Boston Common

Boston Common is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massachusetts. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as the Boston Commons. Dating from 1634, it is the oldest city park in the United States; the Boston Common consists of 50 acres of land bounded by Tremont Street, Park Street, Beacon Street, Charles Street, Boylston Street. The Common is part of the Emerald Necklace of parks and parkways that extend from the Common south to Franklin Park in Jamaica Plain and Dorchester. A visitors' center for all of Boston is located on the Tremont Street side of the park; the Central Burying Ground is located on the Boylston Street side of Boston Common and contains the burial sites of the artist Gilbert Stuart and the composer William Billings. Buried there are Samuel Sprague and his son, Charles Sprague, one of America's earliest poets. Samuel Sprague fought in the Revolutionary War; the Common was designated as a Boston Landmark by the Boston Landmarks Commission in 1977. Boston Common included the entire block northeast of where Park Street is now, bounded by Beacon Street and Tremont Street.

What is now called the Granary Burying Ground was established on this land in 1660, as part of the Common. In 1662, the land was separated from the Common; the Common's purpose has changed over the years. It was once owned by William Blaxton, the first European settler of Boston, until it was bought from him in 1634 by the Puritan founders of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. During the 1630s, it was used by many families as a cow pasture. However, this only lasted for a few years, as affluent families bought additional cows, which led to overgrazing, a real-life example of the "tragedy of the commons". After grazing was limited in 1646 to 70 cows at a time, the Boston Common continued to host cows until they were formally banned from it in 1830 by Mayor Harrison Gray Otis; the Common was used as a camp by the British before the American Revolutionary War, from which they left for the Battle of Lexington and Concord. It was used for public hangings up until 1817, most of which were from a large oak, replaced with a gallows in 1769.

On June 1, 1660, Quaker Mary Dyer was hanged there by the Puritans for defying a law that banned Quakers from the Colony. Dyer was one of the four Quakers known as the Boston martyrs. On May 19, 1713, two hundred citizens rioted on the Common in reaction to a food shortage in the city, they attacked the ships and warehouses of wealthy merchant Andrew Belcher, exporting grain to the Caribbean for higher profits. The lieutenant governor was shot during the riot. True park status seems to have emerged no than 1830, when the grazing of cows was ended and renaming the Common as Washington Park was proposed. Renaming the bordering Sentry Street to Park Place in 1804 acknowledged the reality. By 1836, an ornamental iron fence enclosed the Common and its five perimeter malls or recreational promenades, the first of which, Tremont Mall, had been in place since 1728, in imitation of St. James's Park in London. Given these improvements dating back to 1728, a case could be made that Boston Common is in fact the world's first public urban park, since these developments precede the establishment of the earliest public urban parks in England—Derby Arboretum, Peel Park and Birkenhead Park —which are considered the first.

The Charles Street side of Boston Common, along with the adjacent portions of the Public Garden, were used as an unofficial dumping ground, due to being the lowest-lying portions of the two parks. Although plans had long been in place to regrade the Charles Street-facing portions of Boston Common and the Public Garden, the cost of moving the amount of soil necessary prevented the work from being undertaken; this changed in the summer of 1895, when the required quantity of soil was made available as a result of the excavation of the Tremont Street Subway, was used to regrade the Charles Street sides of both Boston Common and the Public Garden. A hundred people gathered on the Common in early 1965 to protest the Vietnam War. A second protest happened on October 1969, this time with 100,000 people protesting. Today, the Common serves as a public park for all to use for informal gatherings. Events such as concerts, softball games, ice skating take place in the park. Famous individuals such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Pope John Paul II have made speeches there.

Judy Garland gave her largest concert on the Common, on August 31, 1967. It was declared a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1987; the Boston Common is a public park managed by the Boston Park Department and cared for by Friends of the Public Garden, a private advocacy group, which provides additional funding for maintenance and special events. Mikhail Gorbachev gave a speech in the Common on May 31, 1990 on his way to Washington D. C. to sign agreements with U. S. President George H. W. Bush

Ramón Ormazábal

Ramón Ormazábal Tife was a Basque communist politician, a founding member and leader of the Communist Party of the Basque Country. Ramón Ormazábal Tife was born in Irun, Gipuzkoa, in 1910, he began working in Hendaye at the age of twelve. He became a communist activist in Irun. After the failed insurrection of 1934 he had to flee Pamplona; when the Spanish Communist Party, PCE) was formed as a national organization in the spring of 1935 Ramón Ormazábal settled in Biscay. There he was a founding member of the Communist Party of the Basque Country in 1935, he was against the autonomy of the EPK from the PCE proposed by Juan Astigarrabía, expelled from the party for "nationalist deviation". When the Spanish Civil War began Ormazábal became a member of the Basque Defense Council before it was formally constituted by the Basque government, he was the director of the organ of the Spanish Communist Party. At the end of the civil war he was arrested in 1939 in Alicante. A year he escaped from prison in Valencia and went into exile, first in the United States and in South America, where he became a communist organizer.

After World War II Ormazábal moved to France in 1946, continued to work for the party in exile and clandestinely in Spain, He was arrested in 1962, accused of being one of the leaders of the strikes that year in Gipuzkoa and Biscay, sentenced to 20 years in prison. He was one of ten members of the FUL who were sentenced at a summary court martial on 21 September 1962. Ormazábal was released in 1970 after eight years and made secretary general of the party in France, holding this office until the 1977 Congress of the Communist Party of the Basque Country in 1977, he was replaced by Roberto Lertxundi as secretary general of the EPK at the party's third congress, held in the spring of 1977 in Bilbao. The congress took place. Lertxundi, a physician and former member of the armed Euzkadi Ta Azkatasuna group, was thought to be more in touch with the electorate. Ormazábal was elected president at this congress, was reelected president in the congress of 1981, he died from a heart attack in Bilbao on 5 July 1982 at the age of 72

Allen Wolf

Allen Wolf is an American film director, film producer and board game creator. Allen Wolf studied filmmaking at New York University, he wrote and produced his senior thesis film, Harlem Grace, a finalist for the Student Academy Awards and the Producers Guild of America Awards. His debut feature film is In My SleepIn 2005, he produced a short, The Sound of Movies, a finalist for the Coca-Cola Refreshing Filmmaker's Award. In 2010, Wolf's feature directorial debut, In My Sleep screened at the market at the Cannes Film Festival, where The Hollywood Reporter called it "A sexy, well-made thriller. Savvy entertainment…will appeal to twentysomething audiences and movie-buff viewers who appreciate the pursued-pursuer, Hitchcockian style of suspenser. Narratively, In My Sleep never rests, a credit to the tight, psychologically astute pacing of filmmaker Wolf and editor Peter Devaney Flanagan. In like dark vein, cinematographer Michael Hardwick's taut compositions and vivid scopings magnify this nocturnal horror story."

On November 6, 2010, In My Sleep screened at the Fort Lauderdale Film Festival where it won the Audience Choice Award. Since it first screened at Cannes, the movie has sold to over seventy countries around the world. In My Sleep was released theatrically in over twenty-five cities in the U. S. and debuted as the number one new independent movie its opening weekend. The In My Sleep was released on November 8, 2011. Allen was interviewed about his hit film In My Sleep January 2012 on the show NewsTek. In 2014, Wolf was a story consultant for the Hulu series Complete Works. In 2015, In My Sleep debuted on the Lifetime Movie Network. In 2018, Wolf wrote and produced the feature film Hooked based on his novel; the screenplay for Hooked won ten awards. It was a Second Rounder for the Austin Film Festival and won the Silver Award at the Cinequest Film Festival; the film is expected to be released in 2020. In 2015, Wolf's debut novel Hooked was published, was based on his award-winning screenplay. Hooked is a romantic comedy about a man who believes he found his perfect soulmate but his autism prevents him from realizing she's a prostitute.

The romantic comedy novel highlights human trafficking. Wolf's novel garnered praise from a number of critics and won the Gold Medal from the Literary Classic Awards, the IndieFab Book of the Year Award, the Gold Medal from Readers' Favorite Book Awards, the Silver Medal from the Benjamin Franklin Awards, was a finalist for the USA Book Awards. Kirkus Reviews wrote “Its cinematic potential shows; the high-concept narrative is entertaining, well-paced, visual … it’s a charming and hopeful tale. A quirky, touching love story that offers insights into autism and personal tragedy.” Blue Ink Review wrote, “By turning conventions of contemporary romance on its stilettos and swapping out the typical sassy, fashion-obsessed female protagonist for an autistic male who reads jokes from index cards, Wolf puts a fresh spin on the genre. Adapted from his award-winning screenplay, Hooked shows signs of its origins with snappy dialogue and humorous, well-staged scenes … A sweet and entertaining romantic comedy, Hooked touches on autism and the power of faith.

It will appeal to any reader who enjoys a blend of quirky characters and drama.”Forward Reviews wrote, "This warm, witty story does not shy away from serious themes like exploitation and true love. Hooked explores heavy issues with a light touch. It’s easy to see this being adapted into an enjoyable movie.” Wolf is developing two novels based on The Wizard of Oz. The first is The Journey to Oz, a retelling of The Wizard of Oz from Dorothy's perspective, the second is a modern-day sequel to The Wizard of Oz and is titled The Quest for Oz. Wolf has created a line of best-selling board games under the name of Morning Star Games, he has received 38 different awards for his games, ranging from groups such as iParenting to the National Association of Gifted Children. The games he created are Pet Detectives, You're Pulling My Leg, You're Pulling My Leg! Junior, Slap Wacky, JabberJot. Allen Wolf on IMDb