Boston is the capital and most populous city of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States, the 21st most populous city in the United States. The city proper covers 49 square miles with an estimated population of 694,583 in 2018 making it the most populous city in New England. Boston is the seat of Suffolk County as well, although the county government was disbanded on July 1, 1999; the city is the economic and cultural anchor of a larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston, a metropolitan statistical area home to a census-estimated 4.8 million people in 2016 and ranking as the tenth-largest such area in the country. As a combined statistical area, this wider commuting region is home to some 8.2 million people, making it the sixth most populous in the United States. Boston is one of the oldest municipalities in the United States, founded on the Shawmut Peninsula in 1630 by Puritan settlers from the English town of the same name, it was the scene of several key events of the American Revolution, such as the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Battle of Bunker Hill, the Siege of Boston.

Upon gaining U. S. independence from Great Britain, it continued to be an important port and manufacturing hub as well as a center for education and culture. The city has expanded beyond the original peninsula through land reclamation and municipal annexation, its rich history attracts many tourists, with Faneuil Hall alone drawing more than 20 million visitors per year. Boston's many firsts include the United States' first public park, first public or state school and first subway system. Today, Boston is a thriving center of scientific research as well as port of entry for commerce and international immigration; the Boston area's many colleges and universities make it a world leader in higher education, including law, medicine and business, the city is considered to be a global pioneer in innovation and entrepreneurship, with nearly 5,000 startups. Boston's economic base includes finance and business services, information technology, government activities. Households in the city claim the highest average rate of philanthropy in the United States.

The city has one of the highest costs of living in the United States as it has undergone gentrification, though it remains high on world livability rankings. Boston's early European settlers had first called the area Trimountaine but renamed it Boston after Boston, England, the origin of several prominent colonists; the renaming on September 7, 1630, was by Puritan colonists from England who had moved over from Charlestown earlier that year in quest for fresh water. Their settlement was limited to the Shawmut Peninsula, at that time surrounded by the Massachusetts Bay and Charles River and connected to the mainland by a narrow isthmus; the peninsula is thought to have been inhabited as early as 4000 BC. In 1629, the Massachusetts Bay Colony's first governor John Winthrop led the signing of the Cambridge Agreement, a key founding document of the city. Puritan ethics and their focus on education influenced its early history. Over the next 130 years, the city participated in four French and Indian Wars, until the British defeated the French and their Indian allies in North America.

Boston was the largest town in British America until Philadelphia grew larger in the mid-18th century. Boston's oceanfront location made it a lively port, the city engaged in shipping and fishing during its colonial days. However, Boston stagnated in the decades prior to the Revolution. By the mid-18th century, New York City and Philadelphia surpassed Boston in wealth. During this period, Boston encountered financial difficulties as other cities in New England grew rapidly. Many of the crucial events of the American Revolution occurred near Boston. Boston's penchant for mob action along with the colonists' growing distrust in Britain fostered a revolutionary spirit in the city; when the British government passed the Stamp Act in 1765, a Boston mob ravaged the homes of Andrew Oliver, the official tasked with enforcing the Act, Thomas Hutchinson the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts. The British sent two regiments to Boston in 1768 in an attempt to quell the angry colonists; this did not sit well with the colonists.

In 1770, during the Boston Massacre, the army killed several people in response to a mob in Boston. The colonists compelled the British to withdraw their troops; the event was publicized and fueled a revolutionary movement in America. In 1773, Britain passed the Tea Act. Many of the colonists saw the act as an attempt to force them to accept the taxes established by the Townshend Acts; the act prompted the Boston Tea Party, where a group of rebels threw an entire shipment of tea sent by the British East India Company into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party was a key event leading up to the revolution, as the British government responded furiously with the Intolerable Acts, demanding compensation for the lost tea from the rebels; this led to the American Revolutionary War. The war began in the area surrounding Boston with the Battles of Concord. Boston itself was besieged for a year during the Siege of Boston, which began on April 19, 1775; the New England militia impeded the movement of the British Army.

William Howe, 5th Viscount Howe the commander-in-chief of th

Hard keeper

A hard keeper or poor doer is a horse or other livestock animal, prone to be thin, will lose weight and has difficulty gaining weight. A horse, too thin is not a hard keeper; the animal may be elderly, or has not been provided adequate nutrition. Whenever a horse is too thin, it is well-advised to have a veterinarian give the horse a thorough examination and recommend the best course of action; the opposite of a hard keeper is an easy keeper. In contrast, a hard keeper is never fat under any circumstances, it is rare for a pony or a donkey to be a hard keeper. The condition is most seen in light horse breeds that have either a high-strung temperament or breeds that tend to a lean phenotype and are subjected to stressful conditions. Breeds with a higher percentage of hard keepers include race horses such as the Thoroughbred, certain types of show horses bred for style and animation, such as the American Saddlebred, it is natural for a normal horse to require more nutrition to avoid weight loss if it is pregnant, under stress due to illness or management conditions, or when subjected to hard work.

With a normal horse, adjusting the animal's diet to compensate for the conditions it is facing will return the animal to its normal condition. Another reason for weight loss in horses that doesn't have anything to do with being a hard keeper is the inability of some group-fed horses to get a fair shake at feeding time due to being less dominant than other horses. If an animal is a hard keeper, proper nutrition requires a calorie-rich diet, but one that will not make the horse "hot" and prone to excess energy that may lead to yet more nervous behavior and continued weight loss. Forages that are nutritious and calorie-dense, such as alfalfa and beet pulp are recommended. Concentrated feeds that are high in fat but low in carbohydrates, such as rice bran, ground flaxseed, or corn oil are added to a basic grain or pelleted feed ration to assist weight gain without creating excess energy. High-energy feeds containing significant amounts of sugars, such as molasses, are not recommended because they have a tendency to make a horse "hot" or more excitable.

However, in cases where a hard keeper has work with high energy requirements, such as horse racing, an extra, but balanced source of energy may be necessary. A horse that has not had trouble maintaining weight that begins to lose weight for no apparent reason is not a hard keeper; this type of weight loss is a sign of a health problem. In most cases, the horse may require worming to remove internal parasites, or it could have a dental problem that requires floating of the teeth. Sometimes, weight loss is a symptom of a more serious medical condition. Any horse with an unexplained weight loss should be examined by a veterinarian. A normal horse may become a hard keeper when it becomes older when over the age of 20 to 25 years. There are some body weight distribution changes that are linked to age, including a loss of muscle tone along the spine and hip that lead to somewhat more visible withers and ribs. However, these areas still should maintain good flesh, it is not natural for an old horse to be excessively thin.

Sometimes the digestive system of older horses becomes less efficient, a change in diet to "senior" feeds that are easier to digest is in order. However, weight loss in an older horse is more linked to a dental problem and proper equine dentistry can result in a return to normal weight, provided the horse still has enough functional teeth remaining. In extreme old age, such as when a horse is over 30 years old, the animal may no longer have any molars left, may require a diet of mushy foods such as hay cubes soaked in water, beet pulp, or other specialized feeds. In such cases, these horses will appear to be too thin, but if obtaining proper nutrition will still have a healthy hair coat, flesh over bone, other indicators of good health. In some animal cruelty cases where starvation is alleged, the caretakers of such animals will claim that too-thin animals are "just a hard keeper" as a defense. However, the weight distribution and musculature of a hard keeper in the neck and hindquarters, is distinct from that of a starving horse, a veterinarian can provide an expert opinion as to what is normal and what is not.

The Henneke horse body condition scoring system is a standardized scoring table produced by Don Henneke, PhD. The Henneke Chart is a scientific method based on both visual appraisal and palpable fat cover of the six major points of the horse that are most responsive to changes in body fat; the system is used by law enforcement agencies as an objective method of scoring a horse's body condition in horse cruelty cases. These condition categories are as follows: 1. Emaciated/Poor 2. Thin 3. Thin 4. Moderately thin 5. Moderate 6. Moderately fleshy 7. Fleshy 8. Fat 9. Fat Equine nutrition Equine Facts, Henneke Body Condition Scoring table including photos How to Condition Score Horses


Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter. It is a gas giant with an average radius about nine times that of Earth, it has only one-eighth the average density of Earth. Saturn is named after the Roman god of agriculture. Saturn's interior is most composed of a core of iron–nickel and rock; this core is surrounded by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen, an intermediate layer of liquid hydrogen and liquid helium, a gaseous outer layer. Saturn has a pale yellow hue due to ammonia crystals in its upper atmosphere. An electrical current within the metallic hydrogen layer is thought to give rise to Saturn's planetary magnetic field, weaker than Earth's, but has a magnetic moment 580 times that of Earth due to Saturn's larger size. Saturn's magnetic field strength is around one-twentieth of Jupiter's; the outer atmosphere is bland and lacking in contrast, although long-lived features can appear. Wind speeds on Saturn can reach 1,800 km/h, higher than on Jupiter, but not as high as those on Neptune.

In January 2019, astronomers reported that a day on the planet Saturn has been determined to be 10h 33m 38s + 1m 52s− 1m 19s , based on studies of the planet's C Ring. The planet's most famous feature is its prominent ring system, composed of ice particles, with a smaller amount of rocky debris and dust. At least 82 moons are known to orbit Saturn, of which 53 are named. Titan, Saturn's largest moon, the second-largest in the Solar System, is larger than the planet Mercury, although less massive, is the only moon in the Solar System to have a substantial atmosphere. Saturn is a gas giant because it is predominantly composed of helium, it lacks a definite surface. Saturn's rotation causes it to have the shape of an oblate spheroid, its equatorial and polar radii differ by 10%: 60,268 km versus 54,364 km. Jupiter and Neptune, the other giant planets in the Solar System, are oblate but to a lesser extent; the combination of the bulge and rotation rate means that the effective surface gravity along the equator, 8.96 m/s2, is 74% that at the poles and is lower than the surface gravity of Earth.

However, the equatorial escape velocity of nearly 36 km/s is much higher than that for Earth. Saturn is the only planet of the Solar System, less dense than water—about 30% less. Although Saturn's core is denser than water, the average specific density of the planet is 0.69 g/cm3 due to the atmosphere. Jupiter has 318 times Earth's mass, Saturn is 95 times Earth's mass. Together and Saturn hold 92% of the total planetary mass in the Solar System. Despite consisting of hydrogen and helium, most of Saturn's mass is not in the gas phase, because hydrogen becomes a non-ideal liquid when the density is above 0.01 g/cm3, reached at a radius containing 99.9% of Saturn's mass. The temperature and density inside Saturn all rise toward the core, which causes hydrogen to be a metal in the deeper layers. Standard planetary models suggest that the interior of Saturn is similar to that of Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded by hydrogen and helium with trace amounts of various volatiles; this core is more dense.

Examination of Saturn's gravitational moment, in combination with physical models of the interior, has allowed constraints to be placed on the mass of Saturn's core. In 2004, scientists estimated that the core must be 9–22 times the mass of Earth, which corresponds to a diameter of about 25,000 km; this is surrounded by a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, followed by a liquid layer of helium-saturated molecular hydrogen that transitions to a gas with increasing altitude. The outermost layer consists of gas. Saturn has a hot interior, reaching 11,700 °C at its core, it radiates 2.5 times more energy into space than it receives from the Sun. Jupiter's thermal energy is generated by the Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism of slow gravitational compression, but such a process alone may not be sufficient to explain heat production for Saturn, because it is less massive. An alternative or additional mechanism may be generation of heat through the "raining out" of droplets of helium deep in Saturn's interior.

As the droplets descend through the lower-density hydrogen, the process releases heat by friction and leaves Saturn's outer layers depleted of helium. These descending droplets may have accumulated into a helium shell surrounding the core. Rainfalls of diamonds have been suggested to occur within Saturn, as well as in Jupiter and ice giants Uranus and Neptune; the outer atmosphere of Saturn contains 3.25 % helium by volume. The proportion of helium is deficient compared to the abundance of this element in the Sun; the quantity of elements heavier than helium is not known but the proportions are assumed to match the primordial abundances from the formation of the Solar System. The total mass of these heavier elements is estimated to be 19–31 times the mass of the Earth, with a significant fraction located in Saturn's core region. Trace amounts of ammonia, ethane, propane and methane have been detected in Saturn's atmosphere; the upper clouds are composed of ammonia crystals, while the lower level clouds appear to consist of either ammonium hydrosulfide or water.

Ultraviolet radiation from the