click links in text for more info

Bougainville Island

Bougainville Island is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea known as Bougainville Province. It formed the main landmass of the German Empire-associated North Solomons. With four to five hundred-metre-width-strait separated Buka Island its land measures 9,300 km2; the population of the province is 234,280. Mount Balbi on the main island at 2,715 m is the highest point; the Buka strait, despite its narrowness, is unbridged, however regular ferries operate between the key settlements on either side and Buka Town has the main northern airstrip/airport. It is the largest of the Solomon Islands archipelago most of which, concentrated south and east, are politically independent as the Solomon Islands. An outcrop of Buka is 175 kilometres from the next grand island of Papua New Guinea. Bougainville was first settled some 28,000 years ago. Three to four thousand years ago, Austronesian people arrived, bringing with them domesticated pigs, chickens and obsidian tools.

The first European contact with Bougainville was in 1768, when the French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville arrived and named the main island for himself. British and American whaling ships visited the island for provisions and wood in the 19th century; the first on record was the Roscoe in 1822, the last was Palmetto in 1881. Germany laid claim to Bougainville in 1899. Christian missionaries arrived on the island in 1902. During World War I, Australia occupied German New Guinea, including Bougainville, it became part of the Australian Territory of New Guinea under a League of Nations mandate in 1920. In 1942, during World War II, Japan invaded the island, but allied forces launched the Bougainville campaign to regain control of the island in 1943. Despite heavy bombardments, the Japanese garrisons remained on the island until 1945. Following the war, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, returned to Australian control. In 1949, the Territory of New Guinea, including Bougainville, merged with the Australian Territory of Papua, forming the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, a United Nations Trust Territory under Australian administration.

On 9 September 1975, the Parliament of Australia passed the Papua New Guinea Independence Act 1975. The Act set 16 September 1975 as date of independence and terminated all remaining sovereign and legislative powers of Australia over the territory. Bougainville was to become part of an independent Papua New Guinea. However, on 11 September 1975, in a failed bid for self-determination, Bougainville declared itself the Republic of the North Solomons; the republic failed to achieve any international recognition, a settlement was reached in August 1976. Bougainville was absorbed politically into Papua New Guinea with increased self-governance powers. Between 1988 and 1998, the Bougainville Civil War claimed over 15,000 lives. Peace talks brokered by New Zealand led to autonomy. A multinational Peace Monitoring Group under Australian leadership was deployed. In 2001, a peace agreement was signed including promise of a referendum on independence from Papua New Guinea; this referendum was held between 23 November and 7 December 2019, with results being declared on 11 December.

The referendum question was a choice between greater autonomy within Papua New Guinea, or full independence. Of the valid votes, 98.31% were in favour of full Independence. The vote is not binding. Bougainville is the largest island in the Solomon Islands archipelago, it is part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion. Bougainville and the nearby island of Buka are a single landmass separated by a deep 300-metre-wide strait; the island has an area of 9000 square kilometres, there are several active, dormant or inactive volcanoes which rise to 2400 m. Bagana in the north central part of Bougainville is conspicuously active, spewing out smoke, visible for many kilometres. Earthquakes cause little damage. Bougainville Island is forested with a diverse tropical ecosystem. Copper mining on the island by a Rio-Tinto owned mining operation caused significant detriment to the immediate and downstream ecology from the destruction of forest and heavy metal contaminated mine tailings, resulting in an uprising by the islanders to protect their land and native ecology.

More deforestation in order to feed the growing population has affected the flow of many rivers on the island. The United Nations Environmental Program has offered to facilitate the clean up of the Rio Tinto owned Panguna mine and explore reopening the mine with more stringent environmental standards. Bougainville has one of the world's largest copper deposits, under development since 1972, but was shut down in a popular revolution against the foreign-owned mining interests. Due to a 7-year blockade of the island by the Papua New Guinean Army during the Coconut Revolution, the island was cut off from the outside world; this pressure forced the islanders to develop self-sustaining systems from salvaged parts and foraged resources, including village-scale hydropower, coconut bio-diesel, diversified forest-garden farms, neo-traditional herbal medicine. These ingenious innovations were a major focus of the documentary film "The Coconut Revolution"; the majority of people on Bougainville are Christian, an estimated 70% being Roman Catholic a

Signs and Wonders (The X-Files)

"Signs and Wonders" is the ninth episode of the seventh season of the science fiction television series The X-Files. It premiered on the Fox network in the United States on January 23, 2000, it was written by Jeffrey Bell, directed by Kim Manners. The episode is a "Monster-of-the-Week" story, unconnected to the series' wider mythology. "Signs and Wonders" earned a Nielsen household rating of 8.5, being watched by 13.86 million people in its initial broadcast. The episode received mixed reviews from television critics; the show centers on FBI special agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully who work on cases linked to the paranormal, called X-Files. Mulder is a believer in the paranormal, while the skeptical Scully has been assigned to debunk his work. In this episode and Scully investigate the Church of God with Signs and Wonders, a church where the Bible is read and punishment is dealt deftly, after a small town church is the site of a number of ritualistic-like murders, but soon the agents realize that the difference between the peaceful religious and the fanatics may not be much at all.

Bell wished to write a "down-and-dirty" horror story about a snake-handling church. Furthermore, Bell wanted the true antagonist of the episode to remain hidden until the end. In order to do this, the script was written. According to executive producer Frank Spotnitz, the theme of the episode was "intolerance can be good", in some cases; the episode used live rattlesnakes. In Blessing, Jared Chirp, while attempting to flee his home, is attacked by rattlesnakes inside his car and killed. Federal agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully, after conferring with Reverend Mackey, go to Reverend Enoch O'Connor's church, Church of God with Signs and Wonders, where Biblical literalism is stressed and snakes are used during his services; as such, O'Connor becomes the prime suspect. A woman named Iris tells Reverend Mackey that she feels guilty because Jared called her on the night he died in order to talk to his girlfriend, Gracie. Iris, refused because Gracie was in bed; that night, Iris is bitten when her staple remover turns into a snake.

Gracie is questioned by Mulder and Scully about O'Connor because she is a former member of his church. The two agents discover that she is, in fact, O'Connor's daughter and was kicked out of his congregation and home when she became pregnant; the agents go back to O'Connor's church and Scully is attacked by O'Connor, who attempts to get a snake to bite her hand but is stopped by Mulder. He is promptly arrested. While in his cell, he is attacked by snakes in his cell and is killed. O'Connor, revealed to be still alive awakens in the hospital and takes Gracie, visiting him in the hospital, flees. Reverend Mackey tells Scully that Enoch O'Connor is the father of Gracie's child. Meanwhile, O'Connor baptizes her, she goes into labor and gives birth to live snakes. O'Connor goes to Mackey's church and attempts to kill him, but Mulder intervenes and saves Mackey, wounding O'Conner in the process. In the ambulance, Gracie tells Scully that Mackey is the real murderer, the father of Gracie's baby, he killed everyone to keep the fact that he was the father a secret and to destroy O'Connor's congregation.

Back at the church, Mulder realizes O'Connor was innocent all along and confronts Mackey, but he locks the door and summons snakes, who promptly attack Mulder. Luckily, Scully is able to save Mulder before sending him to the hospital. Mackey disappears to Connecticut, changes his name to Reverend Wells, starts another church; the episode ends with a snake coming out of Mackey's mouth and eating a mouse, implying that he is not human. "Signs and Wonders" was written by The X-Files staff writer Jeffrey Bell, who had long wanted to write a "down-and-dirty" horror story for the series. Inspired by his informal study of snake handling, Bell decided to write a tale involving snakes and an extremist church because it "would be scary". Diverging from most stories that involve extremist religious sects, the main theme of "Signs and Wonders" is that in certain circumstances, "intolerance can be good", per executive producer Frank Spotnitz. Bell "wanted the snake church people to end up being the good guys."

However, he felt that the toughest task in writing the episode would be hiding the true antagonist in plain sight. According to Bell, "The way the shows work out, Mulder is the one to figure out who the bad guys are. So I went into the story meeting with the idea of having Mulder being wrong; because Mulder believes so strong it's the other guy, it helped hide the true identity of the bad guy from the audience."During the snake handling scene at the Church of God with Signs and Wonders, the song being sung by the congregation is called "May Glory Protect Us". The song was written by executive producer Paul Rabwin, involved in the episode's music production. Rabwin noted, "I auditioned a bunch of gospel songs. I told him I could write one, better and he told me to go for it, and I did.... Kim loved it.... It was a great tribute that he was able to ask me and accept my opinion on it." The casting for "Signs & Wonders" was "rather unorthodox". In order to prevent ophidiophobia from hitting the actors on the day of filming, live rattlesnakes were brought in during the casting sessions.

Many of the actors were "thrille


Trilj is a municipality and town in inland Dalmatia, Croatia. It is located northeast of Split; the total population of the municipality is 9,109, with 2,076 in Trilj itself and the rest in small villages. The list of settlements is as follows: In the area of Trilj there are many archaeological findings dating way back to Mesolithic; the first ethnic group that inhabited this area are the Illyrian tribe Delmati. Delmati people lived in a hill forts along the communication lines that connected their capital Delminium with the Adriatic coast. Hundred and fifty years of fierce fighting against the Romans ended in defeat of Delmati people, after which Romans built the legionary fortress Tilurium on the hill above Trilj. At the top of the hill of Gardun, just 1 km south of Trilj, remains of a legionary fortress at Tilurium can be found. Tilurium guarded the entrance to the Cetina valley from the south and the approach to the provincial capital at Salona. Čačvina Castle is a fortification that guarded approach from Bosnia during the wars with the Ottomans.

It is situated 8 kilometres from the town at an altitude of 705 metres in a strategic location enabling its crew to oversee traffic of goods through the mountain passage that goes through the Dinaric Alps and leads to Bosnia. The first written record of this fortification dates to 1345. First written record of fortification dates to 1345. Nutjak fortification is situated on a cliff. Fortress was built in the 15th century by nobleman Žarko Dražojević to protect land west of Cetina river from Ottoman invasion; the village of Košute in the municipality is home to a monument to its war dead from the Second World War and the Croatian War of Independence. Museum was found in 1996 for the purpose of presentation of artifacts from nearby archaeological site. Along with archaeological artifacts in a part of the museum ethnographic collection from Trilj and surrounding area is presented. Trilj and surrounding area are popular tourist area; the area has rich history and offers great opportunities for outdoor activities and adventure Holidays.

Surrounding is dominated, on one side by Cetina river, diverse with white waters and calm parts, by mountains of dinaric alps on the other side. Some of the activities include Cetina river fishing, rafting, horseback riding and hiking. Trilj - Portal of Town Trilj Town Trilj

That's Rock 'n' Roll Live

To capture the sensation of teen-idol Shaun Cassidy, Warner Bros. Records released a live album of his 1979 concert tour named That's Rock'N' Roll Live; the album featured tracks from his four studio albums. The album featured a cover of The Righteous Brothers' hit song, "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'"; the cover of the album features a glossy photo of Cassidy playing a black Gibson Les Paul guitar. The live version of "Da Doo Ron Ron" features the band The Crystals backing up Cassidy. "Break For The Street" "Hey Deanie" "She's Right" "You've Lost That Lovin' Feelin'" "Hard Love" "That's Rock'n' Roll" "Bad Boy" "Slow Down" "Rip It Up" "Da Doo Ron Ron" Shaun Cassidy - vocals, piano Joey Newman - lead guitar Michael Lloyd - rhythm guitar, background vocals Dennis Belfield - bass Jay Gruska, Jimmy Greenspoon - keyboards, background vocals Carlos Vega - drums David Jolliffe - percussion, background vocals Mike Altschul - saxophone, flute John D'Andrea - saxophone, synthesizer The Crystals - background vocals on "Da Doo Ron Ron"

Davison County, South Dakota

Davison County is a county in the U. S. state of South Dakota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 19,504, its county seat is Mitchell. The county was created in 1873 and organized in 1874, it was named for Henry C. Davison, the first settler in the county. Davison County is part of SD Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area's first settlement occurred in 1871 in "Firesteel Creek". Greene built a frame house; the small community which grew around this house was called Firesteel. It became part of a county created by the territorial legislature in 1873. In 1881 the territorial legislature met and considered two bills redefining the boundaries of Hanson and Davison Counties, they considered adjusting the two counties' boundaries by either combining the two, or changing their method of separation. A public vote determined to add four townships to the west, split the two previous counties down the middle; the settlement called "Arlandton" was renamed "Mount Vernon" in 1882. During the latter part of the nineteenth century the county was served by railroad spur lines.

By the mid-twentieth century, those lines had been removed. The terrain of Davison County consists of rolling hills, its area is devoted to agriculture. The James River flows south-southeastward through the NE portion of the county. A local drainage flows eastward through the upper quarter of the county, terminating in Lake Mitchell, north of the city of Mitchell; the terrain slopes to the east, rises toward its SW corner. Its highest point is on the western portion of its southern border, at 1,667' ASL; the county has a total area of 437 square miles, of which 436 square miles is land and 1.4 square miles is water. It is the fourth-smallest county in South Dakota by area. Interstate 90 South Dakota Highway 37 South Dakota Highway 42 As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 18,741 people, 7,585 households, 4,770 families in the county; the population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 8,093 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.23% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 1.98% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.30% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races.

0.69 % of the population were Latino of any race. 50.8 % were of 5.5 % Irish and 5.4 % American ancestry. There were 7,585 households out of which 31.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.40% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.10% were non-families. 30.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population had 25.40% under the age of 18, 12.00% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 20.40% from 45 to 64, 16.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.80 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,476, the median income for a family was $44,357. Males had a median income of $30,825 versus $20,940 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,879.

About 8.20% of families and 11.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.30% of those under age 18 and 10.40% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 19,504 people, 8,296 households, 4,892 families in the county; the population density was 44.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,852 housing units at an average density of 20.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 94.4% white, 2.5% American Indian, 0.5% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.5% from other races, 1.6% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 51.8% were German, 10.6% were Norwegian, 10.1% were Irish, 7.4% were English, 6.0% were Dutch, 4.5% were American. Of the 8,296 households, 28.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.0% were non-families, 34.3% of all households were made up of individuals.

The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age was 37.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,867 and the median income for a family was $54,677. Males had a median income of $37,688 versus $26,223 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,794. About 6.9% of families and 13.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.1% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. Mitchell Mount Vernon Ethan Loomis Davison County voters tend to vote Republican. In 71% of the national elections since 1948, the county selected the Republican Party candidate. National Register of Historic Places listings in Davison County, South Dakota Davison County, SD government website

Mangkunegara VI

Mangkunegaran was the prince of Mangkunegara from 1896 to 1916. His original name was R. M. Suyitno, he was the fourth son of Mangkunegara. As an adult he took the name K. P. A. Dayaningrat, he is the younger brother of the fifth Mangkunegara. He was born to Raden Ayu Dunuk, he is the grandson of the third Mangkunegara on his mother's side. When Mangkunegara V died after falling from a horse, his throne was unlawfully taken by his brother. Mangkunegara VI was enthroned on 21 November 1896, he prioritized economic development. A crash came. Mangkunegara VI repaid much of the debt incurred under his predecessor. Mangkunegara VI enacted a number of cultural policies. Namely, he made saluting unnecessary, he brought tables and chairs into meetings, conducted sitting on the floor and allowed the people to embrace Christianity. He became an independent power parallel to Kasunanan Surakarta. Mangkunegara became a new competitor in the fight over Kasunanan Javanese culture. Traditional sectors of rural economy modernized, affecting coffee, sugar cane and sugar production.

In the Praja. At one point Spoorweg Nederlandsch Indische Maatschappij was foreclosed for failure to pay taxes. Praja policy was applied to allow the monarchy to act as both merchant; the policy was adopted by Kasunanan Surakarta and Yogyakarta Sultanate. Traditional land holdings were turned over to plantations; the Legion was reorganized. Commander Major Mangkunegaran was enthroned with the rank of Colonel. Mangkunegara VI removed the position of Vice Commander for budget reasons; the bandit gangs that operated around Mangkunegaran increased their activities. Budget limitations kept the King from dealing with them; the Praja Police were responsible for security. The gangs committed murder and rape. Along the border with Kasunanan, Mangkunegara VI had conflicts with Resident of Surakarta. Java's expansion began in 1830 with the proliferation of plantations; the gangs were disappointed in the kingdom. Robber refers those who forcibly plundered victims, while plaster refers to robbers who were inactive.

In 1872 the region recorded 24 events conducted by plasters. On 15 November 1883 robbers killed a woman in the village of Sragen. Wayang wong is a performing art tradition first developed by Mangkunegara who reigned 1757-1795. Wayang wong became a valuable learning model. Wayang wong became a tradition of reduced activity. Wayang wong was supported by the regime. Gan Kam was of Chinese descent and had a close relationship with the royal family at the time of Mangkunegara V. Gan Kam Duke lobbied to be allowed to perform wayang wong outside the palace. Rescue action in puppet arts was pioneered by Prince Sambernyawa. Wayang wong developed outside the palace; the royal family encouraged its development until Mangkunegara Sultanate. In Kasunanan, Sunan Pakubuwana X allowed performances in Balekambang, Garden Night Market Sri Wedari and Alun Alun in Surakarta. In the Sultanate of Yogyakarta, Sultan Hamengkubuwana VII supported the art form. Governance is a show with lots of changes and ending with the anti-Dutch tensions and tragic.

Mangkunegara VI have children. P. A. Suyono Handayaningrat and B. R. Ay. Suwasti Hatmosurono; when Mangkunegara VI wished to make his son as a possible successor, he was on the veto by a group of relatives of the Prince and the Netherlands. Mangkunegara VI resigned and settled in Surabaya. Mangkunegara VI is the only king in Mangkunegaran. In testimony Partini Mangkunegara VI said that in January 11, 1916 resign and go with the whole family to Surabaya In Surabaya son and daughter Mangkunegara VI of KPA Suyono Handayaningrat and RMP Hatmosurono active in the movement of Budi Utomo and together with Dr. Sutomo founded the political party named Parindra; when Mangkunegara VI died buried in Astana Utoro Nayu Surakarta. In Mangkunegaran that reigned next is his nephew namely RMA Suryasuparta as Mangkunegara VII. Mangkunegara VI chose Surabaya as a place in the old days to prepare his son and daughter continue the concept of state that can not be implemented through a Duchy. Mangkunegara VI's accomplishments included: Mangkunegara VI Praja reform that reduced the debt to Netherlands.

Increased economic stability that improved living standards. Legion Mangkunegaran rebuilt strength. Pluralism that allowed relatives who embraced Christianity to prosper under Mangkunegara VI. Reintroduce Java management principles in dealing with his father and Praja slump. Enforcement of financial Mangkunegara Mangkunegaran dynasty Create art with a puppet through without distortion story content. Oppose worship at the shrine that became venues for prostitution, which flourished at that time. In his reign, give relic Mangkunegara VI which until now visited by the tourist is Sapta Tirta. Sumber water bath in this bath pablengan has seven kinds of natural resources which were located close together, namely: Warm Water, Cold Water, Living Water, Water Off, Soda water, water Bleng, water Mind your Mind. Gema Edisi Yubileum HIK Yogyakarta 60 tahun, Juli 1987, dalam:Media Komunikasi Keluarga Ex-HIK Yogyakarta, 1987. Damar Pustaka, Sufism in Javanese spiritual life. G. P. A. A. Mangkunegara IV. Haryanto, S.

Pratiwimba adhiluhung. Van der