The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs from Chatham Square at Park Row, Worth Street, Mott Street in the south to Cooper Square at 4th Street in the north; the eponymous neighborhood runs from the Bowery east to Allen Street and First Avenue, from Canal Street north to Cooper Square/East Fourth Street. To the south is Chinatown, to the east are the Lower East Side and the East Village, to the west are Little Italy and NoHo, it has been considered a part of the Lower East Side. In the 17th century, the road branched off Broadway north of Fort Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan to the homestead of Peter Stuyvesant, director-general of New Netherland; the street was known as Bowery Lane prior to 1807. "Bowery" is an anglicization of the Dutch bouwerij, derived from an antiquated Dutch word for "farm": In the 17th century the area contained many large farms. The New York City Subway's Bowery station, serving the BMT Nassau Street Line, is located close to the Bowery's intersection with Delancey and Kenmare Streets.

There is a tunnel under the Bowery once intended for use by the proposed, but never built, New York City Subway services, including the Second Avenue Subway. The Bowery is the oldest thoroughfare on Manhattan Island, preceding European intervention as a Lenape footpath, which spanned the entire length of the island, from north to south; when the Dutch settled Manhattan island, they named the path Bouwerij road – "bouwerij" being an old Dutch word for "farm" – because it connected farmlands and estates on the outskirts to the heart of the city in today's Wall Street/Battery Park area. In 1654, the Bowery's first residents settled in the area of Chatham Square. Petrus Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New Amsterdam before the English took control, retired to his Bowery farm in 1667. After his death in 1672, he was buried in his private chapel, his mansion burned down in 1778 and his great-grandson sold the remaining chapel and graveyard, now the site of the Episcopal church of St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery.

In her Journal of 1704–05, Sarah Kemble Knight describes the Bowery as a leisure destination for residents of New York City in December: Their Diversions in the Winter is Riding Sleys about three or four Miles out of Town, where they have Houses of entertainment at a place called Bowery, some go to friends Houses who handsomely treat them. I believe we mett 50 or 60 slays that day – they fly with great swiftness and some are so furious that they'le turn out of the path for none except a Loaden Cart. Nor do they spare for any diversion the place affords, sociable to a degree, they'r Tables being as free to their Naybours as to themselves. By 1766, when John Montresor made his detailed plan of New York, "Bowry Lane", which took a more north-tending track at the rope walk, was lined for the first few streets with buildings that formed a solid frontage, with market gardens behind them. In 1766, straight lanes led away at right angles to gentlemen's seats well back from the dusty "Road to Albany and Boston", as it was labeled on Montresor's map.

James Delancey's grand house, flanked by matching outbuildings, stood behind a forecourt facing Bowery Lane. The Bull's Head Tavern was noted for George Washington's having stopped there for refreshment before riding down to the waterfront to witness the departure of British troops in 1783. Leading to the Post Road, the main route to Boston, the Bowery rivaled Broadway as a thoroughfare; as the population of New York City continued to grow, its northern boundary continued to move, by the early 1800s the Bowery was no longer a farming area outside the city. The street gained in respectability and elegance, becoming a broad boulevard, as well-heeled and famous people moved their residences there, including Peter Cooper, the industrialist and philanthropist; the Bowery began to rival Fifth Avenue as an address. When Lafayette Street was opened parallel to the Bowery in the 1820s, the Bowery Theatre was founded by rich families on the site of the Red Bull Tavern, purchased by John Jacob Astor. Across the way the Bowery Amphitheatre was erected in 1833, specializing in the more populist entertainments of equestrian shows and circuses.

From stylish beginnings, the tone of Bowery Theatre's offerings matched the slide in the social scale of the Bowery itself. By the time of the Civil War, the mansions and shops had given way to low-brow concert halls, German beer gardens, pawn shops, flophouses, like the one at No. 15 where the composer Stephen Foster lived in 1864. Theodore Dreiser closed his tragedy Sister Carrie, set in the 1890s, with the suicide of one of the main characters in a Bowery flophouse; the Bowery, which marked the eastern border of the slum of "Five Points", had become the turf of one of America's earliest street gangs, the nativist Bowery Boys. In the spirit of social reform, the first YMCA opened on the Bowery in 1873.

Macrocystis integrifolia

Macrocystis integrifolia is one of four species of kelp in the genus Macrocystis which grows to about 6 metres long. Deep brown color on flattened rhizomes; each is attached by branched root-like structures coming out of the sides of the rhizomes. Slender main stipes come from the rhizome, up to 0.1 metres at the widest. Periodically 5 centimetres wide and 35 centimetres long flattened leaf-like branches derive from the stipe, they have furrowed surfaces and taper but have an oval or rounded float where attached to the stipe. The blade-like branches have notched denticulate edges leading to the terminal blade at the tip of the stipe, separated by several smaller branches, it is found on intertidal rocks or shallow subtidal rocks along the Pacific coast of North America from. It prefers water about 7 metres to 10 metres deep and exposed to the open sea and normal salinities, yet sheltered from full wave action. Macrocystis integrifolia alternates heteromorphic phases from a macroscopic sporophyte to dioecious microscopic gametophytes.

It has been studied as a plant fertilizer, increasing bean yields up to 24% and chemical studies indicate presence of phytohormone-like substances. In 2009, a study determined that Macrocystis pyrifera may be the same species. Macrocystis integrifolia Bory California Biota Home Page... Protoctista... Phaeophyta

Hans Kummerlöwe

Richard Arthur Hans Kummerlöwe, with the spelling changed to Kumerloeve from 1948 was a German ornithologist who served as an SS Officer during the Second World War. He worked as a zoological curator at the Dresden Museum but during the Third Reich he held numerous positions including charge of the Vienna museum after the German annexation of Austria in March 1938, he was involved in the "Nazification" of German and Austrian museums, making them tools for explaining theories of race and genetic purity. Kummerlöwe was the son of a government inspector in Leipzig, he graduated in 1923 at the Humboldtschule and went to the University of Leipzig, receiving a summa cum laude doctorate in philosophy in June 7, 1930. He worked towards a doctoral thesis under Johannes Meisenheimer on the gonads of female birds. Meisenheimer was a Jew while Kummerlöwe was an active National Socialist leading to differences and giving up study. By 1925 Kummerlöwe joined the Nazi party and in November he founded the first student union under the Nazis in Leipzig, the Leipziger Gruppe of the NS-Studentenbundes.

In June 1926 he joined the Nazi Teaching Association. He taught for a while at Lessing School in Leipzig, he decided that he was more interested in research than teaching. He graduated from the Ostwaldschule in Leipzig at the end of 1932. At Leipzig, he was a friend of the ornithologist Günther Niethammer, he joined the DOG in 1923. Along with Niethammer he made ornithological trips on a small motorcycle in northern and western Turkey in 1933. On 11 December 1935 he took over the management of the Staatliche Museen für Tier- und Völkerkunde Dresden and from 1937 he headed the zoology department at the University of Dresden, he became in-charge of the Natural History Museum and Museum of Folklore in Vienna after the Annexation of Austria in March 1938. In 1939 he worked on Anthropological Surveys on Polish War Prisoners. Under his direction, the zoological museum was modified so as to serve as a tool for educating the public on how National Socialism was biologically oriented, he attempted to reorganize the Vienna School of Anthropology along with Michael Hesch.

He published his politically motivated research in Der Biologe, taken over by the SS-Ahnenerbe. By positioning biology as a tool for teaching concepts of "blood and soil", he maintained an influential position. After the war, Kummerlöwe changed his name to Kumerloeve to hide his wartime activities or to make the name closer to its original Swedish form, his publications in the journal "Papers and Reports from the State Museums for Animal Science and Ethnology in Dresden" have been removed from copies in many libraries across Europe. It is thought that in these papers in 1939 and 1940, he expressed his political ideas and it is believed that, after the war, Kummerlöwe managed to purge libraries across Europe holding his writings in journals. Libraries in Moscow and Leningrad were found to have pages of his articles missing, he was posted to the Romanian front around 1942 and he was in hospital between September 1944 and September 1945. His apartment in Vienna along with his papers was destroyed by a bomb on 12 March 1945.

After the war Kummerlöwe moved to West Germany. He had the spelling of his name changed from Kummerlöwe to Kumerloeve on 10 February 1948, he worked as a private researcher in Osnabrück in West Germany and around 1948 as a warden in the bird reserve at Amrum. He claimed that he was not provided any position in the German civil service as his salary during the Third Reich had been beyond what could be provided by the Federal Republic of Germany and a reduction of pay was not allowed. In 1964 he lived at Gräfelfing. In 1970, he was given an honorary position at the Museum Koenig in Bonn to which he bequeathed his collections and diaries, he died in August 1995 following an illness. The supspecies Eremophila alpestris kumerloevei is named after him. Pre-war writings under his original spelling include: Zimmermann, R. & Kummerlöwe, H.. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Vogelwelt des Neusiedler Seegebiets. Selbstverlag der Wissenschaftlichen Staatsmuseen. Kummerlöwe, H.. Vergleichende Untersuchungen über das Gonadensystem weiblicher Vögel.

Kummerlöwe, H. & Niethammer, G.. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Avifauna Kleinasiens. Journal of Ornithology, 82:505-552. Kummerlöwe, H. & Froböse, H.. Ein linksseitiges Oviduktrudiment bei einem erwachsenen Starmännchen. Zeitschr. F. mikr.-anat. Forsch, 22:414-26. Kummerlöwe, H.. Zur Neugestaltung der Wiener wissenschaftlichen Staatsmuseen. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, XXIV-XXXIX; some of his post-war writings include: Kumerloeve, H.. The Waldrapp, Geronticus eremita: historical review, taxonomic history, present status. Biological Conservation, 30:363-373. Kumerloeve, H.. Domenico Sestini: Aus der Frühzeit zoologischer Forschung im Bosporus-Raum. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien. Serie B für Botanik und Zoologie, 345–350. Kumerloeve, H.. Leoparden, Panthera pardus tulliana. Zentralanatolien//Säugetierkundliche Mitteilungen. Bd, 24:46-48. Kumerloeve, H.. Zur Verbreitung der Steinschmätzer -Arten in der Türkei. SA Bonn. Zool. Beitr, 26:183-198. Kumerloeve, H.. Die Säugetiere der Türkei. Zoolog.

Staatssammlung. Kumerloeve, H.. Van Gölü-Hakkari Bölgesi Kuşları. Fen F