Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument in Wiltshire, England,2 miles west of Amesbury and 8 miles north of Salisbury. Stonehenge consists of ring of standing stones, with each standing stone around 4.1 metres high,2.1 metres wide and weighing around 25 tons. The stones are set within earthworks in the middle of the most dense complex of Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments in England, archaeologists believe it was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. The surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. Radiocarbon dating suggests that the first bluestones were raised between 2400 and 2200 BC, although they may have been at the site as early as 3000 BC, one of the most famous landmarks in the UK, Stonehenge is regarded as a British cultural icon. It has been a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument since 1882 when legislation to protect historic monuments was first successfully introduced in Britain, the site and its surroundings were added to UNESCOs list of World Heritage Sites in 1986.
Stonehenge is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage, Stonehenge could have been a burial ground from its earliest beginnings. Deposits containing human bone date from as early as 3000 BC, when the ditch and bank were first dug, William Stukeley in 1740 notes, Pendulous rocks are now called henges in Yorkshire. I doubt not, Stonehenge in Saxon signifies the hanging stones. Like Stonehenges trilithons, medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, rather than the inverted L-shape more familiar today, the henge portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a banked enclosure with an internal ditch. As often happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian use, Stonehenge evolved in several construction phases spanning at least 1500 years. There is evidence of construction on and around the monument that perhaps extends the landscapes time frame to 6500 years.
The modern phasing most generally agreed to by archaeologists is detailed below, features mentioned in the text are numbered and shown on the plan, right. Archaeologists have found four, or possibly five, large Mesolithic postholes and these held pine posts around 0.75 metres in diameter, which were erected and eventually rotted in situ. Three of the posts were in an east-west alignment which may have had significance, no parallels are known from Britain at the time. A settlement that may have been contemporaneous with the posts has been found at Blick Mead, a reliable year round spring 1 mile from Stonehenge. Salisbury Plain was still wooded but 4,000 years later, during the earlier Neolithic, people built an enclosure at Robin Hoods Ball. In approximately 3500 BC, a Stonehenge Cursus was built 700 metres north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the trees, a number of other adjacent stone and wooden structures and burial mounds, previously overlooked, may date as far back as 4000 BC
Petroglyphs are images created by removing part of a rock surface by incising, carving, or abrading, as a form of rock art. Outside North America, scholars often use such as carving, engraving. Petroglyphs are found world-wide, and are associated with prehistoric peoples. The word comes from the Greek word petro-, theme of the word meaning stone, and glyphein meaning to carve. The term petroglyph should not be confused with petrograph, which is an image drawn or painted on a rock face, both types of image belong to the wider and more general category of rock art or parietal art. Petroforms, or patterns and shapes made by large rocks. Inukshuks are unique, and found only in the Arctic and they are a category of rock art, and sometimes found in conjunction with rock-cut architecture. However, they tend to be omitted in most works on rock art, a few such works exploit the natural contours of the rock and use them to define an image, but they do not amount to man-made reliefs. Rock reliefs have been made in many cultures, and were important in the art of the Ancient Near East.
Rock reliefs are generally large, as they need to be to make an impact in the open air. Most have figures that are over life-size, and in many the figures are multiples of life-size, the vertical relief is most common, but reliefs on essentially horizontal surfaces are found. The term typically excludes relief carvings inside caves, whether natural or themselves man-made, natural rock formations made into statues or other sculpture in the round, most famously at the Great Sphinx of Giza, are usually excluded. Reliefs on large boulders left in their location, like the Hittite İmamkullu relief, are likely to be included. Some petroglyphs are dated to approximately the Neolithic and late Upper Paleolithic boundary, about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago, if not earlier. Sites in Australia have petroglyphs that are estimated to be as much as 27,000 years old, around 7,000 to 9,000 years ago, other precursors of writing systems, such as pictographs and ideograms, began to appear. Petroglyphs were still common though, and some cultures continued using them much longer, petroglyphs have been found in all parts of the globe except Antarctica with highest concentrations in parts of Africa, Siberia, southwestern North America and Australia.
There are many theories to explain their purpose, depending on their location, some petroglyphs are thought to be astronomical markers and other forms of symbolic communication, including a form of pre-writing. Petroglyph maps may show trails, symbols communicating time and distances traveled, as well as the terrain in the form of rivers, landforms
Penwith is an area of Cornwall, United Kingdom, located on the peninsula of the same name. It is the name of a local government district. The area is named one of the ancient administrative hundreds of Cornwall which derives from two Cornish words, penn meaning headland and wydh meaning at the end. Natural England have designated the peninsula as national character area 156 and it is known as the Lands End Peninsula. The Penwith peninsula sits predominantly on granite bedrock that has led to the formation of a coastline with many fine beaches. Tin and copper have been mined in the area since pre-Roman times, the peninsula is primarily granite with a thin top soil. This is most evident on the north coast between St Just and Zennor where the remains of the ancient seabed of the Pliocene era are visible and its highest point is Watch Croft. There are several deep cut into this plateau such as Lamorna on the south coast. The shelter of these valleys and the mild climate gives Penwith a flora not seen anywhere else in the UK, penzances Morrab Gardens is able to grow bananas.
Penwith contains a lake, Drift Reservoir, which is located appromimately 3 miles west of Penzance. In addition to Penwiths status as a Heritage coastline, west Penwith, Penwith lies within the Cornwall Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. Almost a third of Cornwall has AONB designation, with the same status, the principal towns in Penwith are Penzance, the port town and seat of local government, and St Ives, one of the countys most popular seaside resorts. For a full list of settlements in Penwith see List of places in Penwith As a small peninsula at the tip of a larger peninsula, two major transport routes terminate in the district, the A30 road and the Great Western Main Line railway. The St Ives Bay Line provides local transport between St Ives, and the line at St Erth. A ferry to the Isles of Scilly,28 miles west-south-west of the district, is based in Penzance, Penwith contains a great concentration of Bronze Age, Iron Age, and Romano-British archaeological remains. The most significant of them are described in a guide first published in 1954.
Tewdwr Mawr ruled over the area from Carnsew in the century before returning to his patrimony in Cornouaille in Brittany around 577. Penwiths population has remained static for the last one hundred
It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
William Borlase, Cornish antiquary and naturalist. From 1722 he was Rector of Ludgvan, where he died and he was a contemporary of John Wesley and attempted to enter him into the Royal Navy by compulsion, but relented when he realised Wesley was a gentleman. Borlase was born on 2 February 1695/6 at Pendeen, of an ancient family originating at St Wenn and he was educated at Exeter College, Oxford from 1713, and in 1719 he was ordained. In 1722 he was presented to the rectory of Ludgvan, and in 1732 he obtained in addition the vicarage of St Just, between 1744 and 1746, Borlase was active against the Methodist preachers in his capacity of magistrate. Various Methodist preachers were seized on warrants issued by him and press-ganged to serve on ships abroad, in John Wesleys Diary there is an account of how he personally laid hands on Wesley, to serve his majesty, but withdrew when he realised that Wesley was a gentleman. In 1750, he was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society and his next publication was Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, and their Importance to the Trade of Great Britain.
In 1758 appeared his Natural History of Cornwall which includes a chapter on the inhabitants and he sent collections of mineral and fossil specimens to Dr William Oliver and to a number of natural historians in Europe. In 1724 William Borlase married Anne Smith, the couple had six sons, of whom two died in infancy. Of the remaining four, three became churchmen, borlases elder brother was Walter Borlase, who served as vicar of Madron, and as mayor of Penzance. His great-great-grandson was William Copeland Borlase, an antiquarian who was influenced by his ancestors archaeological work, Borlase was a conscientious minister to his parishioners, politically conservative, and an amateur painter. Some of his papers are preserved in Penzance at the Morrab Library, William The Antiquities of Cornwall. London, E & W Books,1973, reprint of the 2d ed. printed in 1769 by W. Bowyer and J. Nichols, for S. Baker & G. Leigh, T. Payne, B. ISBN 0-85409-852-6 Borlase, William Observations on the Ancient and Present State of the Islands of Scilly, Oxford, W.
Jackson Borlase, William Natural History of Cornwall. Oxford, printed for the author, by W. Jackson, sold by W. Sandby, at the Ship in Fleet-Street London, pool, P. A. S. William Borlase, 1696-1772. Pool, P. A. S. William Borlase
The company is headquartered in New York City and is a subsidiary of News Corp. The worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray, HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and India and China. As of 2017 China provides as the source of manufacturing. The company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints, in 1989, Collins was bought by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation, and the publisher was combined with Harper & Row, which NewsCorp had acquired two years earlier. In 1999, News Corporation purchased the Hearst Book Group, consisting of William Morrow & Company and these imprints are now published under the rubric of HarperCollins. HarperCollins bought educational publisher Letts and Lonsdale in March 2010, in 2011, HarperCollins announced they had agreed to acquire the publisher Thomas Nelson. The purchase was completed on July 11,2012, with an announcement that Thomas Nelson would operate independently given the position it has in Christian book publishing.
Both Thomas Nelson and Zondervan were organized as imprints, or keystone publishing programs, under a new division, key roles in the reorganization were awarded to former Thomas Nelson executives. Brian Murray, the current CEO of HarperCollins, succeeded Jane Friedman who was CEO from 1997 to 2008, notable management figures include Lisa Sharkey, current senior vice president and director of creative development and Barry Winkleman from 1989 to 1994. In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, HarperCollins, the suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, and weaken Amazon. coms position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. The Scranton, PA warehouse closed in September 2013 and a Nashville, TN warehouse, under the name Thomas Nelson, several office positions and departments continued to work for HarperCollins in Scranton, but in a new location. Company officials attribute the closings and mergers to the growing demand for e-book formats.
HarperCollins maintains the backlist of many of the originally published by their many merged imprints. Authors published originally by Harper include Mark Twain, the Brontë sisters, authors published originally by Collins include H. G. Wells, Agatha Christie and J. R. R. Tolkien. This is a list of some of the more noted books, N. D. Gone, Clive Barker The Children of Húrin, J. R. R. R. R. They were the home of Maurice Sendak, Shel Silverstein. In 1998, Nordstroms personal correspondence was published as Dear Genius, The Letters of Ursula Nordstrom, Zolotow became head of the Childrens Books Department, and went on to become the companys first female Vice-President. The Chronicles of Narnia series by C. S. Lewis, HarperCollins has published the following notable childrens books, the I Can Read
John Thomas Blight
For the Australian poet, see John Blight. John Thomas Blight FSA was a Cornish archaeological artist born near Redruth in Cornwall and his father, Robert, a teacher, moved the family to Penzance and introduced his sons to the study of nature and folk lore. John Blight was a natural draughtsman, by the age of 20, Blight had published a book on the antiquities of Penwith and a large collection of drawings. His expansion of work, in two volumes, was at first encouraged by Rev. R. S. Hawker and the cause of a great quarrel. John Blights second patron, James Halliwell, was similarly unhelpful, in the mid-1860s, Blight had a mental breakdown and was incarcerated for the remainder of his life in Bodmin Mental Asylum. Blights recording of Cornish antiquities includes many that no longer exist and his descriptions and illustrations of them provide a most valuable source for archaeologists and local historians. Ancient Crosses and Other Antiquities in the East of Cornwall 3rd ed. Ancient Crosses and Other Antiquities in the West of Cornwall, a Week at the Lands End Bates, Selina & Spurgin, Keith.
The Dust of Heroes, The Life of Cornish Artist and Writer John Thomas Blight, 1836-1911
William Stukeley FRS, FRCP, FSA was an Anglican clergyman and English antiquarian who pioneered the archaeological investigation of the prehistoric monuments of Stonehenge and Avebury. He was friends with Isaac Newton and was among Newtons first biographers, Stukeley was involved with Freemasonry and instrumental in British scholarships acceptance of Charles Bertrams forged Description of Britain. Despite his Anglican faith and church offices, he was obsessed with the idea of Druidry and he has been remembered as probably. The most important of the forerunners of the discipline of archaeology for his habit of going out personally to examine. William Stukeley was the son of a lawyer at Holbeach in Lincolnshire on the site of Stukeley Hall, after taking his M. B. degree at Corpus Christi College, Stukeley went to London and studied medicine at St Thomas Hospital. In 1710, he started in practice in Boston, becoming a member of Spalding Gentlemens Society, before returning in 1717 to London. In the same year, he became a Fellow of the Royal Society and, in 1718, joined in the establishment of the Society of Antiquaries, acting for nine years as its secretary.
In 1719 Stukeley took his M. D. degree, and in 1720 became a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, Stukeley was one of the first learned gentlemen to be attracted to speculative Freemasonry, newly fashionable after the appointment of the first noble Grand Master. His Diary and Commonplace Book of 6 June 1721 says I was made a Freemason at the Salutation Tav, tavistock Street, with Mr. Collins, Capt. Rowe, who made the famous diving Engine. His diary and papers are among the earliest sources on the subject of the new Grand Lodge, Stukeleys principal works, elaborate accounts of Stonehenge and Avebury, appeared in 1740 and 1743. These were supposed to be the first of a universal history. Stukeley proposed that an ancient patriarchial religion was the religion of mankind. This had subsequently degenerated as idol-worship had emerged, Stukeley believed that the Druids and the early Christians were examples of this religion. He wrote copiously on other supposed Druid remains, becoming known as the Arch-Druid.
Stukeleys work on Stonehenge was one of the first to attempt to date the monument, working with the renowned astronomer Edmund Halley, he proposed that the builders of Stonehenge knew about magnetism, and had aligned the monument with magnetic north. Stukeley used some data about the variation of the North Magnetic Pole. Today it is known that the North Magnetic Pole wanders in an irregular fashion, Stukeley inferred that Stonehenge was completed in 460 B. C. which as we now know is several thousand years too late. In 1729 he took Holy Orders and he became a priest in the Church of England
A gorsedd /ˈɡɔːrsɛð/ plural gorseddau, is a community or coming together of modern-day bards. The word is of Welsh origin, meaning throne and it is often spelled gorsedh in Cornwall and goursez in Brittany, reflecting the spellings in the Cornish and Breton languages, respectively. When the term is used without qualification, it refers to the national Gorsedd of Wales, namely Gorsedd Beirdd Ynys Prydain. However, other gorseddau exist, such as the Cornish Gorsedh Kernow, gorseddau exist to promote literary scholarship and the creation of poetry and music. As part of this, their most visible activity can be seen at Eisteddfodau – Welsh language festivals, much of its ritual has Christian influence, and were given further embellishment in the 1930s by Archdruid Cynan. The Gorsedd y Beirdd made its first appearance at the Eisteddfod at the Ivy Bush Inn in Carmarthen in 1819 and it is an association of poets, musicians and individuals who have made a significant and distinguished contribution to Welsh language and culture.
The fictitious origin of these ceremonies was established by Professor G. J. Williams in works touching on Iolo Morgannwg, there are three ranks of membership in the Welsh Gorsedd. Until 2012 they were, in ascending order of honour, who wear green robes, who wear blue robes, and Druids, who wear white robes. The head of a Gorsedd is known as an Archdderwydd, and wears a golden robe and these ceremonies are held to honour literary achievements amongst Welsh poets and prose writers. The ranks within the Breton Gorsedd are the same, in the Cornish Gorsedd, there is only one rank, that of bard, and all robes are blue. In the Welsh Gorsedd, a person may become an ovate or a bard by passing an examination in the Welsh language, Druids may only be nominated by existing druids. Often a new inductee will take a pseudonym, called a bardic name, to become an Archdruid, an individual must have won one of the Eisteddfods three highest awards, the Crown, the Chair, or the Literature Medal. In 2003, Robyn Lewys became the first winner of the Literature Medal to be elected Archdruid, christine James was the first woman to become Archdruid of Wales.
People are made ovates or druids as an honour to reward their contributions to Welsh culture, in 1946, the future Queen Elizabeth II was inducted into the Welsh Gorsedd at the National Eisteddfod of Wales. In recent years, Ron Davies, Rowan Williams, Matthew Rhys, Ioan Gruffudd, three Gorsedd ceremonies are held during the Eisteddfod week, The Crowning of the Bard The Awarding of the Prose Medal The Chairing of the Bard. During these ceremonies, the Archdruid and the members of the Gorsedd gather on the Eisteddfod stage in their ceremonial robes, when the Archdruid reveals the identity of the winning poet, the Corn Gwlad calls the people together and the Gorsedd Prayer is chanted. The Archdruid partially withdraws a sword from its three times, and cries A oes heddwch. to which the assembly reply Heddwch. The sword is placed back into its sheath
An urn is a vase, often with a cover, that usually has a somehat narrowed neck above a rounded body and a footed pedestal. Describing a vessel as an urn, as opposed to a vase or other terms, large sculpted vases are often called urns, whether placed outdoors, in gardens or as architectural ornaments on buildings, or kept inside. Funerary urns have been used by many civilizations, after a person died, survivors cremated the body and collected the ashes in an urn. Pottery urns, dating from about 7000 BC, have found in an early Jiahu site in China, where a total of 32 burial urns are found. There are about 700 burial urns unearthed over the Yangshao areas and consisting more than 50 varieties of form, the burial urns were used mainly for children, but sporadically for adults. The Urnfield culture, a late Bronze Age culture of central Europe, the discovery of a Bronze Age urn burial in Norfolk, prompted Sir Thomas Browne to describe the antiquities found. He expanded his study to survey burial and funerary customs and current, in ancient Greece, cremation was usual, and the ashes typically placed in a painted Greek vase.
In particular the lekythos, a shape of vase, was used for holding oil in funerary rituals, romans placed the urns in a niche in a collective tomb called a columbarium. The interior of a dovecote usually has niches to house doves, cremation urns were commonly used in early Anglo Saxon England, and in many Pre-Columbian cultures. Biodegradable urns are sometimes used for human and animal burial. Besides the traditional funeral or cremation ashes urns, it is possible to keep a part of the ashes of the loved one or beloved pet in keepsake urns or ash jewelry. It is even possible to place the ashes of two people in so-called companion urns, cremation or funeral urns are made from a variety of materials such as wood, nature stone, glass, or steel. Scattering of ashes has become popular over recent decades, as a result, urns designed to scatter the ashes from have been developed. Some are biodegradable, and some recyclable after being used, a Figural urn is a style of vase or larger container where the basic urn shape, of either a classic amphora or a crucible style, is ornamented with figures.
These may be attached to the body, forming handles or simply extraneous decorations. The Ashes, the prize in the biennial Test cricket competition between England and Australia, are contained in a miniature urn, urns are a common form of architectural detail and garden ornament. Well-known ornamental urns include the Waterloo Vase, in mathematics, an urn problem is a thought experiment in probability theory. A tea urn is a metal container traditionally used to brew tea or boil water in large quantities in factories
Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in Earths continental crust, behind feldspar. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones, since antiquity, varieties of quartz have been the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings, especially in Eurasia. The word quartz is derived from the German word Quarz and its Middle High German ancestor twarc, the Ancient Greeks referred to quartz as κρύσταλλος derived from the Ancient Greek κρύος meaning icy cold, because some philosophers apparently believed the mineral to be a form of supercooled ice. Today, the rock crystal is sometimes used as an alternative name for the purest form of quartz. Quartz belongs to the crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-sided pyramids at each end, well-formed crystals typically form in a bed that has unconstrained growth into a void, usually the crystals are attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination pyramid is present.
However, doubly terminated crystals do occur where they develop freely without attachment, a quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. α-quartz crystallizes in the crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-quartz belongs to the system, space group P6222 and P6422. These space groups are truly chiral, both α-quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks. The transformation between α- and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another, although many of the varietal names historically arose from the color of the mineral, current scientific naming schemes refer primarily to the microstructure of the mineral. Color is an identifier for the cryptocrystalline minerals, although it is a primary identifier for the macrocrystalline varieties. Pure quartz, traditionally called rock crystal or clear quartz, is colorless and transparent or translucent, common colored varieties include citrine, rose quartz, smoky quartz, milky quartz, and others.
The most important distinction between types of quartz is that of macrocrystalline and the microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline varieties, the cryptocrystalline varieties are either translucent or mostly opaque, while the transparent varieties tend to be macrocrystalline. Chalcedony is a form of silica consisting of fine intergrowths of both quartz, and its monoclinic polymorph moganite. Other opaque gemstone varieties of quartz, or mixed rocks including quartz, often including contrasting bands or patterns of color, are agate, carnelian or sard, heliotrope, amethyst is a form of quartz that ranges from a bright to dark or dull purple color. The worlds largest deposits of amethysts can be found in Brazil, Uruguay, France, sometimes amethyst and citrine are found growing in the same crystal. It is referred to as ametrine, an amethyst is formed when there is iron in the area where it was formed