The Boston Red Sox are an American professional baseball team based in Boston, Massachusetts. They compete in Major League Baseball as a member club of the American League East division; the team have won nine World Series championships, tied for the third-most of any MLB team, they have played in 14. Their most recent World Series appearance and win was in 2018. In addition, they won the 1904 American League pennant, but were not able to defend their 1903 World Series championship when the New York Giants refused to participate in the 1904 World Series. Founded in 1901 as one of the American League's eight charter franchises, the Red Sox' home ballpark has been Fenway Park since 1912; the "Red Sox" name was chosen by the team owner, John I. Taylor, circa 1908, following the lead of previous teams, known as the "Boston Red Stockings", including the forerunner of the Atlanta Braves; the Red Sox were a dominant team in the new league, defeating the Pittsburgh Pirates in the first World Series in 1903 and winning four more championships by 1918.
However, they went into one of the longest championship droughts in baseball history, dubbed the "Curse of the Bambino" after its alleged inception due to the Red Sox' sale of Babe Ruth to the rival New York Yankees two years after their world championship in 1918, an 86-year wait before the team's sixth World Championship in 2004. The team's history during that period was punctuated with some of the most memorable moments in World Series history, including Enos Slaughter's "mad dash" in 1946, the "Impossible Dream" of 1967, Carlton Fisk's home run in 1975, Bill Buckner's error in 1986. Following their victory in the 2018 World Series, they became the first team to win four World Series trophies in the 21st century, with championships in 2004, 2007, 2013 and 2018; the team's history has been marked by the team's intense rivalry with the New York Yankees, arguably the fiercest and most historic in North American professional sports. The Boston Red Sox are owned by Fenway Sports Group, which owns Liverpool F.
C. of the Premier League in England. They are one of the top MLB teams in average road attendance, while the small capacity of Fenway Park prevents them from leading in overall attendance. From May 15, 2003 to April 10, 2013, the Red Sox sold out every home game—a total of 820 games for a major professional sports record. Both Neil Diamond's "Sweet Caroline", The Standells's "Dirty Water" have become anthems for the Red Sox; the name Red Sox, chosen by owner John I. Taylor after the 1907 season, refers to the red hose in the team uniform beginning in 1908. Sox had been adopted for the Chicago White Sox by newspapers needing a headline-friendly form of Stockings, as "Stockings Win!" in large type did not fit in a column. The team name "Red Sox" had been used as early as 1888 by a'colored' team from Norfolk, Virginia; the Spanish language media sometimes refers to the team as Medias Rojas, a translation of "red socks". The official Spanish site uses the variant "Los Red Sox"; the Red Stockings nickname was first used by a baseball team by the Cincinnati Red Stockings, who were members of the pioneering National Association of Base Ball Players.
Managed by Harry Wright, Cincinnati adopted a uniform with white knickers and red stockings and earned the famous nickname, a year or two before hiring the first professional team in 1869. When the club folded after the 1870 season, Wright was hired by Boston businessman Ivers Whitney Adams to organize a new team in Boston, he did, bringing three teammates and the "Red Stockings" nickname along; the Boston Red Stockings won four championships in the five seasons of the new National Association, the first professional league. When a new Cincinnati club was formed as a charter member of the National League in 1876, the "Red Stockings" nickname was reserved for them once again, the Boston team was referred to as the "Red Caps". Other names were sometimes used before Boston adopted the nickname "Braves" in 1912. In 1901, the upstart American League established a competing club in Boston. For seven seasons, the AL team had no official nickname, they were "Boston", "Bostonians" or "the Bostons". Their 1901–1907 jerseys, both home, road, just read "Boston", except for 1902 when they sported large letters "B" and "A" denoting "Boston" and "American."
Newspaper writers of the time used other nicknames for the club, including "Somersets", "Plymouth Rocks", "Beaneaters", the "Collinsites"", "Pilgrims." For years many sources have listed "Pilgrims" as the early Boston AL team's official nickname, but researcher Bill Nowlin has demonstrated that the name was used, if at all, during the team's early years. The origin of the nickname appears to be a poem entitled "The Pilgrims At Home" written by Edwin Fitzwilliam, sung at the 1907 home opener; this nickname was used during that season because the team had a new manager and several rookie players. John I. Taylor had said in December 1907 that the Pilgrims "sounded too much like homeless wanderers." The National League club in Boston, though called the "Red Stockings" anymore, still wore red trim. In 1907
The 2nd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment is an amphibious light infantry battalion of the Australian Army part of the 1st Division Amphibious Task Group based at Lavarack Barracks in Townsville. 2 RAR was first formed as the Australian 66th Battalion in 1945 and since it has seen active service during the Korean War, Malayan Emergency and Vietnam War. In addition, the battalion has participated in peacekeeping operations in Japan, East Timor and the Solomon Islands and has contributed rifle companies to the security force protecting the Australian embassy in Baghdad following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In May 2006, 2 RAR's headquarters, support company and a rifle company deployed to Iraq as part of the third rotation of the Al Muthanna Task Group. In June 2011, the battalion deployed to Afghanistan as Mentoring Task Force Three. In 2011, 2 RAR was selected to be the Army's Amphibious Ready Element Landing Force embarked on the Navy's new Canberra-class amphibious assault ships; the conversion process was completed in October 2017.
2 RAR was formed as the 66th Battalion at the end of World War II on 16 October 1945 as a regular infantry force raised from volunteers from the 9th Division for service with the British Commonwealth Occupation Force in Japan. The battalion was stationed at Hiro as part of 34th Brigade from February 1946 to December 1948, when they returned to Australia. A month earlier, on 23 November 1948 it was renamed the 2nd Battalion, Australian Regiment, with the Royal regimental prefix being granted on 31 March 1949. Upon 2 RAR's return to Australia they became part of the 1st Independent Brigade Group at Puckapunyal, where they would remain until March 1953 as a training unit for recruits for the two battalions fighting in Korea. 2 RAR's involvement in the Korean War was limited by the fact that it was not committed until late in the fighting. Instead, as mentioned above, the unit was used as a training unit that provided reinforcements for the other two RAR battalions, sent to Korea; the unit embarked for Korea on 5 March 1953 on board the MV New Australia, arriving on 17 March 1953.
A few days detachments from all three RAR battalions paraded at Camp Casey near Tongduchon, South Korea, the first time that the Royal Australian Regiment had paraded as a whole. In April, 2 RAR relieved 1 RAR and became part of the 28th British Commonwealth Brigade, attached to the 1st Commonwealth Division. At this stage of the war, a static phase had developed. Relieving a French battalion, 2 RAR took up a position along the Jamestown Line and began patrolling in the'no-man's land' area around the Imjin and Samichon Rivers. On 9 July 1953 the battalion relieved the 1st Battalion, The King's Regiment around a feature known as'The Hook' on the left flank of the 1st Commonwealth Division; as peace talks were under way, offensive operations were not undertaken by the Australians in this time, although 2 RAR continued to conduct patrolling operations, as well as the myriad of other tasks associated with defence such as maintaining minefields, digging trenches, capturing prisoners and collecting intelligence.
A few weeks on the night of 24 July 1953, the Chinese attacked the UN positions on The Hook in an effort to gain more ground prior to the signing of the armistice agreement. Over the course of two nights, waves of Chinese soldiers attacked the Australian and American positions in frontal assaults aimed at overwhelming the defenders through sheer weight of numbers. In between attacks and mortar attacks were launched during the day to soften up the defences. In an effort to hold the line reinforcements from'D' Company, 3 RAR and the 1st Battalion, Durham Light Infantry were brought up and placed under 2 RAR command before the attacks were beaten off on the morning of 26 July; the number of Chinese dead was estimated between 2,000 and 3,000, while 2 RAR's casualties for the two nights were five killed and another twenty-four wounded. There were no further attacks and the armistice came into effect the following day. Despite the end of hostilities, 2 RAR remained in Korea as part of the UN forces stationed in the country until 6 April 1954, when it returned to Australia, once again on the MV New Australia.
Total losses for 2 RAR while it had been in Korea had been 22 killed. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, 2 RAR undertook two tours of Malaya during the Malayan Emergency, the first between October 1955 and October 1957 and the second between October 1961 and August 1963; the battalion arrived in Malaya for its first tour on 19 October 1955 and was once again attached to the 28th Commonwealth Infantry Brigade Group as part of the British Commonwealth Far East Strategic Reserve along with British and New Zealand troops. Throughout the two-year tour the battalion was based at Minden Barracks on Penang Island, although it spent large periods of time in the jungle conducting operations and exercises that lasted weeks at a time. Due to a delay in obtaining Australian government approval to conduct operations against the Communist terrorists, 2 RAR did not commence operations until 1 January 1956 when the battalion was involved in Operation Deuce, a search and security operation in Kedah, to last until the end of April when 2 RAR was relieved by the 1st Battalion, Royal Malay Regiment.
For the next twenty months the battalion would continue to conduct similar operations – known as Operations Shark North and Rubberlegs – in Perak, considered to be one of the main areas of Communist activity. These operations were long distance patrols in and around jungle areas searching for the Communists and providing perimeter security for the'New Villages'. During this time contacts were limited, the mos
The Combined Enterprise Regional Information Exchange System is a collection of classified coalition networks, called enclaves, that enable information sharing through the use of email and Web services, instant messaging or chat, the Common Operational Picture service, Voice over IP. CENTRIXS supports combatant commands throughout the world, including the U. S. Pacific and European commands; some of the CENTRIXS networks are: CENTRIXS Four Eyes for the US, Britain and Australia CENTRIXS-J for the United States and Japan CENTRIXS-K for the United States and South Korea CENTRIXS-ISAF for the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan CENTRIXS-GCTF for the Troop Contributing Nations of the Global Counter-Terrorism Force CENTRIXS-CMFC for the Combined Maritime Forces, Central Command CENTRIXS-CMFP for the Cooperative Maritime Forces, Pacific United States Central Command began envisioning and exploring a coalition data-sharing network in early 1999. At the onset of the global war on terrorism, as USCENTCOM prepared to conduct Operation ENDURING FREEDOM in late 2001, efforts focused on speeding the development of just such a network.
Additionally, the global nature of the war on terrorism demanded that CENTRIXS become a global multinational information sharing initiative. The CENTRIXS Program Office was established by the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Networks and Information Integration in late January 2002; the CPMO was responsible for coordinating the planning and implementation of CENTRIXS world-wide to support the combatant commands. Most CENTRIXS-ISAF and CENTRIXS-GCTF have been migrated to the newly created CENTCOM Partner Network. DISA Multinational Information Sharing service