National Register of Historic Places listings in Massachusetts
This is a list of properties and districts in Massachusetts listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There are over 4,200 listings in the state, representing about 5% of all NRHP listings nationwide and the second-most of any U. S. state, behind only New York. Listings appear in all 14 Massachusetts counties; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019. List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Massachusetts List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts Massachusetts Cultural Resources Information System, the state's database of cultural inventory, including NRHP and state historic sites
Lawrence is a city in Essex County, United States, on the Merrimack River. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 76,377, which had risen to an estimated 78,197 as of 2014. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, North Andover to the southeast. Lawrence and Salem were the county seats of Essex County, until the Commonwealth abolished county government in 1999. Lawrence is part of the Merrimack Valley. Manufacturing products of the city include electronic equipment, footwear, paper products and foodstuffs. Lawrence was the residence of poet Robert Frost for his early school years. Native Americans, namely the Pennacook or Pentucket tribe, had a presence in this area. Evidence of farming at Den Rock Park and arrowhead manufacturing on the site of where the Wood Mill now sits have been discovered. Europeans first settled the Haverhill area in 1640, colonists from Newbury following the Merrimack River in from the coast; the area that would become Lawrence was part of Methuen and Andover.
The first settlement came in 1655 with the establishment of a blockhouse in Shawsheen Fields, now South Lawrence. The future site of the city, was purchased by a consortium of local industrialists; the Water Power Association members: Abbott Lawrence, Edmund Bartlett, Thomas Hopkinson of Lowell, John Nesmith and Daniel Saunders, had purchased control of Peter's Falls on the Merrimack River and hence controlled Bodwell's Falls the site of the present Great Stone Dam. The group allotted fifty thousand dollars to buy land along the river to develop. In 1844, the group petitioned the legislature to act as a corporation, known as the Essex Company, which incorporated on April 16, 1845; the first excavations for the Great Stone Dam to harness the Merrimack River's water power were done on August 1, 1845. The Essex Company would sell the water power to corporations such as the Arlington Mills, as well as organize construction of mills and build to suit; until 1847, when the state legislature recognized the community as a town, it was called interchangeably the "New City", "Essex" or "Merrimac".
The post office, built in 1846, used the designation "Merrimac". Incorporation as a city would come in 1853, the name "Lawrence" chosen as a token of respect to Abbott Lawrence, who it cannot be verified saw the city named after him. Canals were dug on both the north and the south banks to provide power to the factories that would soon be built on its banks as both mill owners and workers from across the city and the world flocked to the city in droves; the work was dangerous: injuries and death were not uncommon. Working conditions in the mills were unsafe and in 1860 the Pemberton Mill collapsed, killing 145 workers; as immigrants flooded into the United States in the mid to late 19th century, the population of Lawrence abounded with skilled and unskilled workers from several countries. Lawrence was the scene of the infamous Bread and Roses Strike known as the Lawrence Textile Strike, one of the more important labor actions in American history. Lawrence was a great wool-processing center; the decline left Lawrence a struggling city.
The population of Lawrence declined from over 80,000 residents in 1950 to 64,000 residents in 1980, the low point of Lawrence's population. Like other northeastern cities suffering from the effects of post-World War II industrial decline, Lawrence has made efforts at revitalization, some of them controversial. For example, half of the enormous Wood Mill, powered by the Great Stone Dam and once the largest mills in the world, was knocked down in the 1950s; the Lawrence Redevelopment Authority and city officials utilized eminent domain for a perceived public benefit, via a top down approach, to revitalize the city throughout the 1960s. Known first as urban redevelopment, urban renewal, Lawrence's local government's actions towards vulnerable immigrant and poor communities, contained an undercurrent of gentrification which lies beneath the goals to revitalize Lawrence. There was a clash of differing ideals and perceptions of blight and what constituted a desirable community; the discussion left out those members of the community who would be directly impacted by urban redevelopment.
Under the guise of urban renewal, large tracts of downtown Lawrence were razed in the 1970s, replaced with parking lots and a three-story parking garage connected to a new Intown Mall intended to compete with newly constructed suburban malls. The historic Theater Row along Broadway was razed, destroying ornate movie palaces of the 1920s and 1930s that entertained mill workers through the Great Depression and the Second World War; the city's main post office, an ornate federalist style building at the corner of Broadway and Essex Street, was razed. Most of the structures were replaced with one-story, steel-frame structures with large parking lots, housing such establishments as fast food restaurants and chain drug stores, fundamentally changing the character of the center of Lawrence. Lawrence attempted to increase its employment base by attracting industries unwanted in other communities, such as waste treatment facilities and incinerators. From 1980 until 1998, private corporations operated two trash incinerators in Lawrence.
Activist residents blocked the approval of a waste treatment center on the banks of the Merrimack River near the current site of Salvatore's Pizza on Merrimack Street. The focus of Lawrence's urban renewal has shifted to preservat
Lowell Mills refers to the 19th-century mills that operated in the city of Lowell, named after Francis Cabot Lowell. Francis Cabot Lowell sought to create an efficient manufacturing process in the United States that "differed from what he saw in Great Britain", his vision relied on his "great faith in the people of New England" and employees "would be housed and fed by the company and remain employed only a few years rather than form a permanently downtrodden underclass". After a trip to London in 1811 during which he memorized the design of power looms, Lowell founded the Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813 along with the Nathan Appleton, Patrick Tracy Jackson, the other so-called "Boston Associates"; this group of Boston-area merchants were "committed to the ideals of the original Protestant ethic and Republican simplicity" but were "shrewd, far-sighted entrepreneurs who were quick to embrace...new investment opportunities". The Boston Manufacturing Company built its first mill next to the Charles River in Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1814.
Unlike the prevailing system of textile manufacturing at the time—the "Rhode Island System" established by Samuel Slater—Lowell decided to hire young women between the ages of 15 and 35, who became known as Mill Girls. They were called "operatives" because they operated the other machinery; the Lowell system known as the Waltham-Lowell system, was "unprecedented and revolutionary for its time". Not only was it was faster and more efficient, it was considered more humane than the textile industry in Great Britain by "paying in cash, hiring young adults instead of children, by offering employment for only a few years and providing educational opportunities to help workers move on to better jobs". For the first time in the United States, these mills combined the textile processes of spinning and weaving under one roof eliminating the "putting-out system" in favor of mass production of high-quality cloth, it revolutionized the textile industry and "eventually became the model for other manufacturing industries" in the United States.
Lowell solved the problem of labor by employing young women between the ages of 15 and 35, who became known as "mill girls". Unlike European industries, which had access to "large, urban populations whose reliance on the wage system gave them few economic choices", American companies had to grapple with a small labor supply because the population was small and most preferred farming their own land and the economic independence that came with it. Additionally, many Americans viewed the European factory system as "inherently corrupt and abusive". In order to persuade these young women to work at a mill, they were paid in cash once "every week or two weeks". Additionally, Lowell devised a factory community: women were required to live in company-owned dormitories adjacent to the mill that were run by older women chaperones called "matrons". In addition to working 80 hours a week, the women had to adhere to strict moral codes as well as attend religious services and educational classes. Despite being "highly discriminatory and paternalistic compared to modern standards, it was seen as revolutionary in its day".
Indeed, hiring women made good business sense. Additionally, his tight rein on his employees "cultivated employee loyalty, kept wages low, assured his stockholders accelerating profits". In line with the Boston Associates' worldview, the mill girls were encouraged to educate themselves and pursue intellectual activities, they attended free lectures by Ralph Waldo Emerson and John Quincy Adams and read books they borrowed from circulating libraries. They were encouraged to join “improvement circles” that promoted creative writing and public discussion. Economic instability in the 1830s as well as immigration affected the Lowell mills. Overproduction during the 1830s caused the price of finished cloth to drop and the mills' financial situation was exacerbated by a minor depression in 1834 and the Panic of 1837. In 1834, the mills cut wages by 25%, which led the girls to respond by staging an unsuccessful strike and organizing a labor union called the Factory Girls Association. In 1836, they went on another unsuccessful strike.
Conditions continued to deteriorate until 1845, when the mill girls formed the Female Labor Reform Association, which joined forces with other Massachusetts laborers to pass laws aimed at improving working conditions in the state, which the mills ignored. The women responded by going out on strike and published magazines and newsletters like the Lowell Offering, they petitioned the Massachusetts state legislature to pass a law limiting the workday to ten hours. The petition was unsuccessful but it mill owners that their employees had become too troublesome. By the mid-1840s, a "new generation of mill managers was in charge", for whom "profits rather than people seemed their primary sole, concern". Furthermore, mill owners, who were convinced that their employees had become too troublesome, found a new source of labor in the Irish immigrants who were flocking to Massachusetts in 1846 to escape Ireland's Great Famine; these immigrant workers were women with large families who were willing to work longer for cheaper wages.
They often forced their children to work as well. This reliance on immigrant workers turned the mills into what they were trying to a
Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation
Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation is a museum of the American Industrial Revolution located on the Charles River Bike Path, near the intersection of the Charles River and Moody Street in Waltham, Massachusetts. It houses and displays machinery and artifacts of the industrial revolution from the nineteenth and twentieth centuries; the building was built as part of the Boston Manufacturing Company, Francis Cabot Lowell's seminal integrated textile mill. The museum, incorporated in 1980 and opened to the public in 1988, takes up only a small portion of the previous mill building complex; the site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as America's first factory. The earliest buildings on the site have been designated a National Historic Landmark. Though many mills existed before the Boston Manufacturing Company, Francis Cabot Lowell's mill was the first to combine all steps of cotton fabric manufacturing under one roof. Waltham received a $10 million urban revitalization grant, which allowed the site to be renovated and preserved.
As part of the site’s renovation, a group of cultural and business leaders led by Michael Folsom, an MIT professor, created the Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation in what had been the mill’s massive steam-powered engine and boiler rooms. Following a monumental campaign of fundraising, building and installation, the museum began operation in 1980; the museum is a nonprofit corporation governed by a Board of Trustees, funded by private donations. The mission of the Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation is to encourage and inspire future innovation in America; the museum accomplishes this through its collections and programs, by exploring the historical impact of industry on American culture, by examining the dynamic process of innovation, by promoting its location in Waltham as a foundation of the American industrial revolution, by connecting the expertise of older generations with the inquisitiveness of young people, by providing audiences of all ages with an engaging museum experience.
Core exhibits cover the area's role in the American Industrial Revolution, though the museum has a dedicated gallery of the Waltham Watch Company to note the city's watch making history. The museum includes two revolving exhibit spaces that change out anywhere from 3–6 months, covering anything from science and math to cultural investigation; the museum hosts many events and festivals in the Waltham area, was the first to host the Watch City Steampunk Festival, the first steampunk festival to encompass an entire town. The Boston Globe in 2014 reported the museum "takes exploratory learning a step further." Charles River Museum of Industry & Innovation official website
National Register of Historic Places property types
The U. S. National Register of Historic Places classifies its listings by various types of properties. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and structure. Listed properties fall into one of five categories, though there are special considerations for other types of properties which do not fit into these five broad categories or fit into more specialized subcategories; the five general categories for NRHP properties are: building, object and district. I When multiple like properties are submitted as a group and listed together, they are known as a Multiple Property Submission. Buildings, as defined by the National Register, are structures intended to shelter some sort of human activity. Examples include a house, hotel, church or similar construction.
The term building, as in outbuilding, can be used to refer to and functionally related units, such as a courthouse and a jail, or a barn and a house. Buildings included on the National Register of Historic Places must have all of their basic structural elements as parts of buildings, such as ells and wings; as such, the whole building is considered during the nomination and its significant features must be identified. If a nominated building has lost any of its basic structural elements, it is considered a ruin and categorized as a site; the National Register of Historic Places defines a historic district per U. S. federal law, last revised in 2004. According to the Register definition, a historic district is: "a geographically definable area, urban or rural, possessing a significant concentration, linkage, or continuity of sites, structures, or objects united by past events or aesthetically by plan or physical development. In addition, historic districts consist of non-contributing properties.
Historic districts possess a concentration, linkage or continuity of the other four types of properties. Objects, structures and sites within a historic district are thematically linked by architectural style or designer, date of development, distinctive urban plan, and/or historic associations." For example, the largest collection of houses from 17th and 18th century America are found in the McIntire Historic District in Salem, Massachusetts. Some NRHP-listed historic districts are further designated as National Historic Landmarks, termed National Historic Landmark Districts. All National Historic Landmarks are NRHP-listed. A contributing property is any building, object or site within the boundaries of the district which reflects the significance of the district as a whole, either because of historic associations, historic architectural qualities or archaeological features. Another key aspect of the contributing property is historic integrity. Significant alterations to a property can damage its physical connections with the past, lowering its historic integrity.
Objects are artistic in nature, or small in scale when compared to structures and buildings. Though objects may be movable, they are associated with a specific setting or environment. Examples of objects include monuments and fountains. Objects considered for inclusion on the NRHP, whether individually or as part of districts, should be designed for a specific location. Fixed outdoor sculpture, an example of public art, is appropriate for inclusion on the Register; the setting of an object is important in relation to the Register. It should be appropriate to roles, or character. In addition, objects that have been relocated to museums are not considered for inclusion on the Register. Sites may include discrete areas significant for activities in that location in the past, such as battlefields, significant archaeological finds, designed landscapes, other locations whose significance is not related to a building or structure. Sites possess significance for their potential to yield information in the future, though they are added to the Register under all four of the criteria for inclusion.
A sites need not have actual physical remains if it marks the location of a prehistoric or historic event, or if there were no buildings or structures present at the time of the events marked by the site. Site determination requires careful evaluation when the location of prehistoric or historic events cannot be conclusively determined. Structures differ from buildings, in that they are functional constructions meant to be used for purposes other than sheltering human activity. Examples include, a ship, a grain elevator, a gazebo and a bridge; the criteria of significance are applied to nominated structures in much the same fashion as they are for buildings. The basic structural elements must all be intact. An example would be a truss bridge being considered for inclusion. Said truss bridge is composed of metal or wooden truss and supporting piers. Structures that have lost their historic configuration or pattern of organization through demolition or deterioration, much like buildings, are considered ruins and classified as sites.
There are several other types of properties that do not fall neatly into the categories listed abo
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun