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Boulder County, Colorado

Boulder County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado of the United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 294,567; the most populous municipality in the county and the county seat is Boulder. Boulder County comprises the Boulder, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area. Boulder County was one of the original 17 counties created by the Territory of Colorado on November 1, 1861; the county was named for Boulder City and Boulder Creek, so named because of the abundance of boulders in the creek which hampered early gold prospecting efforts. Boulder County retains the same borders as in 1861, although a 27.5 square miles of its southeastern corner and its approximate population of 40,000 became part of the City and County of Broomfield in 2001. Before the arrival of the first US settlers, the area was occupied by American Indians led by Chief Niwot on the plains and, seasonally by Utes in the mountains to the west; the first US settlers were gold prospectors led by Captain Thomas Aikins.

His group of about twenty settled at the mouth of Boulder Creek Canyon on October 17, 1858. Chief Niwot told them not to stay and it is said they promised to move into the mountains to prospect in the spring; however in February 1859, they founded the town of Boulder. At about the same time, they founded the first Gold Mining town in what would become Colorado, Gold Hill, about 10 miles westerly from Boulder. Gold Hill was founded because of the placer gold discovered there; the area was the site of the first commercial scale placer mine in Colorado, producing over 5,500 ounces of gold in the first year of operations. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 740 square miles, of which 726 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water. Rocky Mountain National Park is in Boulder County, Larimer County, Grand County. Longs Peak, the park's highest summit at 4,345 meters elevation, is located in Boulder County. Eldorado Canyon State Park Continental Divide National Scenic Trail Peak to Peak Scenic and Historic Byway Colorado Chautauqua National Historic District As of the census of 2000, there were 271,651 people, 114,680 households, 68,808 families residing in the county.

The population density was 392 people per square mile. There were 119,900 housing units at an average density of 162 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 88.54% White, 0.88% Black or African American, 0.61% Native American, 3.06% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 4.67% from other races, 2.18% from two or more races. 10.46% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 114,680 households out of which 30.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.90% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.00% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.50% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.90% under the age of 18, 13.40% from 18 to 24, 33.60% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 7.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years.

For every 100 females, there were 102.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.70 males. In 2014, the median income for a household in the county was $69,407, the median income for a family was $94,938. Males had a median income of $65,489 versus $48,140 for females. About 7.0% of families and 14.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.6% of those under age 18 and 5.9% of those age 65 or over. In 2017 Bloomberg ranked the Boulder metropolitan area as the top "brain" area in the US. Boulder County is divided into three districts each represented by a commissioner elected county-wide; the three commissioners comprise the county Board of Commissioners and represent the county as a whole. Each commissioner must reside in their respective district and may be elected to a maximum of two four-year terms; the Board of County Commissioners are full-time public servants and approve the budget for the entire County government. The Board oversees the management of 10 County departments and the daily operations of the county, work, done by a county manager or a chief administrative officer in some counties.

Boulder County has seven other county-wide elected officials, including the District Attorney, who represents the 20th Judicial District. As of June 2013, Boulder County is regarded as one of the most liberal counties in Colorado. Republicans took less than 28% of the vote in Boulder County in both 2008 and 2012 and took only 22% in 2016. In 2000, Green Party presidential candidate Ralph Nader took 11.82% of the vote in Boulder County, more than twice the 5.25% he took statewide in Colorado, more than four times his 2.73% nationwide vote share. Boulder County has demonstrated its liberal leanings in referenda on social issues, such as in 2006, when nearly 2/3 of Boulder County voters voted to reject Amendment 43, a constitutional amendment defining marriage as between one man and one woman. Although the amendment passed statewide with 55% of the vote, only 33% of Boulder County supported it. In 2012, over 66% of Boulder County voted in favor of Amendment 64, legalizing marijuana in the state of Colorado.

The 20th Judicial District of Colorado, the state trial court of general jurisdiction, serves and is coextensive with Boulder County. As of 2009 the 20th Judicial Circuit has eight District Court judges; the Boulder County Court, the state trial court of limited jurisdiction, consists of five judges and six magistrates

Nana Joshi

Padmanabh Govind "Nana" Joshipronunciation was a cricket player who kept wicket for India in Test cricket. Joshi was born in Baroda, India in 1926, he first gained attention as a cricket player when he scored 100 notout for Central Province Governor's XI against the touring Commonwealth XI in addition to dismissing six batsmen. This earned him a place in two unofficial Tests against the same team. Joshi played cricket at a time when India had four wicket keepers of the same class. In a career that lasted for nearly ten years, Joshi played, he made his Test debut against England in the first Test at Delhi in 1951-52. In the first innings, he caught two and brilliantly stumped two others, but his errors in the second helped England to save the match. Joshi was replaced by Madhav Mantri for the second Test, who in turn gave way to Probir Sen in the third. Joshi was discarded in favour of Sen for the final Test. Here Sen stumped five batsmen and Joshi found himself out of the team to tour England in 1952.

Writing in 1985, N. S. Ramaswami remembered that Joshi "impressed as a neat performer. Between the overs he walked from wicket to wicket with a certain jauntiness, he seemed to wear the gloves as a lady might at a fashionable ball." Yet in his opinion, Joshi came lower down in the hierarchy of contemporary wicket keepers. Sen and Mantri occupied the top rung, Naren Tamhane came next, followed by Joshi. Joshi played in four Tests in the West Indies tour of 1952-53 and three Tests in England in 1959. In a match in the Pune summer league in 1957-58, he had a hand in all ten dismissals in addition to scoring 68 out of 117 all out, he was again selected for India against Pakistan for the Bombay Test of 1960-61. Here his career came to an abrupt end. On the fifth over of the first day, he dropped Hanif Mohammad off Ramakant Desai,'a simple catch', when the batsman was 12. Hanif went on score 160. "If a catch marred or made a series", wrote Vijay Hazare, "it was this one." In the match he made his career best score of 52* and added 149 for ninth wicket with Desai, five runs short of the world record at the time and still an Indian ninth wicket record.

But the selectors did not pardon him and he never played another Test. Joshi captained Maharashtra team between 1960–61 and 1962-63, he served in the Maharashtra cricket selection committee. His benefit match in Sangli in 1974 earned him 1,25,000 rupees, he dismissed nine batsmen against Gujarat in 1959-60 which equalled the Indian record. Joshi's father died, his mother brought the young Joshi and his brother to Poona where she brought them up under great hardships. She maintained the family by sewing and providing food for students while Joshi used to clean the utensils and serve food, she supported Joshi until he got a job. Joshi had his schooling at Bhave School and went to S. P. Bhau college and Wadia College in Pune where he took a B. A. degree. He worked for Standard Vacuum and Hindustan Petroleum in Pune, India before dying from liver cancer in 1987. Cricinfo Profile Cricketarchive Profile

Kahun Papyri

The Kahun Papyri are a collection of ancient Egyptian texts discussing administrative and medical topics. Its many fragments were discovered by Flinders Petrie in 1889 and are kept at the University College London; this collection of papyri is one of the largest found. Most of the texts are dated to ca. 1825 BC, to the reign of Amenemhat III. In general the collection spans the Middle Kingdom of Egypt; the texts span a variety of topics: Business papers of the cult of Senusret II Hymns to king Senusret III. The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus, which deals with gynaecological illnesses and conditions; the Lahun Mathematical Papyri are a collection of mathematical texts A veterinarian papyrus A late Middle Kingdom account, listing festivals A Kahun Mathematical Fragment, a paper by John A. R. Legon PlanetMath: Kahun Papyrus and Arithmetic Progressions

The Brownies' Book

The Brownies' Book was the first magazine published for African-American children and youth. Its creation was mentioned in the yearly children's issue of The Crisis in October 1919; the first issue was published during the Harlem Renaissance in January 1920, with issues published monthly until December 1921. It is cited as an "important moment in literary history" for establishing black children's literature in the United States; the magazine was created by three people, all of whom were involved with The Crisis, a magazine associated with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Its editor was W. E. B. Du Bois, one of the founders of the NAACP, its business manager was Augustus Granville Dill; the magazine's literary editor was Jessie Redmon Fauset. Each year, The Crisis published an issue referred to as the "Children's Number", which included stories, games and educational achievements of black children; these issues contained more serious information political events and lynchings in the United States.

In the October 1919 "Children's Number" issue of The Crisis, Du Bois wrote a column titled "The True Brownies" announcing the impending publication of The Brownies' Book, stating that the first issue would be released the following month. He stated that it was "designed for all children, but for ours", with a target audience of children and youth between six and 16 years old. Dill and Du Bois established Du Bois and Dill Publishers in New York City to publish each issue of The Brownies' Book. One of the goals of the magazine was to dispel the "grotesque stereotypes" of the "Dark Continent", a disparaging term used for Africa and its people. Middle-class African-American children "consumed this propaganda along with the white children who were its implied audience" in children's literary works such as the magazine St. Nicholas; the 1919 article "The True Brownies" included commentary by Du Bois discussing children, stating that "to seek to raise them in ignorance of their racial identity and peculiar situation is inadvisable—impossible", in which the use of the phrase "peculiar situation" is an allusion to the euphemism "peculiar institution", meaning slavery.

Du Bois believed. The name of the magazine is derived from the folkloric creatures brownies, who were said to complete household chores at night in exchange for food, alluding to African Americans being used as servants, but the term is used as signification in the "oppressive literary-historical context"; the creators wanted to "make colored children realize that being'colored' is a normal beautiful thing". Another goal was to expand the canon of black children's literature, in which fiction and fantasy were rare, to encourage youth participation in the NAACP, it intended to develop The Talented Tenth, capable African Americans in the top decile who could become leaders in the black community. The seven goals stated in "The True Brownies" were: To make colored children realize that being "colored" is a normal, beautiful thing. To make them familiar with the history and achievements of the Negro race. To make them know that other colored children have grown into beautiful and famous persons. To teach them a delicate code of honor and action in their relations with white children.

To turn their little hurts and resentments into emulation and love of their homes and companions. To point out the best amusements and joys and worth-while things of life. To inspire them to prepare for definite occupations and duties with a broad spirit of sacrifice; each issue was published on good quality paper, the cover of each designed by prominent black artists. Its format and layout was similar to that of The Crisis, it contained little advertising. Illustrations and photographs complemented the varied content, which included poetry, biographies of successful black people, games and current events. Biographies included those for Phillis Wheatley, the first published African-American woman, Bert Williams, a popular entertainer of the Vaudeville era, Sojourner Truth, an abolitionist and women's rights activist, born into slavery; the advertising it did include promoted black children's literature not available in bookstores. Each issue cost 15 cents, with a yearly subscription costing US$1.5.

Common elements in each issue were the column "As the Crow Flies", written by Du Bois to relate current events to the children, an advice column by Fauset titled "The Judge", a reader's letters section named "The Jury", "Little People of the Month" featuring photographs and the artistic and academic achievements of children submitted by its readers. Content generated by Du Bois would exhibit his "opposition to the social philosophy" of Booker T. Washington, his articles for "As the Crow Flies" were at "a level sophisticated for a children's magazine". The inaugural issue contained a photo of African-American children protesting violence against blacks by marching in the Silent Parade of 1917 in New York City. Fauset solicited submissions from many notable authors those in the Harlem Renaissance movement. Among notable authors to have material published in The Brownies' Book were Langston Hughes, Nella Larsen, Winifred Davidson, Effie Lee Newsome and Georgia Douglas Johnson; some of the authors had read St. Nicholas as children, including Du Bois' daughter Yolande and Newsome.

Hughes submitted a letter to the editor and his high school graduation photograph to the magazine, which published it in one of i

Kattradhu Kalavu

Kattradhu Kalavu is a 2010 Indian Tamil-language action film written and directed by Balaji Devi Prasad, an erstwhile advertisement filmmaker. It stars Kreshna of Alibhabha fame and Vijayalakshmi in the lead roles, while choreographer Kalyan, Cochin Hanifa, Sampath Raj, Santhana Bharathi, Ganja Karuppu play supporting roles; the music was composed by Paul Jacob with editing by Mu. Kasivishwanathan and cinematography by Nirav Shah; the film released on 28 May 2010. Singam gets, he decides to start threatening. He begins with a plan to corner the big shot, he needs fast money. With a common purpose, they soon work out a plan, they blackmail the big shot with videotapes that they threaten to release all over the media if he refused to pay up. Buoyed by the success of their maiden outing, they decide to become con artists, they are successful in various ventures and end up blackmailing a minister. The minister, after caving in to their threats, decides to settle scores. What happens next forms the rest of the story.

The music was released by Sony Music India. Kattradhu Kalavu on IMDb


Socken is the name used for a part of a county in Sweden. In Denmark similar areas are known in Norway sorn or sokn and in Finland pitäjä/socken. A socken is a country-side area, formed around a church in the Middle Ages. A socken served as a parish, it served as a civil parish or an administrative parish, became a predecessor to today's municipalities of Sweden, Finland and Denmark. Today it is a traditional area with frozen borders, in Sweden identical to those of the early 20th century country-side parishes; the socken served as a registration unit for buildings, in Sweden replaced by identical districts as registration unit. A socken consists of several villages and industry localities, is named after the main village and the original church. Socken, in old Swedish sokn is an archaic name for kyrksocken, it describes a secular area, a sockenkommun or a taxation area, a jordbokssocken. In the Nordic countries a socken was an administrative area consisting of several villages or localities in much the same way as the civil parishes in England, but the concept is not used in reference to towns.

A socken had a socken church, it was governed by a socken council and it was the predecessor to modern municipalitiesIn 1862, the kyrksockens and the sockenkommuns in Sweden were abolished as administrative areas during municipality reforms. The jordbrukssocken remained in use until the Fastighetsdatareformen 1976–1995 was complete. No further alterations to the sockens was made after this. On 1 January 2016, a new administrative division and area for statistics, registration districts or districts, was introduced in Sweden. Geographically, the districts correspond with the parishes of the Church of Sweden as of 31 December 1999. About 85% of the old sockens corresponds with the new districts. Though the term socken is no longer used administratively in Sweden, it is still used for cataloging and registering historical archives, dialect research, toponymy and by local historical societies. Socken is a convenient parameter for these purposes. List of sockens in Sweden on Swedish Wikipedia, sv:Kategori:Socknar i Sverige Administrative divisions of Sweden Civil parishes in England Historical region Hundred Municipalities of Sweden Parish Parishes of the Church of Sweden Soke Swedish municipal reforms of 1862 Townships of the People's Republic of China Almquist, Johan Axel.

Den civila lokalförvaltningen i Sverige 1523–1630: med särskild hänsyn till den kamerala indelningen. Meddelanden från svenska Riksarkivet, 99-0506720-5. Stockholm: Norstedt. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Lagerstedt, Torsten. Den civila lokalförvaltningens gränser 1630–1952: kameral redovisning, areell beteckning och gränsförändring. Meddelanden från Kulturgeografiska institutionen vid Stockholms universitet, 0585-3508. Stockholm. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Litzen, veikko. "Om socken". Historisk Tidskrift för Finland. Helsingfors: 331–335. Svensson, Patric. Peter Aronsson & Lennart Johansson. "Att skapa ordning och reda: administrativa förändringar på landsbygden omkring 1870–1940". Stationssamhällen. Växjö: Univ. 1999: 146–154. Retrieved 16 June 2014. Swedish Tax Agency, Parishes in Sweden, historical–current. Swedish National Heritage Board, List of towns and sockens