California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco, is a sovereign city-state and microstate, located on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea, Monaco has an area of 2.02 km2 and a population of about 38,400 according to the last census of 2015. With 19,009 inhabitants per km², it is the second smallest, Monaco has a land border of 5.47 km, a coastline of 3.83 km, and a width that varies between 1,700 and 349 m. The highest point in the country is a pathway named Chemin des Révoires on the slopes of Mont Agel, in the Les Révoires Ward. Monacos most populous Quartier is Monte Carlo and the most populous Ward is Larvotto/Bas Moulins, through land reclamation, Monacos land mass has expanded by twenty percent, in 2005, it had an area of only 1.974 km2. Monaco is known as a playground for the rich and famous, in 2014, it was noted about 30% of the population was made up of millionaires, more than in Zürich or Geneva.
Monaco is a principality governed under a form of constitutional monarchy, although Prince Albert II is a constitutional monarch, he wields immense political power. The House of Grimaldi have ruled Monaco, with brief interruptions, the official language is French, but Monégasque and English are widely spoken and understood. The states sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. Despite Monacos independence and separate foreign policy, its defense is the responsibility of France, Monaco does maintain two small military units. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with the opening of the countrys first casino, Monte Carlo, since then, Monacos mild climate and gambling facilities have contributed to the principalitys status as a tourist destination and recreation center for the rich. In more recent years, Monaco has become a major banking center and has sought to diversify its economy into services and small, high-value-added, the state has no income tax, low business taxes, and is well known for being a tax haven.
It is the host of the street circuit motor race Monaco Grand Prix. Monaco is not formally a part of the European Union, but it participates in certain EU policies, including customs, through its relationship with France, Monaco uses the euro as its sole currency. Monaco joined the Council of Europe in 2004 and it is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. Monacos name comes from the nearby 6th-century BC Phocaean Greek colony, according to an ancient myth, Hercules passed through the Monaco area and turned away the previous gods. As a result, a temple was constructed there, the temple of Hercules Monoikos, because the only temple of this area was the House of Hercules, the city was called Monoikos. It ended up in the hands of the Holy Roman Empire, an ousted branch of a Genoese family, the Grimaldi, contested it for a hundred years before actually gaining control
Visakhapatnam is the largest city, both in terms of area and population in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the coast of Bay of Bengal in the eastern region of the state. It is the headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and the Financial Capital of Andhra Pradesh. As of 2011, the population of the city was recorded as 2,035,922, making it the 14th largest city in the country, Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth busiest port in India in terms of cargo handled. Visakhapatnam is home to the oldest shipyard and the natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnams history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, historically, it was considered part of the Kalinga ancient region, and ruled by the Vengi kingdom, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until Indias independence in 1947.
After independence, Visakhapatnam developed into one of the chief ports. The city is located between the Eastern Ghats mountain range and the Bay of Bengal, and is known as The Jewel of the East Coast, The City of Destiny. Visakhapatnams beaches, parks and proximity to areas of beauty have helped the city become a significant tourist destination. Visakhapatnam has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. Visakhapatnam was ranked as the fifth cleanest city in India according to the governments Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings, the name Visakhapatnam was derived from the shrine of God Visakha, built by a King of Andhrain 4th century. The city coordinates lies between 17. 6883° N latitude, and 83. 2186° E longitude and its periphery consists of plains along the coast line while the interiors boast of the beautiful hills of the Eastern Ghats which surround it on the North and the West. This region is called the Agency Division.
It occupies an area of approximately 11,161 km2, visakhapatnams history stretches back to the 6th century B. C. E. and the city finds mention in ancient texts, such as the 4th century B. C. E. Historically considered part of the Kalinga region, it was ruled by the Vengi kingdom, archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries C. E. by the Chola Dynasty king Kulothunga I. Control over the city fluctuated between the Chola Dynasty of Tamil Nadu and the Gajapati Kingdom of Odisha until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century, in the 16th century, it was conquered by the Mughals. European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, the city was ruled by Andhra Kings of Vengi and Pallavas
A boat is a watercraft of a large range of sizes designed to float, work or travel on water. Small boats are found on inland waterways or in protected coastal areas. However, boats such as the whaleboat were designed for operation from a ship in an offshore environment, in naval terms, a boat is a vessel small enough to be carried aboard another vessel. Another less restrictive definition is a vessel that can be lifted out of the water, some definitions do not make a distinction in size, as bulk freighters 1,000 feet long on the Great Lakes are called oreboats. For reasons of tradition, submarines are usually referred to as boats rather than ships, regardless of their size. Ships are generally distinguished from boats based on their size, shape. Boats have a variety of shapes and construction methods due to their intended purpose. Canoe-type boats have used since prehistoric times and various versions are used throughout the world for transportation. Fishing boats vary widely in style partly to local conditions.
Pleasure boats include ski boats, pontoon boats, and sailboats, house boats may be used for vacationing or long-term housing. Small boats can provide transport or convey cargo to and from large ships, lifeboats have rescue and safety functions. Boats can be powered by power, wind power and motor power. Dugouts are the oldest type of boats found by archaeologists, the earliest boats are thought to have been logboats, and the oldest boats found by archaeological excavation date from around 7, 000–10,000 years ago. The oldest recovered boat in the world is the Pesse canoe and this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen, Netherlands. Other very old dugout boats have been recovered, rafts have operated for at least 8,000 years. A7, 000-year-old seagoing reed boat has been found in Kuwait, boats were used between 4000 and 3000 BC in Sumer, ancient Egypt and in the Indian Ocean. Boats played an important role in the commerce between the Indus Valley Civilization and Mesopotamia, evidence of varying models of boats has been discovered at various Indus Valley archaeological sites.
Uru craft originate in Beypore, a village in south Calicut and this type of mammoth wooden ship was constructed using teak, without any iron, and had a transport capacity of 400 tonnes
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Other major cities include Austin, the second most populous state capital in the U. S. Texas is nicknamed the Lone Star State to signify its former status as an independent republic, and as a reminder of the states struggle for independence from Mexico. The Lone Star can be found on the Texan state flag, the origin of Texass name is from the word Tejas, which means friends in the Caddo language. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10 percent of Texas land area is desert. Most of the centers are located in areas of former prairies, forests. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the term six flags over Texas refers to several nations that have ruled over the territory. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas, Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic.
In 1845, Texas joined the United States as the 28th state, the states annexation set off a chain of events that caused the Mexican–American War in 1846. A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, after the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. One Texan industry that thrived after the Civil War was cattle, due to its long history as a center of the industry, Texas is associated with the image of the cowboy. The states economic fortunes changed in the early 20th century, when oil discoveries initiated a boom in the state. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy, as of 2010 it shares the top of the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with California at 57. With a growing base of industry, the leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, aerospace. Texas has led the nation in export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product.
The name Texas, based on the Caddo word tejas meaning friends or allies, was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves, during Spanish colonial rule, the area was officially known as the Nuevo Reino de Filipinas, La Provincia de Texas. Texas is the second largest U. S. state, behind Alaska, though 10 percent larger than France and almost twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Chile, Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers, the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas to the south
North River (Hudson River)
North River is an alternate name for the southernmost portion of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City and northeastern New Jersey in the United States. The colonial name for the entire Hudson was given to it by the Dutch in the seventeenth century. However it still retains currency as an alternate or additional name among local mariners and others as well as appearing on some nautical charts and maps. The term is used for infrastructure on and under the river, such as the North River piers, North River Tunnels, the names for the lower portion of the river appear to have remained interchangeable for centuries. In 1909, construction of two projects was under way, one was called the North River Tunnels, the other. The origin of the name North River is generally attributed to the Dutch, in describing the major rivers in the New Netherland colony, they called what is now the Hudson the North River, the Connecticut the Fresh River, and the Delaware the South River. Another theory is that the North River and East River were so named for the direction of travel they permitted once having entered the Upper New York Bay.
In 1808 the Secretary of the Treasury, Albert Gallatin, issued his report of proposed locations for transportation and communication internal improvements of national importance and this peculiarity distinguishes the North River from all the other bays and rivers of the United States. The tide in no other ascends higher than the ridge or comes within thirty miles of the Blue Ridge or eastern chain of mountains. In the North River it breaks through the Blue Ridge at West Point, a few miles above Troy, and the head of the tide, the Hudson from the north and the Mohawk from the west unite their waters and form the North River. The Hudson in its course upwards approaches the waters of Lake Champlain, hagstrom Maps, formerly the leading mapmaker in the New York metropolitan area, has labeled all or part of the Hudson adjacent to Manhattan as North River on several of its maps. On a 2000 map of Northern Approaches to New York City, Piers along the Hudson shore of Manhattan were formerly used for shipping and berthing ocean-going ships.
In shipping notices, they were designated as, for example, Pier 14, most of the piers that once existed in lower Manhattan fell into disuse or were destroyed in the last half of the 20th century, although a number have been adapted to new uses. As with the river, the name North River piers has largely supplanted by Hudson River piers, or just by a pier and number. The remaining piers are Pier A at the Battery and piers ranging from Pier 25 at North Moore Street to Pier 99 at 59th Street, many of these piers and the waterfront between them are part of the Hudson River Park which stretches from 59th Street to the Battery. Several piers are being rebuilt as part of the park project, Piers above Pier 40 have addresses approximately that of Manhattans numbered streets plus 40 – thus, for example North River Pier 86 is at West 46th Street. Pier A is a national and New York City landmark. The building on the dates to 1886, and was used by the citys Department of Docks, Harbor Police
New York Harbor
New York Harbor, part of the Port of New York and New Jersey, is at the mouth of the Hudson River where it empties into New York Bay and into the Atlantic Ocean at the East Coast of the United States. It is one of the largest natural harbors in the world, although the United States Board on Geographic Names does not use the term, New York Harbor has important historical, governmental and ecological usages. The aboriginal population of the 16th century New York Harbor, the Lenape, used the waterways for fishing and it is fairly firmly held by historians that his ship anchored at the approximate location where the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge touches down in Brooklyn today. He observed what he believed to be a freshwater lake to the north. He apparently did not travel north to observe the existence of the Hudson River, in 1609 Henry Hudson entered the Harbor and explored a stretch of the river that now bears his name. His journey prompted others to explore the region and engage in trade with the local population, in 1624 the first permanent European settlement was started on Governors Island, and eight years in Brooklyn, soon these were connected by ferry operation.
This prepared New York as a port for the British colonies. In 1686, the British colonial officials gave the municipality control over the waterfront, in 1808, Lieutenant Thomas Gedney of the United States Coast Survey discovered a new, deeper channel through The Narrows into New York Harbor. Because of the difficulty of the required, since 1694. The new channel Gedney discovered was 2 feet deeper, enough of a margin that fully laden ships could come into the harbor even at slack tide. Gedneys Channel, as it came to be called, was shorter than the previous channel, another benefit appreciated by the ship owners. Gedney received the praise of the city, as well as a silver service. In 1824 the first American drydock was completed on the East River, the Morris Canal, carrying anthracite and freight from Pennsylvania through New Jersey to its terminus at the mouth of the Hudson in Jersey City. Portions in the harbor are now part of Liberty State Park, in 1870, the city established the Department of Docks to systematize waterfront development, with George B.
McClellan as the first engineer in chief. By the turn of the 20th century numerous railroad terminals lined the banks of the North River in Hudson County. The freight was ferried across by the railroads with small fleets of towboats, barges. New York subsidized this service which undercut rival ports, major road improvements allowing for trucking and containerization diminished the need. The Statue of Liberty National Monument recalls the period of immigration to the United States at the turn of the 20th century
Much greater care has been taken in recent decades to mitigate the effects of human habitation on Tampa Bay, and water quality has slowly improved over time. The term Tampa Bay is sometimes used as shorthand to refer to all or parts of the Tampa Bay area, local marketing and branding efforts commonly use the moniker Tampa Bay, furthering the misconception that it is the name of a particular municipality when this is not the case. Approximately 6,000 years ago, Tampa Bay formed as a drowned river valley type estuary with a wide mouth connecting it to the Gulf of Mexico. Prior to that time, it was a fresh water lake. Tampa Bay is Floridas largest open-water estuary, extending over 400 square miles and forming coastlines of Hillsborough, the freshwater sources of the bay are distributed among over a hundred small tributaries, rather than a single river. The Hillsborough River is the largest such source, with the Alafia, Manatee. Because of these many flows into the bay, its watershed covers portions of five Florida counties.
The bay bottom is silty and sandy, with a water depth of only about 12 feet. Tampa Bays shallow waters, sea grass beds, mud flats, the cooler months are when warm-water outfalls from power plants bordering the bay draw one out of every six West Indian manatees, an endangered species, to the area. Tampa Bay has been designated an Estuary of National Significance by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, two National Wildlife Refuges are located in Tampa Bay, Pinellas National Wildlife Refuge and the refuge on Egmont Key. Most of the islands and sandbars are off-limits to the public, due to their fragile ecology, the Tampa Bay Estuary Program keeps watch over the Bays health. Humans have lived in Florida for millennia, at least 14,000 years, due to worldwide glaciation, sea levels were much lower at the time, and Floridas peninsula extended almost 60 miles west of todays coastline. Paleo-Indian sites have been found near rivers and lakes in northern Florida, evidence of human habitation from this early period has been found at the Harney Flats site, which is approximately 10 miles east of the current location of Tampas downtown waterfront.
This culture, which relied almost exclusively on the bay for food, the Safety Harbor culture was dominant in the area at the time of first contact with Europeans in the mid-1500s. However, there were many other coastal villages organized into small chiefdoms all around the bay. Not finding gold or silver in the vicinity and unable to covert the native inhabitants to Christianity, diseases they introduced decimated the native population over the ensuing decades, leading to the near-total collapse of every established culture across peninsular Florida. Between this depopulation and the indifference of its owners, the Tampa Bay region would be virtually uninhabited for almost 200 years. Tampa Bay was given different names by early mapmakers, Spanish maps dated from 1584 identifies Tampa Bay as Baya de Spirito Santo
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. The harbour is an inlet of the Tasman Sea and it is the location of the Sydney Opera House and Sydney Harbour Bridge. The location of the first European settlement in Australia, Port Jackson has continued to play a key role in the history and development of Sydney. Many recreational events are based on or around the harbour itself particularly the Sydney New Years Eve celebrations, the waterways of Port Jackson are managed by the Roads & Maritime Services. Sydney Harbour National Park protects a number of islands and foreshore areas, swimming spots, bushwalking tracks, the land around Port Jackson was occupied at the time of the European arrival and colonisation by the Eora clans, including the Gadigal and Wangal. The Gadigal occupied the land stretching along the side of Port Jackson from what is now South Head.
The Cammeragal lived on the side of the harbour. The area along the banks of the Parramatta River to Rose Hill belonged to the Wangal. The Eora occupied Port Jackson, south to the Georges River, the first recorded European discovery of Sydney Harbour, was by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770 - Cook named the inlet after Sir George Jackson. His ships log notation states at noon we were. about 2 or 3 miles from the land, eighteen years later, on 21 January 1788, after arriving at Botany Bay, Governor Arthur Phillip took a longboat and two cutters up the coast to examine Cooks Port Jackson. Phillip first stayed over night at Camp Cove, moved down the harbour, landing at Sydney Cove, Phillip returned to Sydney Cove in HM Armed Tender Supply on 26 January 1788, where he established the first colony in Australia, to become the city of Sydney. From 1938, seaplanes landed in Sydney Harbour on Rose Bay, in 1942, to protect Sydney Harbour from a submarine attack, the Sydney Harbour anti-submarine boom net was constructed.
It spanned the harbour from Green Point, Watsons Bay to the battery at Georges Head, on the night of 31 May 1942, three Japanese midget submarines entered the harbour, one of which became entangled in the western end of the boom nets central section. Unable to free their submarine, the crew detonated charges, killing themselves in the process, a second midget submarine came to grief in Taylors Bay, the two crew committing suicide. The third submarine fired two torpedoes at USS Chicago before leaving the harbour, in November 2006, this submarine was found off Sydneys Northern Beaches. The anti-submarine boom net was demolished soon after World War II, and all that remains are the foundations of the old boom net winch house, the Australian War Memorial has on display a composite of the two midget submarines salvaged from Sydney Harbour. The conning tower of one of the submarines is on display at the RAN Heritage Centre, Garden Island. Fort Denison is a former site and defensive facility occupying a small island located north-east of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Sydney Harbour
It is dominated by dense stands of salt-tolerant plants such as herbs, grasses, or low shrubs. These plants are terrestrial in origin and are essential to the stability of the marsh in trapping and binding sediments. Salt marshes play a role in the aquatic food web. They support terrestrial animals and provide coastal protection, salt marshes occur on low-energy shorelines in temperate and high-latitudes which can be stable or emerging, or submerging if the sedimentation rate exceeds the subsidence rate. Commonly these shorelines consist of mud or sand flats which are nourished with sediment from inflowing rivers and these typically include sheltered environments such as embankments and the leeward side of barrier islands and spits. In the tropics and sub-tropics they are replaced by mangroves, an area that differs from a marsh in that instead of herbaceous plants. Most salt marshes have a low topography with low elevations but a vast wide area, salt marshes are located among different landforms based on their physical and geomorphological settings.
Such marsh landforms include deltaic marshes, back-barrier, open coast, deltaic marshes are associated with large rivers where many occur in Southern Europe such as the Camargue, France in the Rhone delta or the Ebro delta in Spain. They are extensive within the rivers of the Mississippi Delta in the United States, in New Zealand, most salt marshes occur at the head of estuaries in areas where there is little wave action and high sedimentation. Such marshes are located in Awhitu Regional Park in Auckland, the Manawatu Estuary, back-barrier marshes are sensitive to the reshaping of barriers in the landward side of which they have been formed. They are common along much of the eastern coast of the United States, shallow coastal embayments can hold salt marshes with examples including Morecambe Bay and Portsmouth in Britain and the Bay of Fundy in North America. They have a big impact on the biodiversity of the area, salt marsh ecology involves complex food webs which include primary producers, primary consumers, and secondary consumers.
The low physical energy and high grasses provide a refuge for animals, many marine fish use salt marshes as nursery grounds for their young before they move to open waters. Saltmarshes across 99 countries were mapped by Mcowen et al, a total of 5,495,089 hectares of mapped saltmarsh across 43 countries and territories are represented in a Geographic Information Systems polygon shapefile. This estimate is at the low end of previous estimates. Mats of filamentous blue-green algae can fix silt and clay sized sediment particles to their sticky sheaths on contact which can increase the erosion resistance of the sediments. This assists the process of sediment accretion to allow colonising species to grow, as a result, competitive species that prefer higher elevations relative to sea level can inhabit the area and often a succession of plant communities develops. Coastal salt marshes can be distinguished from terrestrial habitats by the tidal flow that occurs
Anacapri is a comune on the island of Capri, in the Metropolitan City of Naples, Italy. The Ancient Greek prefix ana- means up or above, signifying that Anacapri is located at an elevation on the island than Capri. Administratively, it has a separate status from the city of Capri, the most significant site in the village is the Villa San Michele. French composer Claude Debussy was a visitor to Anacapri. He even named one of his preludes from the first book, No.5 Les collines dAnacapri, there is a bus service, via numerous hairpin bends, from Marina Grande and Capri to Anacapri. One of the tourist attractions in Anacapri is the chairlift to 589-m Monte Solaro for picturesque views of the south-facing coast, punta Carena Lighthouse is located 3 km from the main town