Digitalis is a genus of about 20 species of herbaceous perennials and biennials called foxgloves. This genus was traditionally placed in the figwort family Scrophulariaceae, but recent phylogenetic research has placed it in the much enlarged family Plantaginaceae; this genus is native to western and southwestern Europe and central Asia and northwestern Africa. The scientific name means "finger-like" and refers to the ease with which a flower of Digitalis purpurea can be fitted over a human fingertip; the flowers are produced on a tall spike, are tubular, vary in colour with species, from purple to pink and yellow. The best-known species is Digitalis purpurea; this biennial plant is grown as an ornamental plant due to its vivid flowers which range in colour from various purple tints through pink, light grey, purely white. The flowers can possess various marks and spottings; the first year of growth produces only the stem with its basal leaves. During the second year of the plant's life, a long, leafy stem from 50 to 255 centimetres tall grows atop the roots of healthy plants.
Other garden-worthy species include D. grandiflora, D. lutea and D. parviflora. Larvae of the foxglove pug, a moth, consume the flowers of the common foxglove for food. Other species of Lepidoptera eat the leaves, including the lesser yellow underwing; the term digitalis is used for drug preparations that contain cardiac glycosides one called digoxin, extracted from various plants of this genus. The name "foxglove" was first recorded in the year 1542 by Leonhard Fuchs, whose family name, Fuchs, is the German word for "fox"; the genus digitalis is from the Latin digitus referencing the shape of the flowers, which accommodate a finger when formed. Thus the name is recorded in fox's glove. Over time, folk myths obscured the literal origins of the name, insinuating that foxes wore the flowers on their paws to silence their movements as they stealthily hunted their prey; the woody hillsides where the foxes made their dens were covered with the toxic flowers. Some of the more menacing names, such as "witch's glove," reference the toxicity of the plant.
Henry Fox Talbot proposed folks' glove. R. C. A. Prior suggested an etymology of foxes-glew, meaning'fairy music'. However, neither of these suggestions account for the Old English form foxes glofa. Digitalis species thrive in acidic soils, in partial sunlight to deep shade, in a range of habitats, including open woods, woodland clearings and heath margins, sea-cliffs, rocky mountain slopes and hedge banks, it is found on sites where the ground has been disturbed, such as cleared woodland, or where the vegetation has been burnt. A group of medicines extracted from foxglove plants are called digitalin; the use of D. purpurea extract containing cardiac glycosides for the treatment of heart conditions was first described in the English-speaking medical literature by William Withering, in 1785, considered the beginning of modern therapeutics. It is used to increase cardiac contractility and as an antiarrhythmic agent to control the heart rate in the irregular atrial fibrillation. Digitalis is hence prescribed for patients in atrial fibrillation if they have been diagnosed with congestive heart failure.
Digoxin was approved for heart failure in 1998 under current regulations by the Food and Drug Administration on the basis of prospective, randomized study and clinical trials. It was approved for the control of ventricular response rate for patients with atrial fibrillation. American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommend digoxin for symptomatic chronic heart failure for patients with reduced systolic function, preservation of systolic function, and/or rate control for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response. Heart Failure Society of America guidelines for heart failure provide similar recommendations. Despite its recent approval by the Food and Drug Administration and the guideline recommendations, the therapeutic use of digoxin is declining in patients with heart failure—likely the result of several factors. Safety concerns regarding a proposed link between digoxin therapy and increased mortality in women may be contributing to the decline in therapeutic use of digoxin.
A group of pharmacologically active compounds are extracted from the leaves of the second year's growth, in pure form are referred to by common chemical names, such as digitoxin or digoxin, or by brand names such as Crystodigin and Lanoxin, respectively. The two drugs differ in that digoxin has an additional hydroxyl group at the C-3 position on the B-ring. Both molecules include a triple-repeating sugar called a glycoside. Digitalis works by inhibiting sodium-potassium ATPase; this results in an increased intracellular concentration of sodium ions and thus a decreased concentration gradient across the cell membrane. This increase in intracellular sodium causes the Na/Ca exchanger to reverse potential, i.e. transition from pumping sodium into the cell in exchange for pumping calcium out of the cell, to pumping sodium out of the cell in exchange for pumping calcium into the cell. This leads to an increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which improves cardiac contractility. Under normal physiological conditions, the cytoplasmic calcium used in cardiac contractions originates from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, an intracellular organelle that specializes in the storage of calcium.
Human newborns, some animals, a
Asparagaceae is a family of flowering plants, placed in the order Asparagales of the monocots. Its best known member is garden asparagus. In earlier classification systems, the species involved were treated as belonging to the family Liliaceae; the APG II system of 2003 allowed two options as to the circumscription of the family: either Asparagaceae sensu lato combining seven recognized families, or Asparagaceae sensu stricto consisting of few genera, but totalling a few hundred species. The revised APG III system of 2009 allows only the broader sense. A paper published at the same time proposed seven subfamilies to correspond to the separate families; these are: subfamily Agavoideae = family Agavaceae and family Hesperocallidaceae subfamily Aphyllanthoideae = family Aphyllanthaceae subfamily Asparagoideae = family Asparagaceae sensu stricto subfamily Brodiaeoideae = family Themidaceae subfamily Lomandroideae = family Laxmanniaceae subfamily Nolinoideae = family Ruscaceae subfamily Scilloideae = family Hyacinthaceae Asparagaceae includes 114 genera with a total of ca 2900 known species.
Unless otherwise noted, the alphabetical list below is based on genera accepted by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families as in the family Asparagaceae. The reference against the subfamily name is to the source. Asparagaceae in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval. Version: 27 April 2006. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070103200438/http://delta-intkey.com/ Liliaceae in Flora of North America NCBI Taxonomy Browser links at CSDL, Texas Asparagaceae in BoDD – Botanical Dermatology Database
The term cultivar most refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Most cultivars arose in cultivation. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, daffodils and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form; the world's agricultural food crops are exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield and resistance to disease, few wild plants are now used as food sources. Trees used in forestry are special selections grown for their enhanced quality and yield of timber. Cultivars form a major part of Liberty Hyde Bailey's broader group, the cultigen, defined as a plant whose origin or selection is due to intentional human activity. A cultivar is not the same as a botanical variety, a taxonomic rank below subspecies, there are differences in the rules for creating and using the names of botanical varieties and cultivars.
In recent times, the naming of cultivars has been complicated by the use of statutory patents for plants and recognition of plant breeders' rights. The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants offers legal protection of plant cultivars to persons or organisations that introduce new cultivars to commerce. UPOV requires that a cultivar be "distinct, uniform", "stable". To be "distinct", it must have characters that distinguish it from any other known cultivar. To be "uniform" and "stable", the cultivar must retain these characters in repeated propagation; the naming of cultivars is an important aspect of cultivated plant taxonomy, the correct naming of a cultivar is prescribed by the Rules and Recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. A cultivar is given a cultivar name, which consists of the scientific Latin botanical name followed by a cultivar epithet; the cultivar epithet is in a vernacular language. For example, the full cultivar name of the King Edward potato is Solanum tuberosum'King Edward'.'King Edward' is the cultivar epithet, according to the Rules of the Cultivated Plant Code, is bounded by single quotation marks.
The word cultivar originated from the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with characteristics that arose in cultivation, presently denominated cultigens. This distinction dates to the Greek philosopher Theophrastus, the "Father of Botany", keenly aware of this difference. Botanical historian Alan Morton noted that Theophrastus in his Historia Plantarum "had an inkling of the limits of culturally induced changes and of the importance of genetic constitution"; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants uses as its starting point for modern botanical nomenclature the Latin names in Linnaeus' Species Plantarum and Genera Plantarum. In Species Plantarum, Linnaeus enumerated all plants known to him, either directly or from his extensive reading, he recognised the rank of varietas and he indicated these varieties with letters of the Greek alphabet, such as α, β, λ, before the varietal name, rather than using the abbreviation "var." as is the present convention. Most of the varieties that Linnaeus enumerated were of "garden" origin rather than being wild plants.
In time the need to distinguish between wild plants and those with variations, cultivated increased. In the nineteenth century many "garden-derived" plants were given horticultural names, sometimes in Latin and sometimes in a vernacular language. From circa the 1900s, cultivated plants in Europe were recognised in the Scandinavian and Slavic literature as stamm or sorte, but these words could not be used internationally because, by international agreement, any new denominations had to be in Latin. In the twentieth century an improved international nomenclature was proposed for cultivated plants. Liberty Hyde Bailey of Cornell University in New York, United States created the word cultivar in 1923 when he wrote that: The cultigen is a species, or its equivalent, that has appeared under domestication – the plant is cultigenous. I now propose another name, for a botanical variety, or for a race subordinate to species, that has originated under cultivation, it is the equivalent of the botanical variety except in respect to its origin.
In that essay, Bailey used only the rank of species for the cultigen, but it was obvious to him that many domesticated plants were more like botanical varieties than species, that realization appears to have motivated the suggestion of the new category of cultivar. Bailey created the word cultivar, assumed to be a portmanteau of cultivated and variety. Bailey never explicitly stated the etymology of cultivar, it has been suggested that it is instead a contraction of cultigen and variety, which seems correct; the neologism cultivar was promoted as "euphonious" and "free from ambiguity". The first Cultivated Plant Code of 1953 subsequently commended its use, by 1960 it had achieved common international acceptance; the words cultigen and cultivar may be confused with
Scilloideae is a subfamily of bulbous plants within the family Asparagaceae. Scilloideae is sometimes treated as a separate family Hyacinthaceae, named after the genus Hyacinthus. Scilloideae or Hyacinthaceae include many familiar garden plants such as Hyacinthus, Hyacinthoides and Scilla and Puschkinia; some are important as cut flowers. Scilloideae are distributed in Mediterranean climates, including South Africa, Central Asia and South America, their flowers have six tepals and six stamens with a superior ovary, which placed them within the lily family, their leaves are fleshy and arranged in a basal rosette. The Scilloideae, like most lily-like monocots, were at one time placed in a broadly defined lily family; the subfamily is recognized in modern classification systems such as the APG III system of 2009. It is treated as the separate family Hyacinthaceae, as it is by many researchers and was in earlier APG systems. Determining the boundaries between genera within the Scilloideae is an active area of research.
The number of genera varies from source to source, from about 30 to about 70. The situation has been described as being in a "state of flux"; the subfamily contains many popular spring-flowering garden bulbs, such as hyacinths, grape hyacinths and squills. Other members are summer - and autumn-flowering, including Eucomis. Most are native to Mediterranean climate zones and neighboring areas in the Mediterranean Basin and South Africa. Others are found in the Far East and South America. Morphologically the subfamily is characterised by having 6 tepals and 6 stamens with a superior ovary, a characteristic which placed them within the older order of Liliales in many older classification systems, such as the Cronquist system, but they now separate from them within the Asparagales order, they have been included in the Liliaceae family. Roots: contractile and mucilaginous. Leaves: fleshy and mucilaginous arranged in a basal rosette and spiral, margin entire, with parallel venation, sheathing at the base, without stipules and hair simple.
Flowers: arranged in scapiflorous inflorescences. The peduncles are articulated; the flowers are hermaphroditic, actinomorphic showy. Perianths: six tepals divided into two whorls, free or joined; when joined, the perianth forms a tubular bell. The tepals are petaloid; the corolla may be white, violet, blue and black. Androecium: composed of 6 stamens, with the filaments free or adnate to the tube appendiculate; the anthers are dorsifixed and pollen dehiscence occurs by longitudinal openings. The pollen is monosulcate. Gynoecium: superior ovary, tricarpelate and trilocular. Single stigma, capitate to 3-lobed. May contain from one to several ovules in each locule, they have nectaries at the septa of the ovaries. Fruit: dehiscence loculicidal. Seed: Seed morphology is diverse, from globular to flattened, aril; the seed coat contains phytomelan, one of the defining characteristics of the order, a black pigment present in the seed coat, creating a dark crust. Chromosomes: Chromosome size varies from 1.2 to 18 µm in length, karyotype bimodal or trimodal.
The basic chromosome number is very variable. When treated as a subfamily, the name Scilloideae is derived from the generic name of the type genus, is attributed to Gilbert Thomas Burnett in 1835; when treated as a family, the name Hyacinthaceae is derived from the type genus Hyacinthus, is attributed to August Batsch from a 1797 publication by Moritz Borkhausen. The monophyly of Scilloideae is well supported by studies based on molecular data; these studies give support to the exclusion of Camassia and related genera, i.e. the former Hyacinthaceae subfamily Chlorogaloideae, now placed in the subfamily Agavoideae. The exact position of the Scilloideae within the broadly defined Asparagaceae is less clear. One possible phylogeny for the seven subfamilies recognised within the family is shown below. Although agreeing on the main division of the Asparagaceae into two clades, studies have produced different relationships among the Agavoideae, Aphyllanthoideae and Scilloideae. For example, Seberg et al. present analyses based on maximum likelihood.
In the first, the Scilloideae are sister to the Agavoideae. Detailed historical accounts of taxonomic issues relating to the modern subfamily Scilloideae have been provided by Pfosser & Speta and Chase et al.. The lilioid monocots have long created classification problems. At one extreme, e.g. in the Cronquist system of 1968, they have been regarded as one large family. At the other extreme, e.g. in the Dahlgren system of 1985, they have been divided between orders and split into many small families. Dahlgren divided the lilioid monocots in search of monophyly, his major contribution was to split the Liliaceae into two families, the true Liliaceae, Liliaceae sensu stricto, the Hyacinthaceae. Splitting off the Hyacinthaceae from the Liliaceae was suggested by Batsch in 1786. Batsch's version of the family only superficially resembles the modern version, but d
Chionodoxa, known as glory-of-the-snow, is a small genus of bulbous perennial flowering plants in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Scilloideae included in Scilla. The genus is endemic to the eastern Mediterranean Crete and Turkey; the blue, white or pink flowers appear early in the year making them valuable garden ornamentals. The common name of the genus is based on the habit of flowering in high alpine zones when the snow melts in spring. Chionodoxa is distinguished from the related genus Scilla by two features: the tepals are joined at their bases to form a tube rather than being free; these differences are not considered by some botanists as sufficient to create a separate genus, Chionodoxa species are included in Scilla. Chionodoxa is not recognised as a separate genus from Scilla by the World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, or the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website; the taxonomy of the genus is confused. Several of the species are similar, the number of species recognized as distinct varies from one source to another.
For example, plants occurring in Crete have at one time or another been put into three species: C. albescens, C. cretica and C. nana. Sfikas' Wild flowers of Crete recognizes only two of these; the Royal Horticultural Society distinguishes between C. C. siehei. Assuming there are six species, as listed below, three occur in west Turkey, one in south-west Turkey, one in Crete and one in Cyprus. Garden plants have naturalised outside of their native range, e.g. in the UK, Germany and the Netherlands. A natural hybrid C. siehei x C. luciliae occurs. Chionodoxa albescens – Crete – see C. nana Chionodoxa cretica – Crete – see C. nana Chionodoxa forbesii – south-west Turkey Chionodoxa lochiae, synonym C. gigantea – Cyprus Chionodoxa luciliae – west Turkey Chionodoxa nana – Crete Chionodoxa sardensis – west Turkey Chionodoxa siehei, synonyms C. tmoli, C. tmolusii – west Turkey. A 2005 Royal Horticultural Society publication which illustrates all three of these species states that the most common garden species is properly called C. siehei.
Three species were awarded the RHS Award of Garden Merit in 1993, re-confirmed in 2004: C. luciliae, C. sardensis, C. siehei. All can be bought as dry bulbs and planted while dormant in late summer or early autumn at a depth of 8–10 cm, they require light when in growth, but can be grown under deciduous trees or shrubs, as their foliage dies down after flowering. All flower in early Spring, C. sardensis being the earliest. C. siehei seeds in many gardens, can create a carpet of blue. In addition to the common purplish-blue varieties, Chionodoxa siehei is sold as pink and white cultivars. Beckett, Kenneth. Alpine Garden Society Encyclopaedia of Alpines, Vol. 1, Pershore, UK: AGS Publications, ISBN 978-0-900048-63-0 Dashwood, Melanie & Mathew, Hyacinthaceae – little blue bulbs, Royal Horticultural Society, archived from the original on 28 August 2015, retrieved 28 August 2015 Mathew, The Smaller Bulbs, London: B T Batsford, ISBN 978-0-7134-4922-8 Mathew, Brian, "Hardy Hyacinthaceae, Part 2: Scilla, Chionodoxa, xChionoscilla", The Plantsman, 4: 110–21 Sfikas, Wild Flowers of Crete, Athens: Efstathiadis, ISBN 978-960-226-052-4 Turland, N.
J.. R & Natural History Museum, Flora of the Cretan Area: annotated checklist and atlas, London: HMSO, ISBN 978-0-11-310043-9
A printing press is a mechanical device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium, thereby transferring the ink. It marked a dramatic improvement on earlier printing methods in which the cloth, paper or other medium was brushed or rubbed to achieve the transfer of ink, accelerated the process. Used for texts, the invention and global spread of the printing press was one of the most influential events in the second millennium. Johannes Gutenberg, a goldsmith by profession, circa 1439, a printing system by adapting existing technologies to printing purposes, as well as making inventions of his own. Printing in East Asia had been prevalent since the Tang dynasty, in Europe, woodblock printing based on existing screw presses was common by the 14th century. Gutenberg's most important innovation was the development of hand-molded metal printing matrices, thus producing a movable type-based printing press system, his newly devised hand mould made possible the precise and rapid creation of metal movable type in large quantities.
Movable type had been hitherto unknown in Europe. In Europe, the two inventions, the hand mould and the printing press, together drastically reduced the cost of printing books and other documents in short print runs; the printing press spread within several decades to over two hundred cities in a dozen European countries. By 1500, printing presses in operation throughout Western Europe had produced more than twenty million volumes. In the 16th century, with presses spreading further afield, their output rose tenfold to an estimated 150 to 200 million copies; the operation of a press became synonymous with the enterprise of printing, lent its name to a new medium of expression and communication, "the press". In Renaissance Europe, the arrival of mechanical movable type printing introduced the era of mass communication, which permanently altered the structure of society; the unrestricted circulation of information and ideas transcended borders, captured the masses in the Reformation and threatened the power of political and religious authorities.
The sharp increase in literacy broke the monopoly of the literate elite on education and learning and bolstered the emerging middle class. Across Europe, the increasing cultural self-awareness of its peoples led to the rise of proto-nationalism, accelerated by the development of European vernacular languages, to the detriment of Latin's status as lingua franca. In the 19th century, the replacement of the hand-operated Gutenberg-style press by steam-powered rotary presses allowed printing on an industrial scale; the rapid economic and socio-cultural development of late medieval society in Europe created favorable intellectual and technological conditions for Gutenberg's improved version of the printing press: the entrepreneurial spirit of emerging capitalism made its impact on medieval modes of production, fostering economic thinking and improving the efficiency of traditional work-processes. The sharp rise of medieval learning and literacy amongst the middle class led to an increased demand for books which the time-consuming hand-copying method fell far short of accommodating.
Technologies preceding the press that led to the press's invention included: manufacturing of paper, development of ink, woodblock printing, distribution of eyeglasses. At the same time, a number of medieval products and technological processes had reached a level of maturity which allowed their potential use for printing purposes. Gutenberg took up these far-flung strands, combined them into one complete and functioning system, perfected the printing process through all its stages by adding a number of inventions and innovations of his own: The screw press which allowed direct pressure to be applied on flat-plane was of great antiquity in Gutenberg's time and was used for a wide range of tasks. Introduced in the 1st century AD by the Romans, it was employed in agricultural production for pressing wine grapes and oil fruit, both of which formed an integral part of the mediterranean and medieval diet; the device was used from early on in urban contexts as a cloth press for printing patterns.
Gutenberg may have been inspired by the paper presses which had spread through the German lands since the late 14th century and which worked on the same mechanical principles. Gutenberg adopted the basic design. Printing, put a demand on the machine quite different from pressing. Gutenberg adapted the construction so that the pressing power exerted by the platen on the paper was now applied both evenly and with the required sudden elasticity. To speed up the printing process, he introduced a movable undertable with a plane surface on which the sheets could be swiftly changed; the concept of movable type was not new in the 15th century. In Europe, sporadic evidence that the typographical principle, the idea of creating a text by reusing individual characters, was well understood and employed in pre-Gutenberg Europe had been cropping up since the 12th century and before; the known examples range from Germany to England to Italy. However, the various techniques employed did not have the refinement and efficiency needed to become accepted.
Gutenberg improved the process by treating typesetting and printing as two separate work steps. A goldsmith by profession, he created his type pieces from a lead-based alloy
International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants
The International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants is the set of rules and recommendations dealing with the formal botanical names that are given to plants, fungi and a few other groups of organisms, all those "traditionally treated as algae, fungi, or plants". It was called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; the current version of the code is the Shenzhen Code adopted by the International Botanical Congress held in Shenzhen, China, in July 2017. As with previous codes, it took effect as soon as it was ratified by the congress, but the documentation of the code in its final form was not published until 26 June 2018; the name of the Code is capitalized and not. The lower-case for "algae and plants" indicates that these terms are not formal names of clades, but indicate groups of organisms that were known by these names and traditionally studied by phycologists and botanists; this includes blue-green algae. There are special provisions in the ICN for some of these groups.
The ICN can only be changed by an International Botanical Congress, with the International Association for Plant Taxonomy providing the supporting infrastructure. Each new edition supersedes the earlier editions and is retroactive back to 1753, except where different starting dates are specified. For the naming of cultivated plants there is a separate code, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants, which gives rules and recommendations that supplement the ICN. Botanical nomenclature is independent of zoological and viral nomenclature. A botanical name is fixed to a taxon by a type; this is invariably dried plant material and is deposited and preserved in a herbarium, although it may be an image or a preserved culture. Some type collections can be viewed online at the websites of the herbaria in question. A guiding principle in botanical nomenclature is priority, the first publication of a name for a taxon; the formal starting date for purposes of priority is 1 May 1753, the publication of Species Plantarum by Linnaeus.
However, to avoid undesirable effects of strict enforcement of priority, conservation of family and species names is possible. The intent of the Code is that each taxonomic group of plants has only one correct name, accepted worldwide, provided that it has the same circumscription and rank; the value of a scientific name is. Names of taxa are treated as Latin; the rules of nomenclature are retroactive unless there is an explicit statement that this does not apply. The rules governing botanical nomenclature have a long and tumultuous history, dating back to dissatisfaction with rules that were established in 1843 to govern zoological nomenclature; the first set of international rules was the Lois de la nomenclature botanique, adopted as the "best guide to follow for botanical nomenclature" at an "International Botanical Congress" convened in Paris in 1867. Unlike modern codes, it was not enforced, it was organized as six sections with 68 articles in total. Multiple attempts to bring more "expedient" or more equitable practice to botanical nomenclature resulted in several competing codes, which reached a compromise with the 1930 congress.
In the meantime, the second edition of the international rules followed the Vienna congress in 1905. These rules were published as the Règles internationales de la Nomenclature botanique adoptées par le Congrès International de Botanique de Vienne 1905. Informally they are referred to as the Vienna Rules; some but not all subsequent meetings of the International Botanical Congress have produced revised versions of these Rules called the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. The Nomenclature Section of the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia made major changes: The Code now permits electronic-only publication of names of new taxa; the requirement for a Latin validating diagnosis or description was changed to allow either English or Latin for these essential components of the publication of a new name. "One fungus, one name" and "one fossil, one name" are important changes. As an experiment with "registration of names", new fungal descriptions require the use of an identifier from "a recognized repository".
Some important versions are listed below. Specific to botany Author citation Botanical name Botanical nomenclature International Association for Plant Taxonomy International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants International Plant Names Index Correct name Infraspecific name Hybrid name More general Glossary of scientific naming Binomial nomenclature Nomenclature codes Scientific classification Undescribed species