative cast iron columns, below the lantern a decorative clock was originally visible from most parts of the market, although now obscured by taller stalls. Flagstones used for flooring in the market, still in good condition, came from Solomon Marshalls quarry at Southowram, the slope of the site is accommodated without the use of steps. The market operates six days a week with about 125 stalls, a centenary celebration was held in 1996, coinciding with Great British Market Week between 19 and 26 May. The market is Grade II* listed by English Heritage,100 years of Halifax Borough Market
Trustee is a legal term which, in its broadest sense, can refer to any person who holds property, authority, or a position of trust or responsibility for the benefit of another. A trustee can refer to a person who is allowed to do certain tasks, in all cases, the trustee may be a person or company, whether or not they are a prospective beneficiary. However, a trustee may act otherwise than in accordance with the terms of the trust if all beneficiaries, being sui juris and together absolutely entitled, direct the trustee to do so. If any question arises as to the constriction of the provisions of the trust, account for actions and keep beneficiaries informed, these include a duty to inform beneficiaries as to their entitlements under the trust and other matters concerning the trust. As trustees as not under a duty to disclose their reasoning in applying a trust power, protection of confidentiality has been described as one of the most important limitations on the right to disclose of trust documents.
Memoranda or letter of wishes do not necessarily need to be disclosed to a beneficiary if they are of a number of potential beneficiaries, corporate trustees, typically trust departments at large banks, often have very narrow duties, limited to those the trust indenture explicitly defines. A trustee carries the responsibility and liability to use the trust assets according to the provisions of the trust instrument. The trustee may find himself liable to claimants, prospective beneficiaries and it is common for lawyers to draft will trusts so as to permit such payment, and to take office accordingly, this may be an unnecessary expense for small estates. In an exception to the duties outlined above, sabbatical officers of unions who are trustees of these organisations they work for do have the right to a salary. This is an exception explicitly granted in the 1993 act The broadest sense of the term applies to someone held to a fiduciary duty similar in some respects to that of a trustee proper.
For example, the directors of a bank may be trustees for the depositors, directors of a corporation are trustees for the stockholders, many corporations call their governing board a board of trustees, though in those cases they act as a board of directors. Many UK charities are limited liability companies registered with Companies House, in case the trustees are directors of the company. This is the model if the charity owns property or employs people. The law on this in England changed considerably with the Charities Act of 2006, an account of the main changes can be found in Charities Act 2006 A guide to the new law by Michael King and Ann Phillips. One of the key changes made was that it introduced the Charitable Incorporated Organisation which is basically a limited liability charity, there are thus now two main aspects of corporate management of charities. One is the way in which a corporation is a corporate trustee of a given charity. The second is the new way, in which the charity itself is incorporated as a CIO, the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods is a complicated matter.
According to King and Philips, many of the advantages of incorporating as a CIO are obtained if the trustees are not individuals but a corporate entity