Box Hill, Surrey

Box Hill is a summit of the North Downs in Surrey 30 km south-west of London. The hill gets its name from the ancient box woodland found on the steepest west-facing chalk slopes overlooking the River Mole; the western part of the hill is owned and managed by the National Trust, whilst the village of Box Hill lies on higher ground to the east. The highest point is Betchworth Clumps at 224 m above OD, although the Salomons Memorial overlooking the town of Dorking is the most popular viewpoint. Box Hill lies within the Surrey Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and forms part of the Mole Gap to Reigate Escarpment Site of Special Scientific Interest; the north- and south-facing slopes support an area of chalk downland, noted for its orchids and other rare plant species. The hill provides a habitat for 40 species of butterfly, has given its name to a species of squash bug, now found throughout south-east England. An estimated 850,000 people visit Box Hill each year; the National Trust visitors' centre provides both a cafeteria and gift shop, the panoramic views of the western Weald may be enjoyed from the North Downs Way, a long-distance footpath that runs along the southern escarpment.

Box Hill featured prominently on the route of the 2012 Summer Olympics cycling road race events. Box Hill 30 km south-west of central London, stands at the south-eastern corner of the Mole Gap, the valley carved by the River Mole through the North Downs, its summit, 224 metres above Ordnance Datum, is the 12th highest in Surrey. The western boundary of the hill is defined by the River Mole, which has cut a steep cliff, exposing the chalk bedrock; the Vale of Holmesdale lies to the south, below the scarp slope. The northern and eastern boundaries are defined by dry river valleys, which were created during the last Ice Age; the total area of the hill is 11 square kilometres, of which half is owned by the National Trust. The village of Box Hill is within the civil parish of Headley; the earliest flint cottages date from the 1800s, although much of the village was constructed in the first half of the 20th century. By 2005 there were more than 800 dwellings. An estimated 41% of the community is aged 60 or over.

St Andrew's Church, part of the ecclesiastical parish of Headley, was consecrated in 1969 and the village hall opened in 1974. Two Bronze Age round barrows, located close to the Salomons Memorial, provide the earliest archaeological evidence of human activity on Box Hill; the larger barrow is 20 m in 2.2 m high. In medieval times the larger barrow was used as a boundary marker or mere for the parish of Mickleham. Traces of prehistoric field boundaries are visible on Burford Spur and the low flint banks on the steeper and more wooded White Hill may be contemporaneous. An ancient trackway along the North Downs escarpment can be dated to around 600–450 BC, but has been in existence since the stone age and may have crossed the River Mole at a ford close to the location of the present day stepping stones. In Victorian times the route was dubbed the Pilgrims' Way and was followed by visitors to the shrines of Thomas Becket and Swithun at Canterbury and Winchester respectively. Stane Street was constructed by the Romans in around 60–70 AD to link London to Chichester on the south coast of England.

The course of the road runs in a southwesterly direction across Mickleham Downs, before turning south to cross the River Mole at a ford close to the site of the Burford Bridge Hotel. The pillow mounds to the north-east of the Salomons Memorial are thought to date from the medieval period and were constructed as artificial warrens for rabbits. High Ashurst warren is recorded as remaining in use until the late 18th century. A second warren was situated close to Warren Farm in the Headley Valley and it has been speculated that the present farmhouse was the warrener's cottage; the origin of the box trees growing on the hill is disputed: Several sources from the late 18th century suggest that the first box trees on the hill were planted by Thomas Howard, 21st Earl of Arundel during the reign of Charles I. However Howard never owned the Box Hill estate and older medieval documents make reference to local individuals with surnames including Atteboxe, de la Boxe and Buxeto, suggesting that the trees were common in the area by the 13th century.

The diarist John Evelyn records a visit to the hill in August 1655 to view "those natural bowers and shady walks in the box copses." The close grain of the box wood made it prized for its timber for carving and there are numerous accounts of the sale of trees from the hill throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. At the end of the eighteenth century, imports from Portugal reduced the market value of box wood and commercial exploitation of timber from Box Hill appears to have ended with a final sale in 1797; the hill was purchased by Thomas Hope, shortly before his death in 1831. The Mickleham Parish Records credit Hope's widow, Louisa de la Poer Beresford, with allowing "free access to the beauties of this hill," however day-trippers had been arriving in significant numbers for at least a century before that. Developments in local transport infrastructure over the course of the 18th and 19th centuries, enabled increasing numbers to visit the area. Following the completion of the turnpike road between Leatherhead and Dorking in 1750, stagecoaches stopped at the Burford Bridge Hotel.

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Stephanie Lin

Stephanie Lin is an American TV journalist based in Northern California. Her reporting has taken viewers to the front-lines of California's devastating wildfires, given voice to the afflicted and shut-down consumer scams. Most notably, Stephanie covered President Trump's 2018 tour of Northern California as a member of the White House Press Pool. Lin is Miss Asian America 2015 and is recognized by Girls in Tech as one of the Top 40 Under 40 Women in Tech. Lin was born in California on October 18, the oldest of three siblings. Lin received a B. A. in Mass Communications and Minor in Chinese from UC Berkeley in 2008. Lin is a two time recipient of The Cal Alumni Leadership Award, a merit-based scholarship that recognizes UC Berkeley students who demonstrate innovative, initiative-driven leadership impacting their academic, work or community environments. While reporting in Chico, California with KHSL-TV, Lin covered the deadly Carr and Camp wildfires, President Donald Trump's tour of Northern California with California Governor Brown and Governor-elect Gavin Newsom.

She has interviewed celebrity chefs Guy Fieri and Jose Andres. Before KHSL-TV, Lin worked at ABC 20/20 in New York, where she served as Diane Sawyer's administrative assistant and supported ABC senior executives on undercover investigations. In 2009, Lin was accepted into the prestigious NBC Page Program, which boasts a lower acceptance rate than Harvard University. Lin landed assignments at CNBC's Fast Money, the TODAY Show, worked on audience operations at Late Night with Jimmy Fallon and Saturday Night Live. Lin was presented the NBCU Outstanding Tour Operations Award for her work. Lin was tapped to serve on the board of the Taiwanese American Professionals as President in 2013; the organization spans across major cities in the U. S. including San Francisco, Los Angeles, New York, San Diego, Washington D. C. Seattle and Austin. Lin volunteered abroad with an sea turtle conversation group in Costa Rica and at an elephant sanctuary in Thailand. Lin served as Co-Chair of the Games and Interactive Conference in 2016, hosted by the Asian American Multi-technology Association.

Lin was crowned Miss Asian America in 2015. For her talent, she performed an original Disney medley on ukulele. Lin advocated for diversity and empathy in companies around the world, used her new platform to speak extensively on the topic. Lin is a proponent of wildlife conservation and has shared her views on the importance of sustainable and humane wildlife tourism; as Miss Asian America, Lin is spokesperson for the Tainan Earthquake Relief Fund and spokesmodel for the fashion brand, Milida


Avsallar is a town in Antalya Province, Turkey. Avsallar is a town in the Alanya district of Antalya Province, it is a coastal town at 36°37′N 31°47′E, it is on Turkish state highway D.400 which runs from west to east in southern Turkey. The distance to Alanya is 25 kilometres and to Antalya is 105 kilometres; the population of Avsallar was 9527 as of 2012. Avsallar was founded by a Turkmen tribe of Afshar from Kençek Señir in the 15th century; the earlier settlement was to the north of the present Avsallar. In 1843 following a fire, the people moved to present location. In 1986 Avsallar was declared a seat of township; the economy of the town depends on citrus farming. But because of new hotel constructions the percentage of land allocated to farming is shrinking. Avsallar is twinned with: Nowy Sącz, Poland