380th Expeditionary Operations Group
The 380th Expeditionary Operations Group is the operational flying component of the United States Air Force 380th Air Expeditionary Wing. It is a provisional unit stationed at Al Dhafra Air Base, United Arab Emirates, is assigned to the United States Air Forces Central component of Air Combat Command; the unit's World War II predecessor unit, the 380th Bombardment Group, operated in the Southwest Pacific Theater as a B-24 Liberator heavy bombardment unit assigned to Fifth Air Force. In addition to flying combat missions, the group operated as a training unit for Royal Australian Air Force crews in B-24 operations, it was awarded both the United States Distinguished Unit Citation and the Philippine Presidential Unit Citation for its combat service in Borneo, New Guinea and the Philippines. Reactivated in 2002, the 380 EOG conducts combat operations as part of the Global War on Terrorism; the 380 EOG conducts effective combat air refueling, airborne C2, ISR in a joint and coalition environment.
Its component squadrons are: 99th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron 12th Expeditionary Reconnaissance Squadron 908th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron 380th Expeditionary Operations Support Squadron 968th Expeditionary Airborne Air Control Squadron For additional history and lineage, see 380th Air Expeditionary Wing Constituted as 380th Bombardment Group on 28 October 1942Activated on 3 November 1942 Inactivated on 20 February 1946Redesignated 380th Bombardment Group. Allotted to the reserveActivated in the US on 16 June 1947 Redesignated 380th Bombardment Group in June 1949 Ordered to active duty on 1 May 1951 Inactivated on 16 May 1951Converted to provisional status and allocated to Air Combat Command to activate or inactivate any time after 4 December 2001. Redesignated as 380th Expeditionary Operations Group in early 2002 and activated. IV Bomber Command, 3 November 1942 – 17 April 1943 V Bomber Command, May 1943-20 February 1946Attached to: Royal Australian Air Force, May 1943 – 20 February 1945 Attached to: 310th Bombardment Wing, 24 March – 9 August 1945Continental Air Command, 16 June 1947 – 16 May 1951 Air Combat Command, Early 2002–presentAttached to: United States Air Forces Central, Early 2002–present 528th Bombardment Squadron: 1942–1946.
The 380th Bombardment Group was activated on 3 November 1942 at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona. The 380th BMG consisted of four bombardment squadrons, the 528th, 529th, 530th, 531st. Shortly after being activated, the group moved to Biggs Field, El Paso, Texas where it underwent extensive combat training. After completing training, the 380th BMG moved to Lowry Field, Colorado to undergo final combat training; the 380th was part of the 5th Air Force, was known as the FLYING CIRCUS and as the KING OF THE HEAVIES. The 380th went overseas in April 1943 to become the second B-24 unit in the Fifth Air Force at that time after the 90th Bomb Group; the other Heavy Bomber unit flew B-17s. The group arrived at Fenton Airfield and encompassed a part of Western Australia at Corunna Downs Airfield, a top secret airfield in the Pilbara, north of Perth Western Australia in the RAAF's North West Area of operation, where it was assigned to 5th Air Force, V Bomber Command; the Command's purpose was to engage in destroying Japanese strongholds in the Pacific.
Moving to RAAF Base Darwin, the Group was placed under Royal Australian Air Force command, assigned to the Australian North West Area Command operating out of Darwin, Northern Territory and was the only B-24 Liberator unit attached to the RAAF. The 380th was assigned to train RAAF personnel on the B-24 and to secure Australia's safety against a threatened Japanese invasion along its northern coast. Upon its arrival in Australia, the 380th BG began combat operations; this was thus the only heavy bomber unit available to cover the whole of the Dutch East Indies from July 1943 until late in 1944 At that time the successes in the New Guinea campaign had brought the other Fifth Air Force units close enough to the East Indies to join the 380th in that task.. During April and May 1944, the 380th engaged in the most intensive and sustained operations since arrival in the southwest Pacific, neutralizing the rear bases through which the Japanese might reinforce their air force in the Wakde-Hollandia area of the Dutch East Indies.
From the end of May 1944 until it moved to Murtha Field, San Jose, Philippines in February 1945, the 380th concentrated on neutralizing enemy bases
Second Avenue Subway
The Second Avenue Subway is a New York City Subway line that runs under Second Avenue on the East Side of Manhattan. The first phase of this new line, with three new stations on Manhattan's Upper East Side, opened on January 1, 2017; the full Second Avenue Line, if and when it is funded, will be built in three more phases to connect Harlem–125th Street in Harlem to Hanover Square in Lower Manhattan. The proposed full line would be 8.5 miles and 16 stations long, serve a projected 560,000 daily riders, cost more than $17 billion. The line was proposed in 1919 as part of a massive expansion of what would become the Independent Subway System. In anticipation of the Second Avenue Subway being built to replace them, parallel elevated lines along Second Avenue and Third Avenue were demolished in 1942 and 1955 despite several factors causing plans for the Second Avenue Subway to be cancelled. Construction on the line began in 1972 as part of the Program for Action, but was halted in 1975 because of the city's fiscal crisis, leaving only a few short segments of tunnels completed.
Work on the line restarted in April 2007 following the development of a financially secure construction plan. The first phase of the line, consisting of the 96th Street, 86th Street, 72nd Street stations and two miles of tunnel, cost $4.45 billion. A 1.5-mile, $6 billion second phase from 96th to 125th Streets is in planning and is expected to open by 2027–2029. Phase 1 is served by the Q train at limited rush-hour N and R trains. Phase 2 will extend the line's northern terminus from 96th Street to Harlem–125th Street, both the Q and limited N services will be extended to 125th Street. Phase 3 will extend the line south from 72nd Street to Houston Street in Manhattan's Lower East Side. Phase 4 will again extend the line south from Houston Street to Hanover Square, at which point the T would provide service to the entire line; the T will be colored turquoise. Services that use the Second Avenue Line through Midtown Manhattan are to be colored turquoise; the following services use part or all of the Second Avenue Line: Phase 1 of the Second Avenue Line opened in January 2017 and runs under Manhattan's Second Avenue from 65th Street to 105th Street, with stations at 72nd Street, 86th Street, 96th Street.
It is double-tracked along its entire length, with tracks in parallel tubes bored by tunnel boring machines, central island platforms at all stations. North of 96th Street, both tracks continue; as part of Phase 1, the Second Avenue Subway connects to the BMT Broadway Line using an existing connection via the 63rd Street Line. The Q, as well as and limited rush-hour N and R, operate northward from 57th Street–Seventh Avenue on the Broadway Line, curving east under Central Park on the 63rd Street Line; the Broadway trains stop at Lexington Avenue–63rd Street with a cross-platform interchange to the F train before merging with the Second Avenue Line near 65th Street. The northbound 63rd Street Connector track dips below the level of Phase 3's planned tunnels, providing for a future flying junction between the connector and the rest of the Second Avenue Line; the long-term plans for the Second Avenue Subway involve digging 8.5 miles of new tunnels north to Harlem–125th Street in Harlem and south to Hanover Square in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan.
The entire line would be double-tracked, except for a tentatively four-tracked segment between 21st and 9th Streets, including the 14th Street station, with the outer two tracks used to store trains. After Phase 4 is completed, the residents of Spanish Harlem and the Upper East Side will have mass transit service down both Second Avenue and Broadway to the Financial District, as well as across the Manhattan Bridge to Brooklyn via the Q train. An additional two-track connection is planned at around 63rd Street that will connect the Lower Manhattan-bound tracks on the Second Avenue Line with the Queens-bound tracks on the IND 63rd Street Line, using existing bellmouths at 63rd Street and First Avenue. Current plans do not call; the connection would allow for trains to run from the Financial District to Queens if the capacity of the IND Queens Boulevard Line were increased, or if the Queens Bypass were built. Service from Queens via the 63rd Street Tunnel would allow for the full capacity of the line south of 63rd Street to be used.
The whole line will be designed to accommodate 30 trains per hour, with the exception of the terminal at Hanover Square, which will only be able to handle 26 trains per hour. The portion north of 63rd Street is planned to have 14 TPH on the Q and 14 TPH on the T, for a combined 28 trains per hour on both routes. South of there, only 14 TPH on the T are planned, although 12 additional TPH could be provided in the future via the 63rd Street Tunnel; the 2004 plans for the Second Avenue Subway include the construction of short track segments to allow a future extension north under Second Avenue past 125th Street to the Bronx, as well as an extension south to Brooklyn. In order to store the 330 additional subway cars needed for the operation of the line, storage tracks would be built between 21st Street and 9th Street along the main alignment; the 36th–38th Street Yard in Sunset Park, would be reconfigured. The Second Avenue Subway
A bar is a retail business establishment that serves alcoholic beverages, such as beer, liquor and other beverages such as mineral water and soft drinks and sell snack foods such as potato chips or peanuts, for consumption on premises. Some types of bars, such as pubs, may serve food from a restaurant menu; the term "bar" refers to the countertop and area where drinks are served. The term "bar" is derived from the metal or wooden bar, located at feet along the length of the "bar". Bars provide chairs that are placed at tables or counters for their patrons. Bars that offer entertainment or live music are referred to as music bars, live venues, or nightclubs. Types of bars range from inexpensive dive bars to elegant places of entertainment accompanying restaurants for dining. Many bars have a discount period, designated a "happy hour" or discount of the day to encourage off-peak-time patronage. Bars that fill to capacity sometimes implement a cover charge or a minimum drink purchase requirement during their peak hours.
Bars may have bouncers to ensure patrons are of legal age, to eject drunk or belligerent patrons, to collect cover charges. Such bars feature entertainment, which may be a live band, comedian, or disc jockey playing recorded music. Patrons may be served by the bartender. Depending on the size of a bar and its approach, alcohol may be served at the bar by bartenders, at tables by servers, or by a combination of the two; the "back bar" is a set of shelves of bottles behind that counter. In some establishments, the back bar is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass and lights. There have been many different names for public drinking spaces throughout history. In the colonial era of the United States, taverns were an important meeting place, as most other institutions were weak. During the 19th century saloons were important to the leisure time of the working class. Today when an establishment uses a different name, such as "tavern" or "saloon" or, in the United Kingdom, a "pub", the area of the establishment where the bartender pours or mixes beverages is called "the bar".
The sale and/or consumption of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the first half of the 20th century in several countries, including Finland, Iceland and the United States. In the United States, illegal bars during Prohibition were called "speakeasies", "blind pigs", "blind tigers". Laws in many jurisdictions prohibit minors from entering a bar. If those under legal drinking age are allowed to enter, as is the case with pubs that serve food, they are not allowed to drink. In some jurisdictions, bars cannot serve a patron, intoxicated. Cities and towns have legal restrictions on where bars may be located and on the types of alcohol they may serve to their customers; some bars may have a license to serve wine, but not hard liquor. In some jurisdictions, patrons buying alcohol must order food. In some jurisdictions, bar owners have a legal liability for the conduct of patrons. Many Islamic countries prohibit bars as well as the possession or sale of alcohol for religious reasons, while others, including Qatar and the United Arab Emirates, allow bars in some specific areas, but only permit non-Muslims to drink in them.
A bar's owners and managers choose the bar's name, décor, drink menu and other elements which they think will attract a certain kind of patron. However, they have only limited influence over. Thus, a bar intended for one demographic profile can become popular with another. For example, a gay or lesbian bar with a dance or disco floor might, over time, attract an heterosexual clientele. Or a blues bar may become a biker bar. A cocktail lounge is an upscale bar, located within a hotel, restaurant, or airport. A full bar serves liquor, cocktails and beer. A wine bar is a bar that focuses on wine rather than on liquor. Patrons of these bars may taste wines before deciding to buy them; some wine bars serve small plates of food or other snacks. A beer bar focuses on beer craft beer, rather than on wine or liquor. A brew pub serves craft beers. "Fern bar" is an American slang term for an preppy bar. A music bar is a bar. A dive bar referred to as a "dive", is a informal bar which may be considered by some to be disreputable.
A non-alcoholic bar is a bar. A Strip club is a bar with nude entertainers. A bar and grill is a restaurant; some persons may designate either an area of a room as a home bar. Furniture and arrangements vary from efficient to full bars. Bars categorized by the kind of entertainment they offer: Blues bars, specializing in the live blues style of music Comedy bars, specializing in stand-up comedy entertainment Dance bars, which have a dance floor where patrons dance to recorded music. If a venue has a large dance floor, focuses on dancing rather than seated drinking, hires professional DJs, it is considered to be a nightclub or discothèque rather than a bar. Karaoke bars, with nightly karaoke as entertainment Music bars. Piano bars are one example. Drag b
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
A town square is an open public space found in the heart of a traditional town used for community gatherings. Other names for town square are civic center, city square, urban square, market square, public square, piazza and town green. Most town squares are hardscapes suitable for open markets, political rallies, other events that require firm ground. Being centrally located, town squares are surrounded by small shops such as bakeries, meat markets, cheese stores, clothing stores. At their center is a fountain, monument, or statue. Many of those with fountains are called fountain square. In urban planning, a city square or urban square is a planned open area in a city. In Mainland China, People's Square is a common designation for the central town square of modern Chinese cities, established as part of urban modernization within the last few decades; these squares are the site of government buildings and other public buildings. The best-known and largest such square in China is Tienanmen Square.
The German word for square is Platz, which means "Place", is a common term for central squares in German-speaking countries. These have been focal points of public life in cities from the Middle Ages to today. Squares located opposite a Palace or Castle are named Schlossplatz. Prominent Plätze include the Alexanderplatz, Pariser Platz and Potsdamer Platz in Berlin, Heldenplatz in Vienna, the Königsplatz in Munich. A piazza is a city square in Italy, along the Dalmatian coast and in surrounding regions. San Marco in Venice may be the worlds best known; the term is equivalent to the Spanish plaza. In Ethiopia, it is used to refer to a part of a city; when the Earl of Bedford developed Covent Garden – the first private-venture public square built in London – his architect Inigo Jones surrounded it with arcades, in the Italian fashion. Talk about the piazza was connected in Londoners' minds not with the square as a whole, but with the arcades. A piazza is found at the meeting of two or more streets.
Most Italian cities have several piazzas with streets radiating from the center. Shops and other small businesses are found on piazzas. Many metro stations and bus stops are found on piazzas. In Britain, piazza now refers to a paved open pedestrian space, without grass or planting in front of a significant building or shops. King's Cross station in London is to have a piazza as part of its redevelopment; the piazza will replace the existing 1970s concourse and allow the original 1850s façade to be seen again. There is a good example of a piazza in Scotswood at Newcastle College. In the United States, in the early 19th century, a piazza by further extension became a fanciful name for a colonnaded porch. Piazza was used by some in the Boston area, to refer to a verandah or front porch of a house or apartment. A central square just off Gibraltar's Main Street, between the Parliament Building and the City Hall named John Mackintosh Square is colloquially referred to as The Piazza. A large open square common in villages and cities of Indonesia is known as alun-alun.
It is a Javanese term which in modern-day Indonesia refers to the two large open squares of kraton compounds. It is located adjacent a mosque or a palace, it is a place for court celebrations and general non-court entertainments. In traditional Persian architecture, town squares are known as meydan. A maydan is considered as one of the essential features in urban planning and they are adjacent to bazaars, large mosques and other public buildings. Naqsh-e Jahan Square in Isfahan and Azadi Square in Tehran are examples of classic and modern squares. Squares are called "markt" because of the usage of the square as a market place; every town in Belgium and the southern part of the Netherlands has a "Grote Markt" or "Grand Place" in French. The "Grote Markt" is the place where the town hall is situated and therefore the centre of the town; the same naming can be found in surrounding regions as for example Cologne has several central squares named "-markt" or "Markt". In Russia, central square is a common term for an open area in the heart of the town.
In a number of cities this square does not have an individual name, i.e. named so: Tsentráĺnaya Plóshchad́, e.g. Central Square. Throughout Spain, Spanish America, the Spanish East Indies, the plaza mayor of each center of administration held three related institutions: the cathedral, the cabildo or administrative center, which might be incorporated in a wing of a governor's palace, the audiencia or law court; the plaza remains a center of community life, only equaled by the market-place. This open space at the center of the cities is from the Mediterranean where public spaces always had important role for public life; the origin of the word Plaza is, via Latin platea, from Greek πλατεῖα plateia, meaning "broad". The Plaza is the heir to the Roman "Forum", this is the heir of the Greek. Most viceregal cities in Spanish America and the Philippines were planned around a square "plaza de armas", where troops could be mustered, as the name implies, surrounded by the governor's palace and the main church.
In the United Kingdom, in London and Edinburgh, a "square" has a wider meaning. There are public squares of the type desc
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, Tribeca to its west. With an estimated population of 90,000 to 100,000 people, Chinatown is home to the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. Manhattan's Chinatown is one of the oldest Chinese ethnic enclaves; the Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, comprising an estimated 893,697 uniracial individuals as of 2017. Chinatown was populated by Cantonese speakers. However, in the 1980s and 1990s, large numbers of Fuzhounese-speaking immigrants arrived and formed a sub-neighborhood annexed to the eastern portion of Chinatown, which has become known as Little Fuzhou; as many Fuzhounese and Cantonese speakers now speak Mandarin—the official language in China and Taiwan—in addition to their native languages, this has made it more important for Chinatown residents to learn and speak Mandarin.
Although now overtaken in size by the growing Flushing Chinatown, located in the nearby borough of Queens – within New York City – the Manhattan Chinatown remains a dominant cultural force for the Chinese diaspora, as home to the Museum of Chinese in America and as the headquarters of numerous publications based both in the U. S. and China that are geared to overseas Chinese. Chinatown is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10013 and 10002, it is patrolled by the 5th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. Although a Business Improvement District has been identified for support, Chinatown has no defined borders, but they have been considered to be approximated by the following streets: Hester Street or Grand Street to the north, bordering or overlapping Little Italy Worth Street to the southwest, bordering Civic Center East Broadway to the southeast, bordering Two Bridges Essex Street to the east, bordering the Lower East Side Lafayette Street to the west, bordering Tribeca The Manhattan Chinatown is one of nine Chinatown neighborhoods in New York City, as well as one of twelve in the New York metropolitan area, which contains the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, enumerating an estimated 779,269 individuals as of 2013.
In addition, Manhattan's Little Fuzhou, an enclave populated by more recent Chinese immigrants from the Fujian Province of China, is technically considered a part of Manhattan's Chinatown, albeit now developing a separate identity of its own. A new and growing Chinese community is now forming in East Harlem, Uptown Manhattan, nearly tripling in population between the years 2000 and 2010, according to U. S. Census figures; this neighborhood has been described as the precursor to a new satellite Chinatown within Manhattan itself, which upon acknowledged formation would represent the second Chinese neighborhood in Manhattan, the tenth large Chinese settlement in New York City, the twelfth within the overall New York City metropolitan region. As the city proper with the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia by a wide margin, estimated at 628,763 as of 2017, as the primary destination for new Chinese immigrants, New York City is subdivided into official municipal boroughs, which themselves are home to significant Chinese populations, with Brooklyn and Queens, adjacently located on Long Island, leading the fastest growth.
After the City of New York itself, the boroughs of Queens and Brooklyn encompass the largest Chinese populations of all municipalities in the United States. Ah Ken is claimed to have arrived in the area during the 1850s; as a Cantonese businessman, Ah Ken founded a successful cigar store on Park Row. He first arrived around 1858 in New York City, where he was "probably one of those Chinese mentioned in gossip of the sixties as peddling'awful' cigars at three cents apiece from little stands along the City Hall park fence – offering a paper spill and a tiny oil lamp as a lighter", according to author Alvin Harlow in Old Bowery Days: The Chronicles of a Famous Street. Immigrants would find work as "cigar men" or carrying billboards, Ah Ken's particular success encouraged cigar makers William Longford, John Occoo, John Ava to ply their trade in Chinatown forming a monopoly on the cigar trade, it has been speculated that it may have been Ah Ken who kept a small boarding house on lower Mott Street and rented out bunks to the first Chinese immigrants to arrive in Chinatown.
It was with the profits he earned as a landlord, earning an average of $100 per month, that he was able to open his Park Row smoke shop around which modern-day Chinatown would grow. Faced with increasing racial discrimination and new laws that prevented participation in many occupations on the U. S. West Coast, some Chinese immigrants moved to the East Coast cities in search of employment. Early businesses in these cities included hand restaurants. Chinatown started on Mott, Park and Doyers Streets, east of the notorious Five Points district. By 1870, there was a Chinese population of 200. By the time the Ch
The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs from Chatham Square at Park Row, Worth Street, Mott Street in the south to Cooper Square at 4th Street in the north; the eponymous neighborhood runs from the Bowery east to Allen Street and First Avenue, from Canal Street north to Cooper Square/East Fourth Street. To the south is Chinatown, to the east are the Lower East Side and the East Village, to the west are Little Italy and NoHo, it has been considered a part of the Lower East Side. In the 17th century, the road branched off Broadway north of Fort Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan to the homestead of Peter Stuyvesant, director-general of New Netherland; the street was known as Bowery Lane prior to 1807. "Bowery" is an anglicization of the Dutch bouwerij, derived from an antiquated Dutch word for "farm": In the 17th century the area contained many large farms. A New York City Subway station named Bowery, serving the BMT Nassau Street Line, is located close to the Bowery's intersection with Delancey and Kenmare Streets.
There is a tunnel under the Bowery once intended for use by the proposed, but never built, New York City Subway services, including the Second Avenue Subway. The Bowery is the oldest thoroughfare on Manhattan Island, preceding European intervention as a Lenape footpath, which spanned the entire length of the island, from north to south; when the Dutch settled Manhattan island, they named the path Bouwerij road – "bouwerij" being an old Dutch word for "farm" – because it connected farmlands and estates on the outskirts to the heart of the city in today's Wall Street/Battery Park area. In 1654, the Bowery's first residents settled in the area of Chatham Square. Petrus Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New Amsterdam before the English took control, retired to his Bowery farm in 1667. After his death in 1672, he was buried in his private chapel, his mansion burned down in 1778 and his great-grandson sold the remaining chapel and graveyard, now the site of the Episcopal church of St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery.
In her Journal of 1704–05, Sarah Kemble Knight describes the Bowery as a leisure destination for residents of New York City in December: Their Diversions in the Winter is Riding Sleys about three or four Miles out of Town, where they have Houses of entertainment at a place called Bowery, some go to friends Houses who handsomely treat them. I believe we mett 50 or 60 slays that day – they fly with great swiftness and some are so furious that they'le turn out of the path for none except a Loaden Cart. Nor do they spare for any diversion the place affords, sociable to a degree, they'r Tables being as free to their Naybours as to themselves. By 1766, when John Montresor made his detailed plan of New York, "Bowry Lane", which took a more north-tending track at the rope walk, was lined for the first few streets with buildings that formed a solid frontage, with market gardens behind them. In 1766, straight lanes led away at right angles to gentlemen's seats well back from the dusty "Road to Albany and Boston", as it was labeled on Montresor's map.
James Delancey's grand house, flanked by matching outbuildings, stood behind a forecourt facing Bowery Lane. The Bull's Head Tavern was noted for George Washington's having stopped there for refreshment before riding down to the waterfront to witness the departure of British troops in 1783. Leading to the Post Road, the main route to Boston, the Bowery rivaled Broadway as a thoroughfare; as the population of New York City continued to grow, its northern boundary continued to move, by the early 1800s the Bowery was no longer a farming area outside the city. The street gained in respectability and elegance, becoming a broad boulevard, as well-heeled and famous people moved their residences there, including Peter Cooper, the industrialist and philanthropist; the Bowery began to rival Fifth Avenue as an address. When Lafayette Street was opened parallel to the Bowery in the 1820s, the Bowery Theatre was founded by rich families on the site of the Red Bull Tavern, purchased by John Jacob Astor. Across the way the Bowery Amphitheatre was erected in 1833, specializing in the more populist entertainments of equestrian shows and circuses.
From stylish beginnings, the tone of Bowery Theatre's offerings matched the slide in the social scale of the Bowery itself. By the time of the Civil War, the mansions and shops had given way to low-brow concert halls, German beer gardens, pawn shops, flophouses, like the one at No. 15 where the composer Stephen Foster lived in 1864. Theodore Dreiser closed his tragedy Sister Carrie, set in the 1890s, with the suicide of one of the main characters in a Bowery flophouse; the Bowery, which marked the eastern border of the slum of "Five Points", had become the turf of one of America's earliest street gangs, the nativist Bowery Boys. In the spirit of social reform, the first YMCA opened on the Bowery in 1873.