Bourbon Street is a historic street in the heart of the French Quarter of New Orleans. Extending thirteen blocks from Canal Street to Esplanade Avenue, Bourbon Street is famous for its many bars and strip clubs. With 17.74 million visitors in 2017 alone, New Orleans depends on Bourbon Street as a main tourist attraction. Tourist numbers have been growing yearly after the devastation of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, the city has rebuilt its tourist base. For millions of visitors each year, Bourbon Street provides a rich insight into New Orleans' past; the French claimed Louisiana in the 1690s, Jean Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville was appointed Director General in charge of developing a colony in the territory. He founded New Orleans in 1718. In 1721, the royal engineer Adrien de Pauger designed the city's street layout, he named the streets after Catholic saints. He paid homage to the House of Bourbon, with the naming of Bourbon Street. New Orleans was given to the Spanish in 1763 following the Seven Years' War.
The Great New Orleans Fire of 1788 destroyed 80 percent of the city's buildings. The Spanish rebuilt many of the damaged structures. For this reason, Bourbon Street and the French Quarter display more Spanish than French influence. Following a brief restoration of French rule, the Americans gained control of the colony with the 1803 Louisiana Purchase, they translated the French street names with Rue Bourbon becoming Bourbon Street. During the 19th century, New Orleans was similar to other Southern cities in that its economy was based on selling cash crops, such as sugar and tobacco. By 1840, newcomers whose wealth came from these enterprises turned New Orleans into the third largest metropolis in the country; the city's port was the nation's second largest, with New York City being the largest. The main difference between New Orleans and other Southern cities was its unique cultural heritage as a result of having been a French and Spanish possession. Promoters emphasized this cultural legacy, in the form of its architecture and traditions, to attract tourists to New Orleans.
The French Quarter was central to this image of cultural legacy and became the best-known part of the city. Recent arrivals in New Orleans criticized the perceived loose morals of the Creoles, a perception that drew many travelers to New Orleans to drink and visit the city's brothels, beginning in the 1880s. Bourbon Street was a premier residential area prior to 1900; this changed in the late 1800s and early 1900s, when the Storyville red-light district was constructed on Basin Street adjacent to the French Quarter. The area became known for prostitution and vaudeville acts. Jazz is said to have developed here, with artists such as King Oliver and Jelly Roll Morton providing musical entertainment at the brothels; this was the era when some of New Orleans' most famous restaurants were founded, including Galatoire's, located at 209 Bourbon Street. It was established by Jean Galatoire in 1905. Known for years by its characteristic line snaking down Bourbon Street, patrons waited for hours just to get a table — on Fridays.
Before World War II, the French Quarter was emerging as a major asset to the city's economy. While there was an interest in historic districts at the time, developers pressured to modernize the city. With the wartime influx of people, property owners opened adult-centered nightclubs to capitalize on the city's risqué image. Wartime Bourbon Street was memorably depicted in Erle Stanley Gardner’s detective novel “Owls Don’t Blink”. After the war, Bourbon Street became the new Storyville in terms of reputation. By the 1940s and 1950s, nightclubs lined Bourbon Street. Over 50 different burlesque shows, striptease acts and exotic dancers could be found. There was a move in the 1960s under District Attorney Jim Garrison to clean up Bourbon Street. In August 1962, two months after he was elected, Garrison began raiding adult entertainment establishments on Bourbon, his efforts mirrored those of his predecessors, unsuccessful. He forced closure on a dozen nightclubs convicted of selling overpriced alcohol.
Following this campaign, Bourbon Street was populated by peep shows and sidewalk beer stands. When Mayor Moon Landrieu came into office in 1970, he focused his efforts on stimulating tourism, he did so by making Bourbon Street a pedestrian mall. The 1980s and 1990s were characterized by a Disneyfication of Bourbon Street. Critics of the rapid increase of souvenir shops and corporate ventures said that Bourbon Street had become Creole Disneyland, they argued that the street's authenticity had been lost in this process. On April 5, 2018 a giant saxophone, nearly 11 ft. high, was inaugurated in the street. It was offered by the city of Namur to recall that the inventor of the instrument Adolphe Sax is from the region of Namur Dinant. Given Bourbon Street's high-ground location in the French Quarter, it was intact following 2005's Hurricane Katrina. A major tourist attraction, Bourbon Street renovation was given high priority after the storm. However, New Orleans was still experiencing a lack of visitors.
In 2004, the year before Katrina, the city had 10.1 million visitors. The year after the storm, that number was 3.7 million. One third of the city's operating budget $6 billion before Katrina, came from visitors and conventions, so officials saw tourism as vital for post-disaster economic recovery; the New Orleans Tourism Marketing Corporation initiated efforts to draw visitors back to the city, featuring celebrities such as Emeril Lagasse and Pa
The 41st World Science Fiction Convention known as ConStellation, was held September 1–5, 1983, at the Baltimore Convention Center in Baltimore, United States. The chairman was Michael J. Walsh. Total attendance was 7,000; the guests of honor were David A. Kyle; the toastmaster was Jack L. Chalker; as part of the promotion for the film The Right Stuff, test pilot Chuck Yeager, astronaut Gordon Cooper, plus actors Veronica Cartwright, Scott Glenn, Dennis Quaid appeared at ConStellation. The Hugo Awards, named after Hugo Gernsback, are presented every year for the best science fiction or fantasy works and achievements of the previous year; the results are based on the ballots submitted by members of the World Science Fiction Society. Other awards, including the Astounding Award for Best New Writer, are presented at each year's Worldcon. Best Novel: Foundation's Edge by Isaac Asimov Best Novella: "Souls" by Joanna Russ Best Novelette: "Fire Watch" by Connie Willis Best Short Story: "Melancholy Elephants" by Spider Robinson Best Non-Fiction Book: Isaac Asimov: The Foundations of Science Fiction by James E. Gunn Best Dramatic Presentation: Blade Runner Best Professional Editor: Edward L. Ferman Best Professional Artist: Michael Whelan Best Fanzine: Locus, edited by Charles N. Brown Best Fan Writer: Richard E. Geis Best Fan Artist: Alexis Gilliland John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer: Paul O. Williams World Science Fiction Society NESFA.org: The Long List NESFA.org: 1983 convention notes
The 2008–09 Detroit Red Wings season saw the Detroit Red Wings attempt to defend their Stanley Cup title, but they were defeated by the Pittsburgh Penguins in seven games in the Stanley Cup Finals, the team they defeated in the finals the previous season. The Red Wings roster featured former Penguin Marian Hossa, who signed a one-year contract with Detroit during the summer of 2008, as well as former Penguins backup Ty Conklin, they won 51 games during the fourth consecutive season of 50 or more victories. June 9: Dominik Hasek announced his retirement from the NHL. June 10: Detroit signed head coach Mike Babcock to three-year contract extension. June 11: Assistant coach Todd McLellan signed with the San Jose Sharks as their new head coach. June 30: The Detroit Red Wings re-signed defenseman Andreas Lilja to a two-year contract. July 1: Brad Stuart re-signed with the Detroit Red Wings, it is a four-year deal worth $3.75 million per season, a no-trade clause for the first two. July 2: Marian Hossa signed a one-year, $7.45 million contract.
July 15: Dallas Drake announced his retirement from the NHL. July 23: Ryan Oulahen re-signed with the Detroit Red Wings with a one-year deal. July 30: Valtteri Filppula re-signed on a five-year, $15 million contract. Excluding six shootout-winning goals, the Red Wings scored 289 goals during the regular season, the most of all 30 teams in the NHL, they scored the most power-play goals, with 90, had the best power-play percentage, at 25.50%. Bold – qualified for playoffs, y – division winner, p – Presidents' Trophy winnerCE – Central Division, NW – Northwest Division, PA – Pacific Division Detroit had not missed the post-season since 1989–90; the 2008–09 season was their 18th consecutive playoff season. During the Finals, Head Coach Mike Babcock joined Mike Keenan as the only coaches in NHL history to coach in Game 7 Stanley Cup Finals on two different teams, having been with the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim in 2003; when the Red Wings lost Game 7, Babcock had the unfortunate distinction of becoming the first coach in NHL history to lose a Game 7 Stanley Cup Finals on two different teams, as his Ducks lost to the New Jersey Devils in 2003.
Note: GP = Games Played. The Grand Rapids Griffins of the American Hockey League remain the minor league affiliate of the Red Wings for the 2008–09 season. 2008–09 NHL season 2008-09 Detroit Red Wings Telecast Schedule
Chic Freak and More Treats is a studio album released in Japan in 1996 as a solo project by Nile Rodgers, internationally re-issued as Chic in 2003. The album contains re-interpretations of some of Chic's greatest hits and some of the tracks produced by Rodgers and Bernard Edwards for David Bowie, Sister Sledge and Diana Ross. Chic Freak and More Treats features guest vocals by Duran Duran's Simon Le Bon, Ashford & Simpson and Taja Sevelle and was to be Edwards' last studio project. All tracks written by Nile Rodgers unless otherwise noted. "Everybody Dance" – 5:05 "Dance Dance Dance" – 4:38 "Let's Dance" – 4:43 "Le Freak" – 4:35 "Upside Down" – 3:44 "Do That Dance" – 3:56 "He's the Greatest Dancer" – 4:18 "Good Times" – 4:48 "I Want Your Love" – 5:26 "Music Is My House" – 4:09 "We Are Family" – 5:54 "Do That Dance" – 3:51 "Just One World" – 4:20 Ashford & Simpson – lead vocals The Crowell Sisters – lead vocals Simon Le Bon – lead vocals Christopher Max – lead vocals Taja Sevelle – lead vocals Sylver Logan Sharp – lead vocals Wayne Thompson – rapping Christine Gordon – backing vocals Suzette Henry – backing vocals Jill Jones – backing vocals Audra Lomax Parker – backing vocals Tanya Ramtulla – backing vocals Nile Rodgers – guitar, backing vocals Bernard Edwards – bass guitar Chazz Oliver – keyboards, programming Richard Hilton – keyboards, programming Omar Hakim – drums Nile Rodgers – producer Chazz Oliver – producer Gary Tole – sound engineer Alec Head – additional engineer Carl Glanville – additional engineer Richard Hilton – additional engineer Roger Arnold – additional engineer Recorded at Le Crib, Sony Studios and Right Track Recording Mixed at Right Track Recording by Gary Tole, Pat Dillett, Larry Alexander Mastering by Howie Weinberg at Masterdisk NYC
Behemoth, full title Behemoth: the history of the causes of the civil wars of England, of the counsels and artifices by which they were carried on from the year 1640 to the year 1660 known as The Long Parliament, is a book written by Thomas Hobbes discussing the English Civil War. Published posthumously in 1681, it was written in 1668, but remained unpublished at the request of Charles II of England. Behemoth was written in 1668 as a follow-up to Leviathan. Leviathan is a representation of an ideal political world, Behemoth has been considered to be a contrasting treatise on what happens when the worst abuses of government come to pass. Hobbes applied his understanding of the science of human nature to explain why the English Civil War came to pass, he was able to do this because he "did not make an impassable gulf between his rational understanding on the one hand and the particular events which he witnessed, remembered, or heard about on the other". The book is written in the form of a discourse between two men.
The first speaker, called only "A", is an eyewitness and possible insider to the events of the English Civil War. The second speaker, referred to as "B", is a student aiming to understand the breakdown in the government of England at that time. Hobbes was refused permission by King Charles II to publish Behemoth. While the king recognised the correctness of the account of events and issues, he was concerned that the book would not be well received. Charles withheld his permission to publish, in the hope that Hobbes would avoid further scandal, see his reputation as a thinker restored; the manuscript for Behemoth was pirated and printed in unauthorised editions in Europe during the 1670s and in a letter to his friend John Aubrey, Hobbes stated his disappointment with this turn of events. An official edition was released three years after Hobbes' death in 1679, by his literary agent William Crooke. According to Aloysius Martinich, "after its initial success the book was unread and unstudied until there was a resurgence of interest in it in the last quarter of the twentieth century".
Behemoth is not factual, accurate or literal in retelling of the events of the English Civil War but still has value for students of the history of thought or revolution. As Royce MacGillivray puts it: Hobbes instead is drawing on his memories of the events and on two other possible sources, both written by James Heath around 1663; these are A Brief Chronicle of all the Chief Actions and the expanded A Brief Chronicle of the Late Intestine Warr. It is possible they were used as prompts for Hobbes 80 years old when he wrote Behemoth. According to MacGillivray little material from these sources found its way directly into the text; the summation below is just that, a summation, is only the most basic part of each section. No effort is made to correct any inconsistencies introduced into the discussion between the master and the student so that the information may be presented as it was written by Thomas Hobbes; the 1682 edition of the book begins with a note from William Crooke in answer to why he was publishing this edition.
Hobbes had made Crooke the caretaker of his literary estate in July 1679. Crooke knew of the editions of Behemoth published in Europe and he reasoned that these editions did not show the work in the best possible light due to the many textual errors and omissions, it would therefore be best to publish an authorized edition to correct these errors and show the work as Hobbes wanted it to be read. Crooke had as his source a manuscript copy of the text given to him by Thomas Hobbes around 1670; this is the longest section of the book and covers the period 1640–1642. The dialogue opens with the student asking the master how it was that a monarch as strong as Charles I should have had to face a rebellion; the master relates that a growing opposition to the crown was promoted by seven factions, each of them for their own ends and not in concert, who stoked the fires of rebellion. These factions were: Papists, Independents including other sects of religious faith, those who were corrupted by their reading of the Latin and Greek classics, centres of commerce and trade such as London, those with no means of support who saw the war as a way to profit, the lack of understanding as to the important role played by the monarchy in society.
The motivations of each of these groups and how they contributed to the Civil War is discussed by the master and the student throughout the first part of the book. This section has been considered anti-clerical in its leanings as none of the actions of the religious groups involved are shown in any sort of positive light; the Papists wanted to condemn any ruler. As Charles I was a Protestant, this was not popular. There were not many Papists in England at this time but they still had a voice that could be heard by their own adherents. Presbyterian ministers did not like a king; this translated itself into speeches calling for the exile of other Papists. As Catholicism was severely proscribed against in the late 17th century these calls for expulsion are not unexpected or difficult to understand; the Independents and the other sects of the Protestant reformation were advocates of liberty and freedom in certain instances in the matter of religious choice. Provided an individual did not want to follow the Roman church their religious views would be tolerated by most of the Protestant groups.
The issue of an absolute monarchy was a crucial cause of the Civil War according to Hobbes. Many members of the House of Parliament who wanted a monarchy did not
Rosalina Tran Lydster is a Vietnamese American jewelry designer. She was co-designer of the crown for the Miss Universe 2008 competition. Rosalina Lydster was born in Vietnam to Hai Vo, a jeweler for Vietnam’s first lady and other Saigon socialites, her father was a trained architect. The family owned a jewelry business, they moved to The United States in the 1970s and continued the jewelry business in San Francisco. Lydster studied business at San Francisco State University and continued her studies at the Fashion Institute of Design & Merchandising. After graduation, Lydster began her career as an investment banker for a major Wall Street firm, she had been designing wedding bands and other pieces for friends until deciding to found her company of Jewelry by Rosalina in 2001. In 2005, she was named as one of the official jewelers for the 2006 Academy Awards. In 2008, Lydster was selected as the co-designer for the Miss Universe 2008 competition and as a preliminary judge for the Miss Universe 2009 competition