Île Seguin is an island on the Seine river between Boulogne-Billancourt and Sèvres, in the west suburbs of Paris, France. It has a surface area of 11.5 hectares, is positioned opposite Meudon, a short distance downstream from the Île Saint-Germain. Administratively Meudon and the island are included as part of Boulogne-Billancourt, on the river's right bank, rather than of Sèvres on the left bank. During most of the twentieth century, Île Seguin was home to a Renault factory, covering the whole island; the last car from the Renault production line was a 1992 Renault 5 Supercinq. The factory remained dormant until 2005; the architect Jean Nouvel was appointed in 2009 as the lead planner to transform the island into a new cultural hub. The first permanent concert and performance spaces in the project, known as La Seine Musicale, were opened in April 2017. Before the seventeenth century the island was owned by the Abbey of St. Victor and the land was cultivated by tenant farmers; the island's importance received a sudden boost at the end of the seventeenth century with the construction of a Palace at nearby Versailles, because it was positioned along the route that connected the new palace with Paris.
The road was much frequented by itinerant aristocrats. In 1747 the palace builder's grandson, Louis XV, acquired the island - known as the "Île de Sève", on behalf of his daughters; the island found itself renamed as the "Île Madame", during the pre-revolutionary decades it was home to a commercial laundry, the "Buanderie de Sèvres". Under the revolutionary government the laundry was nationalised and the island fell under direct state control. In 1793 it was owned by a banker called Jean-Baptiste Vandenyver, but he was guillotined a few months later. Control of the island was disputed, in the broader context of the redrawing of the Paris city limits, between the three municipalities/districts of Sèvres and Auteuil. In 1794 the island was acquired by the entrepreneurial chemist, Armand Seguin, from whom it takes its name. Seguin became rich, in part by using his island to construct a factory applying a new approach to tanning leather, on an industrial scale; the island continued to be home to laundry businesses.
During the closing decades of the nineteenth century, while retaining its industrial businesses, the island became a leisure destination, used for recreational boating, clay pigeon shooting and angling. Louis Renault, a founder and the energetic hands-on owner of the "Société des Automobiles Renault", was one of several major automakers to have expanded production and to have prospered during the war. At this point he controlled factories on both banks of the river, in 1919 he acquired the Île Seguin in the middle of it. Renault built his first factory on the island between 1929 and 1934. For the rest of the twentieth century the island's history would be the history of the Renault plant; the factory was self-sufficient, with its own electric power generation facilities and several testing sites including an underground test track. Infrastructure included dock facilities necessary for taking delivery of bulk supplies and for transporting finished automobiles by river. Billancourt became France's largest factory.
During the Second World War the factory, at this time being used to produce trucks for the Germans, was an easy target for bomber pilots using the River Seine to navigate, suffered from several destructive allied bombings attacks. Renault himself was accused of collaboration directly after the war, in the frenzied atmosphere of retribution that characterized the post-liberation period he died in prison under suspicious circumstances, without benefiting from the trial, intended for him, his company was placed under the direction of a well-connected resistance hero, on 15 January 1945 nationalised and renamed "Régie nationale des usines Renault" France had missed out on the economic recovery that had boosted prosperity in Britain and Germany during the 1930s, but she participated in the sustained post-war boom that got going in the 1950s. The Renault plant on the Île Seguin became, at this time, a beacon for the growth and modernisation of French industry, reflecting the success of models such as the Renault 4CV launched in 1947, which would be the first French car to break through the "one million" threshold.
The factory continued to justify its reputation, established during the turbulence of the mid-1930s, as a bastion of trades union militancy, notably being closed down by a 33-day strike during the "Événements" of May 1968. Growth in the 1950s and 1960s enabled Renault to open several newer car plants on greenfield sites in France and further afield. Rising wages, union militancy and high employment taxes encouraged the French auto-industry to become a pioneer of automated vehicle assembly and the Billancourt factory, designed for an era of labor-intensive production processes, was hard to adapt to the new techniques. Renault announced in 1989 that the factory would close and Billancourt's last car, a Renault Supercinq, emerged on 31 March 1992. A major clean-up of the buildings began at once, but the challenge was formidable with regard to the necessary asbestos removal and soil decontamination. Destruction of the factory buildings began only on 29 March 2004, was completed on 8 March 2005.
At the time of the factory, the island was accessible from two metal bridges (a suspension bridge designed by Daydé in 1928 linked the island to the right bank o
Hauts-de-Seine is a department of France. It is part of the Métropole du Grand Paris and of the Île-de-France region, covers the western inner suburbs of Paris, it is small and densely populated and contains the modern office and shopping complex known as La Défense. Hauts-de-Seine and two other small départements, Seine-Saint-Denis and Val-de-Marne, form a ring around Paris, known as the Petite Couronne and are together with the City of Paris included in the Greater Paris since 1 January 2016. Hauts-de-Seine is made up of three departmental arrondissements and 36 communes: Hauts-de-Seine has a general council of which members are called general councillors; the general council is the deliberative organ of the department. The general councilors are elected by the inhabitants of the departement for a 6-years term; the general council is ruled by a president. See Hauts-de-Seine General Council; the Hauts-de-Seine department was created in 1968, from parts of the former départements of Seine and Seine-et-Oise.
Its creation reflected the implementation of a law passed in 1964, Nanterre had been selected as the prefecture for the new department early in 1965. In the 1990s and early 2000s, Hauts-de-Seine received national attention as the result of a corruption scandal concerning the misuse of public funds provided for the department's housing projects. Implicated were former minister and former president of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Charles Pasqua, other personalities of the RPR party. Hauts-de-Seine is one of Europe's richest areas, its GDP per capita was US$119,778 in 2015, according to INSEE official figures. Hauts-de-Seine was the political base of Nicolas Sarkozy, President of the Republic from 2007 to 2012, he was the mayor of Neuilly-sur-Seine in the department. Charles Pasqua was based in Hauts-de-Seine. Website of the General council Prefecture website
An aircraft is a machine, able to fly by gaining support from the air. It counters the force of gravity by using either static lift or by using the dynamic lift of an airfoil, or in a few cases the downward thrust from jet engines. Common examples of aircraft include airplanes, airships and hot air balloons; the human activity that surrounds aircraft is called aviation. The science of aviation, including designing and building aircraft, is called aeronautics. Crewed aircraft are flown by an onboard pilot, but unmanned aerial vehicles may be remotely controlled or self-controlled by onboard computers. Aircraft may be classified by different criteria, such as lift type, aircraft propulsion and others. Flying model craft and stories of manned flight go back many centuries, however the first manned ascent – and safe descent – in modern times took place by larger hot-air balloons developed in the 18th century; each of the two World Wars led to great technical advances. The history of aircraft can be divided into five eras: Pioneers of flight, from the earliest experiments to 1914.
First World War, 1914 to 1918. Aviation between the World Wars, 1918 to 1939. Second World War, 1939 to 1945. Postwar era called the jet age, 1945 to the present day. Aerostats use buoyancy to float in the air in much the same way, they are characterized by one or more large gasbags or canopies, filled with a low-density gas such as helium, hydrogen, or hot air, less dense than the surrounding air. When the weight of this is added to the weight of the aircraft structure, it adds up to the same weight as the air that the craft displaces. Small hot-air balloons called sky lanterns were first invented in ancient China prior to the 3rd century BC and used in cultural celebrations, were only the second type of aircraft to fly, the first being kites which were first invented in ancient China over two thousand years ago. A balloon was any aerostat, while the term airship was used for large, powered aircraft designs – fixed-wing. In 1919 Frederick Handley Page was reported as referring to "ships of the air," with smaller passenger types as "Air yachts."
In the 1930s, large intercontinental flying boats were sometimes referred to as "ships of the air" or "flying-ships". – though none had yet been built. The advent of powered balloons, called dirigible balloons, of rigid hulls allowing a great increase in size, began to change the way these words were used. Huge powered aerostats, characterized by a rigid outer framework and separate aerodynamic skin surrounding the gas bags, were produced, the Zeppelins being the largest and most famous. There were still no fixed-wing aircraft or non-rigid balloons large enough to be called airships, so "airship" came to be synonymous with these aircraft. Several accidents, such as the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, led to the demise of these airships. Nowadays a "balloon" is an unpowered aerostat and an "airship" is a powered one. A powered, steerable aerostat is called a dirigible. Sometimes this term is applied only to non-rigid balloons, sometimes dirigible balloon is regarded as the definition of an airship.
Non-rigid dirigibles are characterized by a moderately aerodynamic gasbag with stabilizing fins at the back. These soon became known as blimps. During the Second World War, this shape was adopted for tethered balloons; the nickname blimp was adopted along with the shape. In modern times, any small dirigible or airship is called a blimp, though a blimp may be unpowered as well as powered. Heavier-than-air aircraft, such as airplanes, must find some way to push air or gas downwards, so that a reaction occurs to push the aircraft upwards; this dynamic movement through the air is the origin of the term aerodyne. There are two ways to produce dynamic upthrust: aerodynamic lift, powered lift in the form of engine thrust. Aerodynamic lift involving wings is the most common, with fixed-wing aircraft being kept in the air by the forward movement of wings, rotorcraft by spinning wing-shaped rotors sometimes called rotary wings. A wing is a flat, horizontal surface shaped in cross-section as an aerofoil. To fly, air must generate lift.
A flexible wing is a wing made of fabric or thin sheet material stretched over a rigid frame. A kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the speed of the wind over its wings, which may be flexible or rigid, fixed, or rotary. With powered lift, the aircraft directs its engine thrust vertically downward. V/STOL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet and F-35B take off and land vertically using powered lift and transfer to aerodynamic lift in steady flight. A pure rocket is not regarded as an aerodyne, because it does not depend on the air for its lift. Rocket-powered missiles that obtain aerodynamic lift at high speed due to airflow over their bodies are a marginal case; the forerunner of the fixed-wing aircraft is the kite. Whereas a fixed-wing aircraft relies on its forward speed to create airflow over the wings, a kite is tethered to the ground and relies on the wind blowing over its wings to provide lift. Kites were the first kind of aircraft to fly, were invented in China around 500 BC.
Much aerodynamic research was done with kites before test aircraft, wind tunnels, computer modelling programs became available. The first heavier-than-air craft capable of controlled free-flight were gliders. A glider designed by Geo
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Val de Seine
The Val de Seine is one of the most important business districts of the Paris agglomeration. Located southwest of the city, it spreads along a bend of the Seine in the municipalities of Boulogne-Billancourt and Issy-les-Moulineaux and in the 15th arrondissement of Paris; the district, dominated by industry during most of the 20th century, has specialized since the 1980s in communication activities and today it is the most important business district of the Paris agglomeration in that field. The Val de Seine contains the headquarters of most major French TV networks, including TF1, France Télévisions, Canal+, TPS, Eurosport and France 24
Passy is an area of Paris, located in the 16th arrondissement, on the Right Bank. It is home to many of the city's wealthiest residents. Passy was a commune on the outskirts of Paris. In 1658, hot springs were discovered around; this attracted Parisian society and English visitors, some of whom made the area, which combined attractive countryside with both modest houses and fine residences, their winter retreat. The population was larger in summer. In 1861 the population was 11,431. Passy's population was 17,594 when it was absorbed into Paris along with several other communities in 1860. Alexandre Le Riche de La Poupelinière, French tax farmer and music patron Benjamin Franklin, American politician and inventor Niccolò Piccinni, Italian composer Princess Marie Louise of Savoy, Savoyan princess General Charles Edward Jennings de Kilmaine, Irish soldier and revolutionary Seymour Fleming, British noblewoman Pierre Baillot, French violinist and composer Jean François Boissonade de Fontarabie, French historian.
Pierre Bretonneau, French medical doctor Antoine-Henri Jomini, Swiss army officer Alphonse de Lamartine, French poet and politician Gioachino Rossini, Italian composer Paul de Kock, French novelist Honoré de Balzac, French novelist and playwright Alfred Des Essarts, French playwright and poet Marc Bonnehée, French opera singer Camille Pissarro, French painter Virginia Oldoini, Countess di Castiglione, Italian aristocrat Georges Clemenceau, French politician and journalist Berthe Morisot, French painter William Kissam Vanderbilt, American businessman Eugène Demets, French music publisher Jacques-Emile Blanche, French painter Comtesse de Buyer-Mimeure, the former Miss Daisy Polk fl. 1917), American activist Léa Seydoux, French actress Passy was the home of Benjamin Franklin during the nine years that he lived in France during the American Revolutionary War. For much of this time, he was a lodger in the home of Monsieur de Chaumont. Franklin established a small printing press in his lodgings to print pamphlets and other material as part of his mandate to maintain French support for the revolution.
He called it the Passy Press. Among his printing projects, he produced comics he called passports, he developed a typeface known as "le Franklin". He printed a 1782 treatise by Pierre-André Gargaz titled A Project of Universal and Perpetual Peace, which laid out a vision for maintaining a permanent peace in Europe, it proposed a central governing council composed of representatives of all the nations of Europe to arbitrate international disputes. He worked on his scientific projects at a laboratory he shared with others, installed by Louis XV in the Château de la Muette; when Franklin returned to America, the new American Ambassador to France, Thomas Jefferson, wrote: "When he left Passy, it seemed as if the village had lost its patriarch." To this day, a street in Passy bears the name Rue Benjamin Franklin. The painting Albert Gleizes painting Les ponts de Paris, The Bridges of Paris, housed in the collection of the Museum Moderner Kunst, refers to the spirit of solidarity among the newly formed "Artists of Passy", during a time when factions had begun to develop within Cubism.
Les Artistes de Passy consisted of a diverse grouping of avant-garde artistes, including several who held meetings in 1910 at the rue Visconti studio of Henri Le Fauconnier. Their first diner presided over by neo-symbolist Paul Fort was held at the house of Balzac, rue Raynouard, in the presence of Guillaume Apollinaire, Raymond Duchamp-Villon, Marie Laurencin, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger, André Mare, Jean Metzinger, Francis Picabia, Henry Valensi, Jacques Villon. Albert Gleizes chose Passy as the subject of this painting. There is now a rue a square de Yorktown near the Trocadéro. A lively street in the area is Rue de Passy, which goes from La Muette to the Place de Costa Rica just behind the Trocadéro, it has boutiques and chain stores along its length. The Cimetière de Passy, located at 2, rue du Commandant Schœlsing, is the burial place for many well-known persons including American silent film star Pearl White, the painters Édouard Manet and Berthe Morisot, composer Claude Debussy.
Honoré de Balzac lived and wrote in Passy, his house is now a museum. The apartment in which Marlon Brando trysts with Maria Schneider in Bernardo Bertolucci's 1972 film Last Tango in Paris was located in Passy. Auteuil-Neuilly-Passy Théodore Année Madame Brillon Media related to Passy, Paris at Wikimedia Commons
Filmmaking is the process of making a film in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic and political contexts, using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques, it involves a large number of people, can take from a few months to several years to complete. Film production consists of five major stages: Development: The first stage in which the ideas for the film are created, rights to books/plays are bought etc. and the screenplay is written. Financing for the project has to be obtained. Pre-production: Arrangements and preparations are made for the shoot, such as hiring cast and film crew, selecting locations and constructing sets.
Production: The raw footage and other elements for the film are recorded during the film shoot. Post-production: The images and visual effects of the recorded film are edited and combined into a finished product. Distribution: The completed film is distributed and screened in cinemas and/or released to home video. In this stage, the project producer selects a story, which may come from a book, another film, true story, video game, comic book, graphic novel, or an original idea, etc. After identifying a theme or underlying message, the producer works with writers to prepare a synopsis. Next they produce a step outline, which breaks the story down into one-paragraph scenes that concentrate on dramatic structure, they prepare a treatment, a 25-to-30-page description of the story, its mood, characters. This has little dialogue and stage direction, but contains drawings that help visualize key points. Another way is to produce a scriptment. Next, a screenwriter writes a screenplay over a period of several months.
The screenwriter may rewrite it several times to improve dramatization, structure, characters and overall style. However, producers skip the previous steps and develop submitted screenplays which investors and other interested parties assess through a process called script coverage. A film distributor may be contacted at an early stage to assess the market and potential financial success of the film. Hollywood distributors adopt a hard-headed no approach and consider factors such as the film genre, the target audience and assumed audience, the historical success of similar films, the actors who might appear in the film, potential directors. All these factors imply a certain appeal of the film to a possible audience. Not all films make a profit from the theatrical release alone, so film companies take DVD sales and worldwide distribution rights into account; the producer and screenwriter prepare a film pitch, or treatment, present it to potential financiers. They will pitch the film to actors and directors in order to "attach" them to the project.
Many projects fail to enter so-called development hell. If a pitch succeeds, a film receives a "green light", meaning someone offers financial backing: a major film studio, film council, or independent investor; the parties involved negotiate a sign contracts. Once all parties have met and the deal has been set, the film may proceed into the pre-production period. By this stage, the film should have a defined marketing strategy and target audience. Development of animated films differs in that it is the director who develops and pitches a story to an executive producer on the basis of rough storyboards, it is rare for a full-length screenplay to exist at that point in time. If the film is green-lighted for further development and pre-production a screenwriter is brought in to prepare the screenplay. Analogous to most any business venture, financing of a film project deals with the study of filmmaking as the management and procurement of investments, it includes the dynamics of assets that are required to fund the filmmaking and liabilities incurred during the filmmaking over the time period from early development through the management of profits and losses after distribution under conditions of different degrees of uncertainty and risk.
The practical aspects of filmmaking finance can be defined as the science of the money management of all phases involved in filmmaking. Film finance aims to price assets based on their risk level and their expected rate of return based upon anticipated profits and protection against losses. In pre-production, every step of creating the film is designed and planned; the production company is created and a production office established. The film is pre-visualized by the director, may be storyboarded with the help of illustrators and concept artists. A production budget is drawn up to plan expenditures for the film. For major productions, insurance is procured to protect against accidents; the nature of the film, the budget, determine the size and type of crew used during filmmaking. Many Hollywood blockbusters employ a cast and crew of hundreds, while a low-budget, independent film may be made by a skeleton crew of eight or nine; these are typical crew positions: Storyboard artist: creates visual images to help the director and production designer communicate their ideas to the production team.
Director: is primarily