Boston Massacre

The Boston Massacre, known to the British as the Incident on King Street, was a confrontation on March 5, 1770 in which British soldiers shot and killed several people while being harassed by a mob in Boston. The event was publicized by leading Patriots such as Paul Revere and Samuel Adams. British troops had been stationed in the Province of Massachusetts Bay since 1768 in order to support crown-appointed officials and to enforce unpopular Parliamentary legislation. Amid tense relations between the civilians and the soldiers, a mob formed around a British sentry and verbally abused him, he was supported by eight additional soldiers, who were hit by clubs and snowballs. They fired into the crowd without orders killing three people and wounding others, two of whom died of their wounds; the crowd dispersed after Acting Governor Thomas Hutchinson promised an inquiry, but they re-formed the next day, prompting withdrawal of the troops to Castle Island. Eight soldiers, one officer, four civilians were arrested and charged with murder, they were defended by future U.

S. President John Adams. Six of the soldiers were acquitted; the men found. Depictions and propaganda about the event heightened tensions throughout the Thirteen Colonies, notably the colored engraving produced by Paul Revere. Boston was the capital of the Province of Massachusetts Bay and an important shipping town, it was a center of resistance to unpopular acts of taxation by the British Parliament in the 1760s. In 1768, the Townshend Acts were enacted in the Thirteen Colonies putting tariffs on a variety of common items that were manufactured in Britain and imported in the colonies. Colonists objected that the Acts were a violation of the natural and constitutional rights of British subjects in the colonies; the Massachusetts House of Representatives began a campaign against the Acts by sending a petition to King George III asking for repeal of the Townshend Revenue Act. The House sent the Massachusetts Circular Letter to other colonial assemblies, asking them to join the resistance movement, called for a boycott of merchants importing the affected goods.

Lord Hillsborough had been appointed to the newly created office of Colonial Secretary, he was alarmed by the actions of the Massachusetts House. In April 1768, he sent a letter to the colonial governors in America instructing them to dissolve any colonial assemblies that responded to the Massachusetts Circular Letter, he ordered Massachusetts Governor Francis Bernard to direct the Massachusetts House to rescind the letter. The house refused to comply. Boston's chief customs officer Charles Paxton wrote to Hillsborough for military support because "the Government is as much in the hands of the people as it was in the time of the Stamp Act." Commodore Samuel Hood responded by sending the 50-gun warship HMS Romney, which arrived in Boston Harbor in May 1768. On June 10, 1768, customs officials seized Liberty, a sloop owned by leading Boston merchant John Hancock, on allegations that the ship had been involved in smuggling. Bostonians were angry because the captain of Romney had been impressing local sailors.

Given the unstable state of affairs in Massachusetts, Hillsborough instructed General Thomas Gage, Commander-in-Chief, North America, to send "such Force as You shall think necessary to Boston", the first of four British Army regiments began disembarking in Boston on October 1, 1768. Two regiments were removed from Boston in 1769, but the 14th and the 29th Regiments of Foot remained; the Journal of Occurrences were an anonymous series of newspaper articles which chronicled the clashes between civilians and soldiers in Boston, feeding tensions with its sometimes exaggerated accounts, but those tensions rose markedly after Christopher Seider, "a young lad about eleven Years of Age", was killed by a customs employee on February 22, 1770. Seider's death was covered in the Boston Gazette, his funeral was described as one of the largest of the time in Boston; the killing and subsequent media coverage inflamed tensions, with groups of colonists looking for soldiers to harass, soldiers looking for confrontation.

On the evening of March 5, Private Hugh White stood on guard duty outside the Boston Custom House on King Street. A young wigmaker's apprentice named Edward Garrick called out to Captain-Lieutenant John Goldfinch, saying that Goldfinch had refused to pay a bill due to Garrick's master. Goldfinch had settled the account the previous day, ignored the insult. Private White called out to Garrick that he should be more respectful of the officer, the two men exchanged insults. Garrick started poking Goldfinch in the chest with his finger. Garrick cried out in pain, his companion Bartholomew Broaders began to argue with White which attracted a larger crowd. Henry Knox was a 19-year old bookseller who served as a general in the revolution; as the evening progressed, the crowd around Private White grew more boisterous. Church bells were rung, which signified a fire, bringing more people out. More than 50 Bostonians pressed around White, led by a mixed-race former slave named Crispus Attucks, throwing objects at the sentry and challenging him to fire his weapon.

White had taken up a somewhat safer position on the steps of the Custom House, he sought assistance

Swimming at the 2010 Asian Games – Women's 200 metre backstroke

The women's 200 metre backstroke event at the 2010 Asian Games took place on 14 November 2010 at Guangzhou Aoti Aquatics Centre. There were 14 competitors from 10 countries. Two heats were held, the heat in which a swimmer competed did not formally matter for advancement, as the swimmers with the top eight times from the both field qualified for the finals. Zhao Jing from China won the gold medal, two Japanese swimmers Shiho Sakai and Aya Terakawa won the silver and bronze medal respectively. All times are China Standard Time Prior to this competition, the existing world and Games records were as follows. 16th Asian Games Results Women's 200m Backstroke Heats Official Website Women's 200m Backstroke Ev. No.10 Final Official Website


Ishaqzaade is a 2012 Indian Hindi-language romantic action film written and directed by Habib Faisal, produced by Aditya Chopra under Yash Raj Films starring debutant Arjun Kapoor and Parineeti Chopra in their first lead film. The official trailer was unveiled on 15 March 2012, the film was released on 11 May 2012, it was a critical and box office success. The title of the film is modeled on common Hindi slangs ending in zaade for example, shahzaade with the first part of the name Ishaq being a vulgar pronunciation of Ishq; the title may be loosely translated as "Rebel Lovers". The Chauhans and the Qureshis are two political families whose rivalry and mutual hatred for one another goes back generations. Parma is grandson of the patriarch chauvinist, Grandfather Chauhan, his grandfather takes digs at Parma for being the useless son of his widowed daughter-in-law, this makes Parma try to prove himself worthy. Zoya, a practising Muslim who offers Salat five times a day, is the trigger-happy, hot-tempered, only daughter in a traditional Muslim house full of brothers, along with her parents.

She desires to go into politics like her father, but this dream is laughed at by her family since she is a woman. When the local elections take place and Zoya's canvassing efforts lead to a clash between them, which results in Parma being slapped across the face by Zoya. While Parma is enamored by Zoya's fearlessness, Zoya is intrigued by his charm, they fall in love after a series of incidents bring them together, elope. After marriage and Zoya consummate the marriage by having sex in an empty train. Afterwards, Parma reveals that he tricked Zoya - the wedding ceremony was fake and they are not married, he perpetrated the sham wedding to get her to have sex with him, which would bring shame upon her family. He therefore took revenge against her clan, repaid the humiliation of her slapping him earlier on. Zoya is left heartbroken and devastated, as Parma joins his family in a celebration of "becoming a man". Zoya attempts to invade the celebration in order to shoot Parma, but is intercepted by his mother, who urges her to calm down.

Parvati tells Parma that he must honour his marriage vows regardless of whether he meant them, do right by Zoya. Parma's family come to know of Zoya's presence in their home and in the heat of the moment, Grandfather Chauhan shoots Parma's mother when she tries to defend her son and daughter-in-law from the bloodthirsty gang. Parma protects Zoya from being murdered by his family. Parma and Zoya take refuge in a brothel. At first, Zoya is still furious with Parma for his deception and believes that he was trying to sell her to the brothel, she attacks him with a piece of broken glass. The brothel madame, Chand Bibi, allows them to stay while Parma recovers and Zoya begrudgingly nurses him, he asks her for forgiveness and though she refuses to grant it, she shows that she still loves him through little actions of affection. However, their mutual grief soon brings giving their love a second chance; the two exchange marriage vows in a legitimate ceremony at the brothel. Zoya decides to try reconciling with her family, takes Parma to her home to win over her father.

They are instead met with hostility and gunshots when Zoya's father puts a gun to her head, threatening to kill his own daughter. The couple flee. Zoya and Parma prepare to run away to Jaipur, but when Parma leaves the safety of the bus to get water, their pursuers spot him and seize Zoya, she breaks free. They are reunited but are found by Parma's former friends and run to the local college, closed for Eid; the two rival families decide that Parma and Zoya's marriage is a stab to their respective religious communities and political careers, they try to kill the couple by joining forces. Parma and Zoya take refuge on a terrace. With only a few bullets left, Zoya realises, she asks Parma to shoot her so that their love can win and they can die in the victory of their love, rather than be riddled with bullets by their own families, allow hatred to win. The two die in each other's arms, smiling; the goons check if they go inform the two families, who leave satisfied. The movie ends with Parma and Zoya's bodies lying on the terrace, an on-screen message that explains how thousands of lovers like them are killed every year only because of falling in love outside their caste and/or religion.

Arjun Kapoor as Parma Chauhan/Parvez Parineeti Chopra as Zoya Qureshi Gauhar Khan as Chand Bibi Ratan Singh Rathore as Aftab Qureshi Anil Rastogi as Surya Chauhan Natasha Rastogi as Parvati Charu Rastogi as Zoya's Mother Pravin Chandra as Chauhan's Goon Aradhana Dhawan as Rakshan Akash Bathija as Bikram Abdullah Osman as Chandu Shashank Khaitan as Dharma Chauhan Ankit Kakkar as Karma Chauhan Aftab Khan as Shadaab Qureshi Jafarpal Dhillon as Sohraab Qureshi Faisal Husain as Mehtab Romil Saraswat as Javed Meeta Bandhu as Archana Nahak Jay Shanker Pandey' Jay' as Chauhan's flunky The film itself was both praised and drew some anger for its blunt confrontation of current issues in