Boules is a collective name for a wide range of games similar to bowls and bocce in which the objective is to throw or roll heavy balls as close as possible to a small target ball, called the jack in English. Boules-type games are traditional and popular in many European countries and are popular in some former French colonies in Africa and Asia. Boules games are played in open spaces in villages and towns. Dedicated playing areas for boules-type games are large, rectangular courts made of flattened earth, gravel, or crushed stone, enclosed in wooden rails or back boards; as early as the 6th century BC the ancient Greeks are recorded to have played a game of tossing coins flat stones, stone balls, called spheristics, trying to have them go as far as possible. The ancient Romans modified the game by adding a target that had to be approached as as possible; this Roman variation was brought to Provence by Roman sailors. A Roman sepulchre in Florence shows people stooping down to measure the points.

After the Romans, the stone balls were replaced by wooden balls. In the Middle Ages, Erasmus referred to the game as globurum in Latin, but it became known as boules, it was played throughout Europe. King Henry III of England banned the playing of the game by his archers – he wanted them to be practicing archery, not playing boules. In the 14th century, Charles IV and Charles V of France forbade the sport to commoners. By the 19th century, in England the game had become bowls or "lawn bowling". In France it was played throughout the country; the French artist Meissonnier made two paintings showing people playing the game, Honoré de Balzac described a match in La Comédie Humaine. In the South of France, the game evolved into jeu provençal, in which players rolled their boules or ran three steps before throwing a boule; the game was popular in France in the second half of the 19th century. It was played informally in villages all over Provence on squares of land in the shade of plane trees. Matches of jeu provençal around the start of the 20th century are memorably described in the memoirs of novelist Marcel Pagnol.

In 1910, an offshoot of jeu provençal called pétanque was developed in the town of La Ciotat, in Provence. It became the dominant boules sport in France, is played in other European countries. Boules games may be sub-divided into two categories based on typical throwing technique: games where the balls are rolled games where the balls are thrown Boules games may be subdivided into two other categories based on typical throwing technique: games where there is a "run up" to the throw games where there is no "run up" to the throw Alternatively, boules games may be subdivided into categories based on the structure and material of the ball: games where the balls are solid and made out of wood, or a wood-like plastic, composite, or epoxy resin similar to billiard balls games where the balls are hollow and made out of metal steel or bronze games where the balls are stuffed and made out of leather or some similar soft material Alternatively, boules games may be subdivided into categories based on the shape of the ball: games where the balls are spherical games where the balls are not spherical, but have a shape bias designed to cause the ball to travel a curved path There may be other variations as well, for instance in the way the ball is launched, in the dimensions of the playing area, whether obstacles are considered in-bounds or out-of-bounds, whether it is legal to play balls off of enclosing boards or obstacles.

Balls are thrown underhand rather than overhand. In games where the balls are rolled, the delivery is done with the palm of the hand up, whereas in games where the balls are thrown, the delivery is done palm down. A palm-down delivery can give a thrown ball backspin, which helps to keep it from rolling away from the spot to which it has been thrown. Bocce, a rolling game, is played on a prepared court with markers and sideboards. In contrast, pétanque, a throwing game, can be played on any flat, unprepared outdoor surface. Sideboards are not a recognized part of the game --; some boules games began as variations of earlier games, deliberately created and designed to accommodate the needs of players with physical disabilities. Such variations produce. Boule is a French word for'ball'. Boccia is an Italian word for'ball' Volo is derived from the Italian verb volare meaning'to fly' The small wooden target ball is called the jack in English, le but or cochonnet in French, or pallino in Italian. In Italian bocce, balls may be thrown in three ways: punto and volo.

A punto shot or puntata is the way of pointing a ball by rolling the ball as close as possible to the pallino. A raffa or raffata shot is the way of knocki

Slum Dwellers International

Slum/Shack Dwellers International, is a global social movement of the urban poor started in 1996. It forms a network of community-based organisations in 33 countries across Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean; the SDI secretariat is located in South Africa. The current chairperson is Sheela Patel. Most of SDI's members are poor urban households squatting on the edge of cities in order to access employment possibilities and SDI aims to ensure that the needs of its members are integrated and not marginalised by city administrations. SDI distributes community-generated data on cities and slums through the'Know Your City' campaign, run in association with United Cities and Local Governments and Cities Alliance. SDI's former President Jockin Arputham said in 2012: "Global solidarity of the urban poor has been a long-term dream for many of us in the SDI network; this dream began to take shape in the early 1990s when shack dwellers from South Africa’s informal settlements began to visit pavement dwellers living on the streets of Mumbai.

Since those days the network has grown in numbers, in influence and in its impact on the everyday lives of millions of urban poor families. Practical, face-to-face learning remains the main driving force of the SDI network that now stretches from Asia, through Africa to Latin America and the Caribbean. With its women-centred savings collectives at the heart of its practice in 34 countries SDI is forging a new system of community organizing that runs in an unbroken thread from the household to the settlement, from the settlement to the city, from the city to the country and from the country to the global stage." SDI works with the following international agencies: UN Habitat. SDI has an advisory board made up of slum dwellers from India, Philippines and South Africa, housing or urban development Ministers or high officials from South Africa, India, Sri Lanka and Sweden. SDI'S commitment to work with local and national Governments, bi-lateral and multi-lateral agencies is based on the principal of militant negotiations.

This approach comes from a perspective that the problem of urban poverty cannot be addressed at scale without direct collaboration between organised communities of the urban poor and formal actors in the sector local Governments. However certain human rights activists and academics have interpreted this as proof of co-optation by state institutions and international agencies and undermining more rights-based radical social movements. To underscore this critique reference is made to SDI's links to these formal institutions and not to its practice and its outcomes; this includes claims that SDI is supported by a number of prominent World Bank intellectuals such as Arjun Appadurai. Its role on agencies such as Cities Alliance is cited as proof of a neo-liberal orientation. Financial support for SDI projects, trans-national learning, global advocacy and the Urban Poor Fund International comes from community savings as well as a range of international donors including but not limited to; as a network of networks of communities of the urban poor, SDI is committed to grassroots solidarity at the global and the national levels.

It has partnerships and memoranda of understanding with Habitat for Humanity, the Association of African Planning Schools. It retains cordial links with other international networks such as the Huairou Commission. In October 2009, SDI made a statement in solidarity with Abahlali baseMjondolo when a militia affiliated with the ANC attacked the movement in Kennedy Road informal settlement in Durban. Prior to this SDI was accused of supporting the controversial KwaZulu-Natal Elimination and Prevention of Re-emergence of Slums Act, 2007. SDI responded that their working partnership with the Provincial government and the housing department did not mean it supported the Act. Know Your City brought together slum dwellers and local governments in 103 cities across Africa and Latin America, covering 1,238 settlements to partner in community-led slum profiling and mapping. Professor José Lobo, scientist at Arizona State University and author of a report for the campaign said in 2018: "Slums are not undifferentiated seas of poverty and misery, nor are they ‘problems’ to be fixed.

There is a lot of knowledge within poor communities everywhere, financial resources to be tapped into if the residents are allowed to be involved in the design and implementation of solutions." Researchers from the University of Chicago, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Sam Houston State University and the Santa Fe Institute were involved. SDI country affiliates have been awarded the UN Habitat Scroll of Honour: SA Federation, Sheela Patel, Rose Molokoane, Namibia Federation SDI members selected as Ashoka Fellows: Joel Bolnick, Anaclaudia Rossbach, Jane Weru, Andrea Bolnick. Celine D Cruz received the Yale World Fellowship in 2003 Jane Weru has won the Rockefeller Innovations Award in 2011 Sheela Patel received the David Rockefeller Bridging Leadership Award in 2009 Sheela Patel received the Padma Shri award, the fourth highest civilian honor in India, in 2011 Jockin Arputham received the Magsaysay Award in 2000 Jockin Arputham received the

Gregory Breit

Gregory Breit was a Russian-born Jewish American physicist and professor at NYU, U. of Wisconsin–Madison and Buffalo. In 1921, he was Paul Ehrenfest's assistant in Leiden. In 1925, while at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Breit joined with Merle Tuve in using a pulsed radio transmitter to determine the height of the ionosphere, a technique important in radar development. Together with Eugene Wigner, Breit gave a description of particle resonant states with the relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution in 1929, with Edward Condon, he first described proton-proton dispersion, he is credited with deriving the Breit equation. The Breit frame of reference is named after him. In 1934, together with John A. Wheeler, Breit described the Breit–Wheeler process. In 1939 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences. In April 1940, he proposed to the National Research Council that American scientists observe a policy of self-censorship due to the possibility of their work being used for military purposes by enemy powers in World War II.

During the early stages of the war, Breit was chosen by Arthur Compton to supervise the early design of the first atomic bomb during an early phase in what would become the Manhattan Project. Breit resigned his position in 1942, feeling that the work was going too and that there had been security breaches on the project. In 2014, experimentalists proposed a way to validate an idea by Breit and John A. Wheeler that matter formation could be achieved by interacting light particles. Breit was Associate Editor of the Physical Review four times, he was awarded the Franklin Medal in 1964. In 1967, he was awarded the National Medal of Science. Annotated Bibliography for Gregory Breit from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues Biographical Memoirs of Gregory Breit by McAllister Hull National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir Gregory Breit at the Mathematics Genealogy Project