Boston Harbor is a natural harbor and estuary of Massachusetts Bay, is located adjacent to the city of Boston, Massachusetts. It is home to the Port of Boston, a major shipping facility in the northeastern United States. Since its discovery to Europeans by John Smith in 1614, Boston Harbor has been an important port in American history, it was the site of the Boston Tea Party, as well as continuous building of wharves and new filled land into the harbor until the 19th century. By 1660 all imports came to the greater Boston area and the New England coast through the waters of Boston Harbor. A rapid influx of people transformed Boston into a booming city. Boston Harbor had nine inches of sea level rise in the 20th century, with an additional eight inches anticipated by 2030; the health of the harbor deteriorated as the population of Boston increased. As early as the late 19th century Boston citizens were advised not to swim in any portion of the Harbor. In the 19th century, two of the first steam sewage stations were built.
With these mandates, the harbor was seeing small improvements, but raw sewage was still continuously pumped into the harbor. In 1919, the Metropolitan District Commission was created to oversee and regulate the quality of harbor water. However, not much improvement was seen and general public awareness of the poor quality of water was low. In 1972 the Clean Water Act was passed in order to help promote increased national water quality. Boston did not receive a clean water act waiver from the Environmental Protection Agency, leaving Boston with little incentive to increase water quality of the harbor. Since the mid-1970s organizations within the Boston community have battled for a cleaner Boston Harbor. More the harbor was the site of the $4.5 billion Boston Harbor Project. Failures at the Nut Island sewage treatment plant in Quincy and the companion Deer Island plant adjacent to Winthrop had far-reaching environmental and political effects. Fecal coliform bacteria levels forced frequent swimming prohibitions along the harbor beaches and the Charles River for many years.
The city of Quincy sued the Metropolitan District Commission and the separate Boston Water and Sewer Commission in 1982, charging that unchecked systemic pollution of the city’s waterfront contributed to the problem. That suit was followed by one by the Conservation Law Foundation and by the United States government, resulting in the landmark court-ordered cleanup of Boston Harbor; the lawsuits forced then-Massachusetts Governor Michael Dukakis to propose separating the water and sewer treatment divisions from the MDC, resulting in the creation of the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority in 1985. The slow progress of the cleanup became a key theme of the 1988 U. S. presidential election as George H. W. Bush defeated Dukakis through campaign speeches casting doubt on the governor’s environmental record, which Dukakis himself had claimed was better than that of Bush; the court-ordered cleanup is still ongoing. Before the clean-up projects, the water was so polluted that The Standells released a song in 1965 called "Dirty Water" which referred to the sorry state of the Charles River.
Neal Stephenson, who attended Boston University from 1977 to 1981, based his second novel, around pollution of the harbor. Since the writing of the song, the water quality in both the Harbor and the Charles River has improved, the projects have transformed Boston Harbor from one of the filthiest in the nation to one of the cleanest. Today, Boston Harbor is safe for fishing and for swimming nearly every day, though there are still beach closings after small rainstorms, caused by bacteria-laden storm water and the occasional combined sewer overflow. Boston Harbor is a large harbor; the harbor is sheltered from Massachusetts Bay and the open Atlantic Ocean by a combination of the Winthrop Peninsula and Deer Island to the north, the hooked Nantasket Peninsula and Point Allerton to the south, the harbor islands in the middle. The harbor is described as being split into an inner harbor and an outer harbor; the harbor itself comprises fifty square miles with 180 miles of 34 harbor islands. The inner harbor was the main port of Boston and is still the site of most of its port facilities as well as the Boston waterfront, redeveloped for residential and recreational uses.
The inner harbor extends from the mouths of the Charles River and the Mystic River, both of which empty into the harbor, to Logan International Airport and Castle Island, the latter now connected by land in 1928 to Boston, where the inner harbor meets the outer harbor. The outer harbor stretches to east of the inner harbor. To its landward side, moving in a counterclockwise direction, the harbor is made up of the three small bays of Dorchester Bay, Quincy Bay and Hingham Bay. To seaward, the two deep water anchorages of President Roads and Nantasket Roads are separated by Long Island; the outer harbor is fed by several rivers, including the Neponset River, the Weymouth Fore River, the Weymouth Back River and the Weir River. Dredged deepwater channels stretch from President Roads to the inner harbor, from Nantasket Roads to the Weymouth Fore River and Hingham Bay via Hull Gut and West Gut; some commercial port facilities are located in the Fore River area, an area which has a history of shipbuilding including the notable Fore River Shipyard.
In the 1830s members of the maritime community observed physical decay in the harbor. Islands in the outer harbor were visibly deteriorating and erosion was causing weathered materials
Douglas Vernon Reynolds (born February 8, 1976 in Huntington, West Virginia an American politician, a former Democratic member of the West Virginia House of Delegates representing District 17 from January 12, 2013 to January 2017. Reynolds served consecutively from January 2007 until January 2013 in the District 16 seat. In 2016 Reynolds decided against running for his seat again, instead opting to run for the Attorney General of West Virginia position. Reynolds is an attorney, the president of Energy Services of America, a pipeline construction company, HD Media the publisher of the Herald-Dispatch and five other newspapers throughout West Virginia. Reynolds graduated from Wayne High School in the same town. After graduating high school, Reynolds attended Duke University in North Carolina. While there he earned his Bachelor of Arts in Political science from Duke University. After graduated from Duke, Reynolds attended the West Virginia University College of Law in Morgantown, West Virginia, earning his Juris Doctor.
He was granted admittance to the West Virginia state Bar. Reynolds has been the President and Chief executive officer of Energy Services of America, a public holding company for energy and construction subsidiaries, since 2012. Along with this, Reynolds was the founder and a director for the First Bank of Charleston before it was purchased by Premier Bank Reynolds serves on the boards of the United Way of the River Cities, Boys’ and Girls’ Clubs of Huntington, Prestera Foundation and the City of Huntington Foundation. Reynolds is the founder and managing director of HD Media a publisher of weekly newspapers and magazines; the company owns The Herald-Dispatch in Huntington, WV, the Charleston Gazette-Mail in Charleston, WV, the Wayne County News in Wayne County, WV, the Putnam Herald in Putnam County, WV, the Williamson Daily News in Williamson, WV, the Logan Banner in Logan, WV, the Coal Valley News in Boone County, WV and the Independent Herald in Wyoming County, WV. Along with his career in the private sector, Reynolds has used his Juris Doctor to serve as both a public defender and an Assistant District Attorney in Huntington.
Reynolds won election to the West Virginia House of Delegates in 2006 and served as a Delegate for West Virginia House District 17 until 2016, when he decided not to run for reelection at the end of his term. Reynolds instead announced his candidacy for the West Virginia Attorney General position, held by Republican Patrick Morrisey. Reynolds took issue with Morrisey's close ties with the pharmaceutical industry given West Virginia's struggle with opioids; the race was notable in the amount of outside spending on behalf of Morrisey by the Republican Attorneys General Association. In the end, the outside funding was too much Reynolds to overcome, losing the race 42% - 52%. 2012 Redistricted to District 17 along with fellow District 16 Delegate Dale Stephens, Reynolds placed second in the three-way May 8, 2012 Democratic Primary with 2,210 votes, placed first in the four-way two-position November 6, 2012 General election with 7,198 votes ahead of Delegate Stephens and Republican nominees Michael Ankrom and Joyce Holland.
2004 Reynolds did not place. 2006 Reynolds placed in the four-way 2006 Democratic Primary and was elected in the six-way three-position November 7, 2006 General election along with incumbent Delegates Sobonya and Stephens, unseating Delegate Howard. 2008 Reynolds placed first in the five-way May 13, 2008 Democratic Primary with 5,573 votes, placed first in the four-way three-position November 4, 2008 General election with 12,462 votes ahead of Delegates Sobonya and Stephens and Democratic nominee Amy Herrenkohl. 2010 Reynolds and Delegate Stephens were unopposed for the May 11, 2010 Democratic Primary where Reynolds second with 2,941 votes. Official page at the West Virginia Legislature Campaign site Profile at Vote Smart Douglas Reynolds at Ballotpedia Doug Reynolds at the National Institute on Money in State Politics
Melville Calman was a British cartoonist best known for his "little man" cartoons published in British newspapers including the Daily Express, The Sunday Telegraph, The Observer, The Sunday Times and The Times. Melville Calman was the youngest of the three children of Clement Calman, a timber merchant, his wife, Anna. Sent to Cambridge to avoid The Blitz in World War II, he was educated at the Perse School. Failing to gain entrance to Cambridge University, he returned to London where he enrolled at the Borough Polytechnic Art School studying illustration at Saint Martin's School of Art and Goldsmiths College. After two years of National Service, in 1956 he attempted to find work as a freelance cartoonist. Punch was discouraging about his work, but in 1958 he succeeded in placing work with the "William Hickey" column in the Daily Express. Although in regular work, he left the Express after five years, seeing no prospects being in competition with Osbert Lancaster and Giles. In 1962 he began producing his trademark "little man" character for the Sunday Telegraph, in 1979 he brought this as a regular and long-running contribution to The Times.
Additionally, he made contributions to Cosmopolitan and House & Garden, as well as publishing some 20 books of his cartoons. In life he became an art dealer and collector, in 1989 co-founding the Cartoon Art Trust. In 1994, he died of a coronary thrombosis at the Empire cinema, Leicester Square while watching the film Carlito's Way with writer Deborah Moggach, his partner for the last ten years of his life, he was married twice, to the magazine designer Pat McNeill and to the artist Karen Elizabeth Usborne. He had two daughters with Pat McNeill, the novelist Claire Calman and author and scriptwriter Stephanie Calman, he is buried alongside his sister at the Jewish cemetery, Waltham Abbey, Essex. Calman's trademark character was the angst-ridden "little man", who reflected Calman's own lifelong depressions. Topics focused on the little man's anxieties about health, God, achievement and women, a style of humour that his Times obituary described as "of the black, self-deprecating Jewish variety, in the style of his New York heroes, James Thurber, S. J. Perelman and Woody Allen".
A small-format single-frame "pocket cartoon", the little man series used hand-lettered text in soft pencil and minimalist detail, a technique he had evolved due to early weaknesses in draughtsmanship. Calman is commemorated by a Hackney historic plaque on his former residence at 64 Linthorpe Road. Simon Heneage, "Calman, Melville ", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 accessed 19 July 2007 Mel Calman, British Cartoon Archive, University of Kent