Horse meat forms a significant part of the culinary traditions of many countries in Europe, South America and Asia. The top eight countries consume about 4.7 million horses a year. For the majority of humanity's early existence, wild horses were hunted as a source of protein. During the Paleolithic, wild horses formed an important source of food for humans. In many parts of Europe, the consumption of horse meat continued throughout the Middle Ages until modern times, despite a papal ban on horse meat in 732. Horse meat was eaten as part of Germanic pagan religious ceremonies in northern Europe ceremonies associated with the worship of Odin; the earliest horses evolved on the North American continent, by about 12,000 BCE, they had migrated to other parts of the world, becoming extinct in the Americas. The now-extinct Hagerman horse of Idaho, about the size of a modern-day large pony, is one example of an indigenous New World horse species. In the 15th and 16th centuries, followed by other European settlers, re-introduced horses to the Americas.
Some horses became feral, began to be hunted by the indigenous Pehuenche people of what is now Chile and Argentina. Early humans hunted horses as they did other game; the meat was, still is, preserved by being sun-dried in the high Andes into a product known as charqui. France dates its taste for horse meat to the Revolution. With the fall of the aristocracy, its auxiliaries had to find new means of subsistence; the horses maintained by the aristocracy as a sign of prestige ended up being used to alleviate the hunger of the masses. During the Napoleonic campaigns, the surgeon-in-chief of Napoleon's Grand Army, Baron Dominique-Jean Larrey, advised the starving troops to eat the meat of horses. At the siege of Alexandria, the meat of young Arab horses relieved an epidemic of scurvy. At the battle of Eylau in 1807, Larrey served horse as bœuf à la mode. At Aspern-Essling, cut off from the supply lines, the cavalry used the breastplates of fallen cuirassiers as cooking pans and gunpowder as seasoning, thus founded a practice which carried on until at least the Waterloo campaign.
Horse meat gained widespread acceptance in French cuisine during the years of the Second French Empire. The high cost of living in Paris prevented many working-class citizens from buying meat such as pork or beef. During the Siege of Paris, horse meat, along with the meat of donkeys and mules, was eaten by anyone who could afford it because of a shortage of fresh meat in the blockaded city, because horses were eating grain, needed by the human populace. Though there were large numbers of horses in Paris, the supply was limited. Not champion racehorses were spared, but the meat became scarce. Many Parisians gained a taste for horse meat during the siege, after the war ended, horse meat remained popular. In other places and times of siege or starvation, horses are viewed as a food source of last resort. Despite the general Anglophone taboo and donkey meat was eaten in Britain in Yorkshire, until the 1930s, and, in times of postwar food shortages, surged in popularity in the United States and was considered for use as hospital food.
A 2007 Time magazine article about horse meat brought to the United States from Canada described the meat as a sweet, superlean, oddly soft meat, closer to beef than to venison. Horse is eaten in many countries in Europe and Asia, it is not a available food in some English-speaking countries such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, the United States, English Canada. It is taboo in Brazil and among the Romani people and Jewish people the world over. Horse meat is not eaten in Spain, except in the north, but the country exports horses both as live animals and as slaughtered meat for the French and Italian markets. Horse meat is consumed in some North American and Latin American countries, but is illegal in some others. For example, the Food Standards Code of Australia and New Zealand definition of'meat' does not include horse. In Tonga, horse meat is eaten nationally, Tongan emigrants living in the United States, New Zealand, Australia have retained a taste for it, claiming Christian missionaries introduced it to them.
In Islamic law only animals that chew their cud (sheep, goats and camels are considered halal. Consuming horse meat is not halal but makrooh, which means it should better be avoided but eating it is not a sin; the consumption of horse meat has been common in Central Asia societies, past or present, due to the abundance of steppes suitable for raising horses. In North Africa, horse meat has been consumed, but exclusively by the Christian Copts and the Hanafi Sunnis, but has never been eaten in the Maghreb. Horse meat is forbidden by Jewish dietary laws because horses do not have cloven hooves and they are not ruminants. In the eighth century, Popes Gregory III and Zachary instructed Saint Boniface, missionary to the Germans, to forbid the eating of horse meat to those he converted, due to its association with Germanic pagan ceremonies; the people of Iceland allegedly
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
The Thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing. Although the word thoroughbred is sometimes used to refer to any breed of purebred horse, it technically refers only to the Thoroughbred breed. Thoroughbreds are considered "hot-blooded" horses that are known for their agility and spirit; the Thoroughbred as it is known today was developed in 17th- and 18th-century England, when native mares were crossbred with imported Oriental stallions of Arabian and Turkoman breeding. All modern Thoroughbreds can trace their pedigrees to three stallions imported into England in the 17th century and 18th century and to a larger number of foundation mares of English breeding. During the 18th and 19th centuries, the Thoroughbred breed spread throughout the world. Millions of Thoroughbreds exist today, around 100,000 foals are registered each year worldwide. Thoroughbreds are used for racing, but are bred for other riding disciplines such as show jumping, combined training, dressage and fox hunting.
They are commonly crossbred to create new breeds or to improve existing ones, have been influential in the creation of the Quarter Horse, Anglo-Arabian, various warmblood breeds. Thoroughbred racehorses perform with maximum exertion, which has resulted in high accident rates and health problems such as bleeding from the lungs. Other health concerns include low fertility, abnormally small hearts and a small hoof-to-body-mass ratio. There are several theories for the reasons behind the prevalence of accidents and health problems in the Thoroughbred breed, research is ongoing; the typical Thoroughbred ranges from 15.2 to 17.0 hands high. They are most bay, dark bay or brown, black, or gray. Less common colors recognized in the United States include palomino. White is rare, but is a recognized color separate from gray; the face and lower legs may be marked with white, but white will not appear on the body. Coat patterns that have more than one color on the body, such as Pinto or Appaloosa, are not recognized by mainstream breed registries.
Good-quality Thoroughbreds have a well-chiseled head on a long neck, high withers, a deep chest, a short back, good depth of hindquarters, a lean body, long legs. Thoroughbreds are classified among the "hot-blooded" breeds, which are animals bred for agility and speed and are considered spirited and bold. Thoroughbreds born in the Northern Hemisphere are considered a year older on the first of January each year; these artificial dates have been set to enable the standardization of races and other competitions for horses in certain age groups. The Thoroughbred is a distinct breed of horse, although people sometimes refer to a purebred horse of any breed as a thoroughbred; the term for any horse or other animal derived from a single breed line is purebred. While the term came into general use because the English Thoroughbred's General Stud Book was one of the first breed registries created, in modern usage horse breeders consider it incorrect to refer to any animal as a thoroughbred except for horses belonging to the Thoroughbred breed.
Nonetheless, breeders of other species of purebred animals may use the two terms interchangeably, though thoroughbred is less used for describing purebred animals of other species. The term is a proper noun referring to this specific breed, though not capitalized in non-specialist publications, outside the US. For example, the Australian Stud Book, The New York Times, the BBC do not capitalize the word. Flat racing existed in England by at least 1174, when four-mile races took place at Smithfield, in London. Racing continued at fairs and markets throughout the Middle Ages and into the reign of King James I of England, it was that handicapping, a system of adding weight to attempt to equalize a horse's chances of winning as well as improved training procedures, began to be used. During the reigns of Charles II, William III, George I, the foundation of the Thoroughbred was laid; the term "thro-bred" to describe horses was first used in 1713. Under Charles II, a keen racegoer and owner, Anne, royal support was given to racing and the breeding of race horses.
With royal support, horse racing became popular with the public, by 1727, a newspaper devoted to racing, the Racing Calendar, was founded. Devoted to the sport, it recorded race results and advertised upcoming meets. All modern Thoroughbreds trace back to three stallions imported into England from the Middle East in the late 17th and early 18th centuries: the Byerley Turk, the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian. Other stallions of oriental breeding were less influential, but still made noteworthy contributions to the breed; these included the Alcock's Arabian, D'Arcy's White Turk, Leedes Arabian, Curwen's Bay Barb. Another was the Brownlow Turk, among other attributes, is thought to be responsible for the gray coat color in Thoroughbreds. In all, about 160 stallions of Oriental breeding have been traced in the historical record as contributing to the creation of the Thoroughbred; the addition of horses of Eastern bloodlines, whether Arabian, Barb, or Turk, to the native English mares led to the creation of the General Stud Book in 1791 and the practice of official registration of horses.
According to Peter Willett, about 50% of the foundation stallions appear to have been of Arabian bloodlines, wit
Livestock branding is a technique for marking livestock so as to identify the owner. Livestock branding only referred to hot branding large stock with a branding iron, though the term now includes alternative techniques. Other forms of livestock identification include freeze branding, inner lip or ear tattoos, ear tagging, radio-frequency identification, tagging with a microchip implant; the semi-permanent paint markings used to identify sheep are called a colour brand. In the American West, branding evolved into a complex marking system still in use today; the act of marking livestock with fire-heated marks to identify ownership has origins in ancient times, with use dating back to the ancient Egyptians around 2,700BC. Among the ancient Romans, the symbols used for brands were sometimes chosen as part of a magic spell aimed at protecting animals from harm. In English lexicon, the word "brand", common to most Germanic languages meant anything hot or burning, such as a "firebrand", a burning stick.
By the European Middle Ages, it identified the process of burning a mark into stock animals with thick hides, such as cattle, so as to identify ownership under animus revertendi. The practice became widespread in nations with large cattle grazing regions, such as Spain; these European customs were imported to the Americas and were further refined by the vaquero tradition in what today is the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. In the American West, a "branding iron" consisted of an iron rod with a simple symbol or mark, which cowboys heated in a fire. After the branding iron turned red hot, the cowboy pressed the branding iron against the hide of the cow; the unique brand meant that cattle owned by multiple ranches could graze together on the open range. Cowboys could separate the cattle at "roundup" time for driving to market. Cattle rustlers using running irons were ingenious in changing brands; the most famous brand change involved the making of the X I T brand into the Star-Cross brand, a star with a cross inside.
Brands became so numerous that it became necessary to record them in books that the ranchers could carry in their pockets. Laws were passed requiring the registration of brands, the inspection of cattle driven through various territories. Penalties were imposed on those who failed to obtain a bill of sale with a list of brands on the animals purchased. From the Americas, many cattle branding traditions and techniques spread to Australia, where a distinct set of traditions and techniques developed. Livestock branding has been practiced in Australia since 1866, but after 1897 owners had to register their brands; these fire and paint brands could not be duplicated legally. Free-range or open-range grazing is less common today than in the past. However, branding still has its uses; the main purpose is in proving ownership of stolen animals. Many western US states have strict laws regarding brands, including brand registration, require brand inspections. In many cases, a brand on an animal is considered prima facie proof of ownership.
In the hides and leather industry, brands are treated as a defect, can diminish the value of hides. This industry has a number of traditional terms relating to the type of brand on a hide. "Colorado branded" refers to placement of a brand on the side of an animal, although this does not indicate the animal is from Colorado. "Butt branded" refers to a hide which has had a brand placed on the portion of the skin covering the rump area of the animal. A cleanskin animal is one without a brand. Outside of the livestock industry, hot branding was used in 2003 by tortoise researchers to provide a permanent means of unique identification of individual Galapagos tortoises being studied. In this case, the brand was applied to the rear of the tortoises' shells; this technique has since been superseded by implanted PIT microchips. The traditional cowboy or stockman captured and secured an animal for branding by roping it, laying it over on the ground, tying its legs together, applying a branding iron, heated in a fire.
Modern ranch practice has moved toward use of chutes where animals can be run into a confined area and safely secured while the brand is applied. Two types of restraint are the cattle crush or squeeze chute, which may close on either side of a standing animal, or a branding cradle, where calves are caught in a cradle, rotated so that the animal is lying on its side. Bronco branding is an old method of catching cleanskin cattle on Top End cattle stations for branding in Australia. A heavy horse with some draught horse bloodlines and fitted with a harness horse collar, is used to rope the selected calf; the calf is pulled up to several sloping topped panels and a post constructed for the purpose in the centre of the yard. The unmounted stockmen apply leg ropes and pull it to the ground to be branded and castrated there. With the advent of portable cradles, this method of branding has been phased out on stations. However, there are now quite a few bronco branding competitions at rodeos and campdrafting days, etc.
Some ranches still heat branding irons in a coal fire. Gas-fired branding iron heaters are quite popular in Australia, as iron temperatures can be regulated and there is not the heat of a nearby fire. Regardless of heating method, the iron is only applied for the amount of time needed to remove all hair and create
The Arabian or Arab horse is a breed of horse that originated on the Arabian Peninsula. With a distinctive head shape and high tail carriage, the Arabian is one of the most recognizable horse breeds in the world, it is one of the oldest breeds, with archaeological evidence of horses in the Middle East that resemble modern Arabians dating back 4,500 years. Throughout history, Arabian horses have spread around the world by both war and trade, used to improve other breeds by adding speed, refinement and strong bone. Today, Arabian bloodlines are found in every modern breed of riding horse; the Arabian developed in a desert climate and was prized by the nomadic Bedouin people being brought inside the family tent for shelter and protection from theft. Selective breeding for traits including an ability to form a cooperative relationship with humans created a horse breed, good-natured, quick to learn, willing to please; the Arabian developed the high spirit and alertness needed in a horse used for raiding and war.
This combination of willingness and sensitivity requires modern Arabian horse owners to handle their horses with competence and respect. The Arabian is a versatile breed. Arabians dominate the discipline of endurance riding, compete today in many other fields of equestrian sport, they are one of the top ten most popular horse breeds in the world. They are now found worldwide, including the United States and Canada, United Kingdom, continental Europe, South America, their land of origin, the Middle East. Arabian horses have refined, wedge-shaped heads, a broad forehead, large eyes, large nostrils, small muzzles. Most display a distinctive concave, or "dished" profile. Many Arabians have a slight forehead bulge between their eyes, called the jibbah by the Bedouin, that adds additional sinus capacity, believed to have helped the Arabian horse in its native dry desert climate. Another breed characteristic is an arched neck with a large, well-set windpipe set on a refined, clean throatlatch; this structure of the poll and throatlatch was called the mitbeh by the Bedouin.
In the ideal Arabian it is long, allowing flexibility in the room for the windpipe. Other distinctive features are a long, level croup, or top of the hindquarters, high tail carriage; the USEF breed standard requires. Well-bred Arabians have a well-angled hip and well laid-back shoulder. Within the breed, there are variations; some individuals have wider, more powerfully muscled hindquarters suitable for intense bursts of activity in events such as reining, while others have longer, leaner muscling better suited for long stretches of flat work such as endurance riding or horse racing. Most have a compact body with a short back. Arabians have dense, strong bone, good hoof walls, they are noted for their endurance, the superiority of the breed in Endurance riding competition demonstrates that well-bred Arabians are strong, sound horses with superior stamina. At international FEI-sponsored endurance events and half-Arabians are the dominant performers in distance competition; some Arabians, though not all, have 5 lumbar vertebrae instead of the usual 6, 17 pairs of ribs rather than 18.
A quality Arabian has both a horizontal croup and a properly angled pelvis as well as good croup length and depth to the hip, that allows agility and impulsion. A misconception confuses the topline of the croup with the angle of the "hip", leading some to assert that Arabians have a flat pelvis angle and cannot use their hindquarters properly. However, the croup is formed by the sacral vertebrae; the hip angle is determined by the attachment of the ilium to the spine, the structure and length of the femur, other aspects of hindquarter anatomy, not correlated to the topline of the sacrum. Thus, the Arabian has conformation typical of other horse breeds built for speed and distance, such as the Thoroughbred, where the angle of the ilium is more oblique than that of the croup. Thus, the hip angle is not correlated to the topline of the croup. Horses bred to gallop need a good length of croup and good length of hip for proper attachment of muscles, so unlike angle, length of hip and croup do go together as a rule.
The breed standard stated by the United States Equestrian Federation, describes Arabians as standing between 14.1 to 15.1 hands tall, "with the occasional individual over or under." Thus, all Arabians, regardless of height, are classified as "horses" though 14.2 hands is the traditional cutoff height between a horse and a pony. A common myth is that Arabians are not strong because they are small and refined. However, the Arabian horse is noted for a greater density of bone than other breeds, short cannons, sound feet, a broad, short back, all of which give the breed physical strength comparable to many taller animals, thus a smaller Arabian can carry a heavy rider. For tasks where the sheer weight of the horse matters, such as farm work done by a draft horse, any lighter-weight horse is at a disadvantage. However, for most purposes, the Arabian is a strong and hardy light horse breed able to carry any type of rider in most equestrian pursuits. For centuries, Arabian horses lived in the desert in close association with humans.
For shelter and protection from theft, prized war mares were sometimes kept in their owner's tent, close to children and everyday family life. Only horses with a good disposition were allowed to reproduce, with
Inbreeding is the production of offspring from the mating or breeding of individuals or organisms that are related genetically. By analogy, the term is used in human reproduction, but more refers to the genetic disorders and other consequences that may arise from expression of deleterious or recessive traits resulting from incestuous sexual relationships and consanguinity. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being affected by deleterious or recessive traits; this leads to at least temporarily decreased biological fitness of a population, its ability to survive and reproduce. An individual who inherits such deleterious traits is colloquially referred to as inbred; the avoidance of expression of such deleterious recessive alleles caused by inbreeding, via inbreeding avoidance mechanisms, is the main selective reason for outcrossing. Crossbreeding between populations often has positive effects on fitness-related traits, but sometimes leads to negative effects known as outbreeding depression.
However increased homozygosity increases probability of fixing beneficial alleles and slightly decreases probability of fixing deleterious alleles in population. Inbreeding can result in purging of deleterious alleles from a population through purifying selection. Inbreeding is a technique used in selective breeding. For example, in livestock breeding, breeders may use inbreeding when trying to establish a new and desirable trait in the stock and for producing distinct families within a breed, but will need to watch for undesirable characteristics in offspring, which can be eliminated through further selective breeding or culling. Inbreeding helps to ascertain the type of gene action affecting a trait. Inbreeding is used to reveal deleterious recessive alleles, which can be eliminated through assortative breeding or through culling. In plant breeding, inbred lines are used as stocks for the creation of hybrid lines to make use of the effects of heterosis. Inbreeding in plants occurs in the form of self-pollination.
Inbreeding can influence gene expression which can prevent inbreeding depression. Offspring of biologically related persons are subject to the possible effects of inbreeding, such as congenital birth defects; the chances of such disorders are increased when the biological parents are more related. This is because such pairings have a 25% probability of producing homozygous zygotes, resulting in offspring with two recessive alleles, which can produce disorders when these alleles are deleterious; because most recessive alleles are rare in populations, it is unlikely that two unrelated marriage partners will both be carriers of the same deleterious allele. It should be noted that for each homozygous recessive individual formed there is an equal chance of producing a homozygous dominant individual — one devoid of the harmful allele. Contrary to common belief, inbreeding does not in itself alter allele frequencies, but rather increases the relative proportion of homozygotes to heterozygotes. In the short term, incestuous reproduction is expected to increase the number of spontaneous abortions of zygotes, perinatal deaths, postnatal offspring with birth defects.
The advantages of inbreeding may be the result of a tendency to preserve the structures of alleles interacting at different loci that have been adapted together by a common selective history. Malformations or harmful traits can stay within a population due to a high homozygosity rate, this will cause a population to become fixed for certain traits, like having too many bones in an area, like the vertebral column of wolves on Isle Royale or having cranial abnormalities, such as in Northern elephant seals, where their cranial bone length in the lower mandibular tooth row has changed. Having a high homozygosity rate is problematic for a population because it will unmask recessive deleterious alleles generated by mutations, reduce heterozygote advantage, it is detrimental to the survival of small, endangered animal populations; when deleterious recessive alleles are unmasked due to the increased homozygosity generated by inbreeding, this can cause inbreeding depression. There may be other deleterious effects besides those caused by recessive diseases.
Thus, similar immune systems may be more vulnerable to infectious diseases. Inbreeding history of the population should be considered when discussing the variation in the severity of inbreeding depression between and within species. With persistent inbreeding, there is evidence that shows that inbreeding depression becomes less severe; this is associated with the unmasking and elimination of deleterious recessive alleles. However, inbreeding depression is not a temporary phenomenon because this elimination of deleterious recessive alleles will never be complete. Eliminating deleterious mutations through inbreeding under moderate selection is not as effective. Fixation of alleles most occurs through Muller's ratchet, when an asexual population's genome accumulates deleterious mutations that are irreversible. Despite all its disadvantages, inbreeding can have a variety of advantages, such as reducing the recombination load, allowing the expression of recessive advantageous phenotypes, it has been proposed th
A Hanoverian is a warmblood horse breed originating in Germany, seen in the Olympic Games and other competitive English riding styles, has won gold medals in all three equestrian Olympic competitions. It is one of the oldest, most numerous, most successful of the warmbloods. A carriage horse, infusions of Thoroughbred blood lightened it to make it more agile and useful for competition; the Hanoverian is known for a good temperament, athleticism and grace. In 1735, George II, the King of England and Elector of Hanover, founded the State Stud at Celle, he purchased stallions suitable for all-purpose work in agriculture and in harness, as well as for breeding cavalry mounts. The local mares were refined with Holsteiner and Cleveland Bay, Andalusian and Mecklenburg stock. By the end of the 18th century, the Hanoverian had become a high-class coach horse. In 1844, a law was passed that allowed only stallions approved by a commission to be used for the purpose of breeding. In 1867, breeders started a society aimed at producing a coach and military horse, with the first stud book being published in 1888.
The Hanoverian became one of the most popular breeds in Europe for army work. When the demand for Hanoverians declined following World War I, the aim for breeding became a horse that could be used for farm work, but still had the blood and gaits to be used as a riding and carriage horse. After World War II, there was a growing demand for sport horses, as well as general riding horses, the breeding yet again was adapted. Thoroughbreds were used to refine the breed; the key to the success of the Hanoverian has been the rigorous selection of breeding stock, a large breed population, breeders' willingness to adapt to changes in demand. Today, the Hanoverian breeders' association offers many incentives to breed the best, including the famous auctions at Verden, extensive grading opportunities for stallions and young horses. In addition, few breeds have such well-kept records, allowing breeders to trace bloodlines over many generations, improving their chances to find the best stallion–mare match.
The current aim of breeders today is to create a noble, versatile warmblood with light and ground-covering gaits. Whenever necessary, outside blood is brought in to improve the horse; the strict selection ensures that Hanoverians are athletic and good jumpers, for show jumping and eventing, have the gaits for dressage. Hanoverians are elegant and robust, they are bred to be willing and trainable, have a strong back, powerful body, athletic movement, strong limbs. Chestnut, bay and gray are found the most often. Regulations prohibit horses with too much white, buckskin and cremello horses from being registered; the horses can be 15.3 -- 17.2 hands high. The World Breeding Federation for Sport Horses uses results from International Federation for Equestrian Sports-recognized competitions to rank individual horses and breed registries within each Olympic discipline: dressage, show jumping, eventing; the WBFSH publishes these rankings each year. The FEI is the International Olympic Committee-recognized international governing body for equestrian sport.
In North America, the hunt seat style of riding features the show hunter, a competitive discipline. While infrastructure does not allow the accuracy and completeness of WBFSH/FEI standings, the United States Equestrian Federation publishes yearly rankings of the top hunter horses, the top sires of hunter horses; the Hanoverian Society has been the most successful studbook in international dressage competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since these standings began to be published in 2001. The top Hanoverian-branded international dressage horses include Salinero, Satchmo 78, Bonaparte 67, Wansuela Suerte. Since the 1956 Olympic Games, Hanoverians have earned 3 individual gold medals, 4 individual silver medals, 4 individual bronze medals. Hanoverians have been members of no fewer than 7 gold medal dressage teams; the World Equestrian Games, which are held every four years to split the non-Olympic years evenly, have been won by many Hanoverians. Dressage champions at the World Equestrian Games that bore the Hanoverian brand include Mehmed, Gigolo and Salinero.
Hanoverians have been members of 8 gold-medal winning WEG teams since 1966. At the age of 25, the Hanoverian stallion Weltmeyer is the world's #3 sire of international-caliber dressage horses, behind #2 Donnerhall, sired by the Hanoverian Donnerwetter; the Hanoverian Society has been ranked in the top five most successful studbooks in international show jumping competition as ranked by the WBFSH and FEI since 2001. The best Hanoverian jumpers of the new millennium are Shutterfly, by Silvio, For Pleasure, by Furioso II. Shutterfly won the Show Jumping World Cup in 2005, 2008, 2009. For Pleasure was second place at the 1995 World Cup, was a member of two gold medal-winning Olympic show jumping teams. Warwick Rex won the individual gold medal in show jumping at the 1976 Montreal Olympics, Fidelitas took silver at the 1964 Tokyo Games. Hanoverians have been members of 6 Olympic gold medal teams in show jumping. Other top-notch Hanoverian show jumpers include winner of