A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or series of transactions that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy. Examples include the drug trade, illegal currency transactions and human trafficking. Violations of the tax code involving income tax evasion constitute membership in the unreported economy; because tax evasion or participation in a black market activity is illegal, participants will attempt to hide their behavior from the government or regulatory authority. Cash usage is the preferred medium of exchange in illegal transactions since cash usage does not leave a footprint.
Common motives for operating in black markets are to trade contraband, avoid taxes and regulations, or skirt price controls or rationing. The totality of such activity is referred to with the definite article as a complement to the official economies, by market for such goods and services, e.g. "the black market in bush meat". The black market is distinct from the grey market, in which commodities are distributed through channels that, while legal, are unofficial, unauthorized, or unintended by the original manufacturer, the white market, in which trade is legal and official. Black money is the proceeds of an illegal transaction, on which income and other taxes have not been paid, which can only be legitimised by some form of money laundering; because of the clandestine nature of the black economy it is not possible to determine its size and scope. The literature on the black market has not established a common terminology and has instead offered many synonyms including: subterranean. There is no single underground economy.
These underground economies are omnipresent, existing in market oriented as well as in centrally planned nations, be they developed or developing. Those engaged in underground activities circumvent, escape or are excluded from the institutional system of rules, rights and enforcement penalties that govern formal agents engaged in production and exchange. Different types of underground activities are distinguished according to the particular institutional rules that they violate. Four major underground economies can be identified: the illegal economy the unreported economy the unrecorded economy the informal economyThe "illegal economy" consists of the income produced by those economic activities pursued in violation of legal statutes defining the scope of legitimate forms of commerce. Illegal economy participants engage in the production and distribution of prohibited goods and services, such as drug trafficking, arms trafficking, prostitution; the "unreported economy" consists of those economic activities that circumvent or evade the institutionally established fiscal rules as codified in the tax code.
A summary measure of the unreported economy is the amount of income that should be reported to the tax authority but is not so reported. A complementary measure of the unreported economy is the "tax gap", namely the difference between the amount of tax revenues due the fiscal authority and the amount of tax revenue collected. In the U. S. unreported income is estimated to be $2 trillion resulting in a "tax gap" of $450–$600 billion. The "unrecorded economy" consists of those economic activities that circumvent the institutional rules that define the reporting requirements of government statistical agencies. A summary measure of the unrecorded economy is the amount of unrecorded income, namely the amount of income that should be recorded in national accounting systems but is not. Unrecorded income is a particular problem in transition countries that switched from a socialist accounting system to UN standard national accounting. New methods have been proposed for estimating the size of the unrecorded economy.
But there is still little consensus concerning the size of the unreported economies of transition countries. The "informal economy" comprises those economic activities that circumvent the costs and are excluded from the benefits and rights incorporated in the laws and administrative rules covering property relationships, commercial licensing, labor contracts, financial credit and social security systems. A summary measure of the informal economy is the income generated by economic agents that operate informally; the informal sector is defined as the part of an economy, not taxed, monitored by any form of government, or included in any gross national product, unlike the formal economy. In developed countries the informal sector is characterized by unreported employment; this is hidden from the state for tax, social security or labour law purposes but is legal in all other aspects. On the other hand, the term black market can be used in reference to a specific part of the economy in which contraband is traded.
Goods and services acquired illegally and/or transacted for in an illegal manner may exchange above or below the price of legal market transactions: They may be cheaper than legal market prices. The supplier taxes; this is the case in the underground economy. Criminals steal goods and sell them below the legal market price, but there is no receipt, so for
Ryszard Horowitz is a Polish-born American photographer. He is recognized as a pioneer of special effects photography. Horowitz was born in Kraków, Poland on May 5, 1939. Four months Ryszard's entire family were forced into concentration camps following the German invasion of Poland. From September 1944 he was imprisoned at Auschwitz and became known as being among the youngest known people to survive Auschwitz concentration camp and to be listed on Schindler's list. At the war's end, five-year old Ryszard was reunited with his family after his mother found him in an orphanage, they were amongst the few Jewish families to re-establish themselves in Krakow. Horowitz began taking pictures at the age of fourteen. For a brief period of time during his childhood he grew up alongside Roman Polański with whom he created his first photographic enlarger from cardboard. In 1956, the Polish government began awarding subsidies to encourage new and original art forms and Kraków emerged as a center of avant-garde jazz, painting and filmmaking.
For two years, beginning in 1959, Ryszard studied art at the High School of Fine Arts in Kraków and went on to major in painting at the Academy of Fine Arts. It was at this time that he became interested in photography the work of American photographers. Jazz music was of particular interest to Horowitz as a photography student, he photo documented the birth of Polish Jazz and in 1958 photographed jazz legends such as Dave Brubeck, Louis Armstrong, Count Basie, Duke Ellington, Sonny Rollins at the Newport Jazz Festival. Ryszard immigrated to the United States in 1959 and enrolled at New York's Pratt Institute in the commercial and advertising graphic design department. Here he encountered Richard Avedon and Alexey Brodovitch. Horowitz took part in weekly seminars led by Brodovitch and worked as an assistant for Avedon in 1963, including at his famous portrait session with Salvador Dali. After graduating from Pratt in 1962, Horowitz began working in film and television and graphic design companies, including a stint as Art Director for Grey Advertising.
In 1967, he opened his own photography studio in New York City. He has developed a successful career in both fine art and commercial photography, but is most well known for creating complex photographic composites, which have been compared to the surrealist artworks of Magritte and Dali. Early in his career, to obtain such effects he used a multitude of photographic techniques such as darkroom retouching, multiple film exposures and manipulation of his camera. Horowitz was depicted as a child in Steven Spielberg's epic drama Schindler's List - a film about Oskar Schindler, a German businessman who saved the lives over thousand Polish-Jewish refugees during the Holocaust. Horowitz, along with other Schindlerjuden appear in the final scene as mourners at Schindler's grave in Jerusalem. Horowitz's photographs appear on the cover of both Dot Hacker's 2014; because of his unique style he was asked to produce the cover for the premier issue of Nuestro magazine in 1977. In 1974, Horowitz married an architect.
They have two sons and Emil. 2017 - International Photography Hall of Fame inductee 2014 - Commander's Cross with Star awarded by president of the Republic of Poland 2014 - Honorary Citizen of Kraków 2013 - PhD from Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts 2012 - Doctor Honoris Causa Awarded by Wroclaw Academy of Fine Arts 2010 - Doctor Honoris Causa Awarded by Warsaw Academy of Fine Arts 2008 - Gloria Artis Gold Medal of Merit to Culture Awarded by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Poland 2002 - INTERNATIONAL GUTENBERG AWARDS Gold Medal 1996 - OFFICER CROSS OF MERIT awarded by president of the Republic of Poland 1991 - First Annual One APA Advertising Photography Award, Best in Special Effects Photography 1991 - Kodak's VIP Image Search, ACM SIGGRAPH, Best in Show. Best in Application/Digital Photography 1991 - First Annual One APA Advertising Photography Award - Best in Special Effects Photography 1983 - ADWEEK All-American Photographer of the Year 1983 - Andy Award of Merit 1982 - "Gold Caddie", Best in Car Advertising, Detroit 1978 - Chicago'78, 5 Certificates of Excellence 1976 - Creativity'76, Certificate of Distinction 1975 - Creativity'75, Certificate of Distinction 1974 - The One Club, Merit Award 1973 - The One Club, Gold Award & Merit Award 1973 - Chicago 4, Certificate of Excellence 1973 - Philadelphia Art Directors Club, Annual Award of Excellence 1973 - CA-73 Award of Excellence 1972 - Art Directors Club of New York, Certificate of Merit 1971 - AIGA, Certificate of Excellence 1971 - Creativity'71, Certificate of Distinction 1970 - Art Directors Club of New York, Gold Medal 1967 - Art Directors Club of New York, Award of Distinctive Merit 1964 - Art Directors Club of New York, Award of Distinctive Merit 1961 - Art Directors Club of New York, Certificate of Merit Official website Biography at culture.pl
The Schindlerjuden translated from German as "Schindler's Jews", were a group of 1,200 Jews who were saved by Oskar Schindler during the Holocaust. They survived the years of the Nazi regime through the intervention of Schindler, who found them protected status as industrial workers at his enamelware factory in Kraków and, after 1944, in an armaments factory in occupied Czechoslovakia. There, they survived the war. Schindler expended his personal fortune as an industrialist to save the Schindlerjuden, their story has been depicted in the book Schindler's Ark, by Thomas Keneally, Steven Spielberg's film adaptation of the novel, Schindler's List. Poldek Pfefferberg, one of the survivors, persuaded Thomas Keneally to write the novel and Steven Spielberg to produce the film. In 2012, there were estimated to be over 8,500 descendants of Schindlerjuden living across the United States and Israel; the original list of Schindlerjuden who were transported to Schindler's Brünnlitz factory in Brněnec, occupied Czechoslovakia, was prepared by Mietek Pemper, Itzhak Stern and Oskar Schindler during September and October of 1944.
That list no longer exists. Another list with 1,000 names, compiled by Pemper upon the prisoners' arrival 21 October 1944 at Schindler's Brünnlitz factory, was presented by him to the International Tracing Service in 1958. Two lists of 1,098 prisoners made by camp administration in Brünnlitz on 18 April 1945 are extant, are preserved in Yad Vashem Memorial, where Oskar and Emilie Schindler are recognized among the Righteous; the first list contains 297 female prisoners. There are several preserved copies and carbon copies of the list from April 1945, with some in museums while others are in private hands of families of former prisoners. In April 2009, a carbon copy of the original list, documenting 801 names, was discovered among the documentation Schindler's Ark author Thomas Keneally had donated to the State Library of New South Wales in Sydney. Abraham Bankier and Schindler's factory manager Joseph Bau, artist and writer Moshe Bejski, Israeli supreme court justice Hilde Berger, resistance fight and Schindler's secretary Aleksander Bieberstein and writer Meir Bosak, historian and poet Jerzy Gross and public speaker Chaim Hilfstein and writer Laura Hillman, museum docent and writer Helen Horowitz, maid of Amon Göth, portrayed by Embeth Davidtz in Schindler's List Ryszard Horowitz, photographer Helen Jonas-Rosenzweig, maid of Amon Göth, documentary subject Leon Leyson and writer Mietek Pemper and writer Poldek Pfefferberg, business owner who inspired Schindler's Ark, portrayed by Jonathan Sagall in Schindler's List Leo Rosner, musician Itzhak Stern, Schindler's accountant, portrayed by Ben Kingsley in Schindler's List Bau, Joseph.
Dear God, Have You Ever Gone Hungry? Arcade Publishing, 1998. - A memoir by Schindler survivor Joseph Bau about some of his experiences during the Holocaust, being rescued by Schindler, the impact of these experiences after the war. Brecher, Elinor J. Schindler's Legacy: True Stories of the List Survivors. New York: Dutton, 1994. - A compilation of interviews with many of those saved by Schindler. Includes reports of their experiences in the concentration camps and with Schindler, their stories of life after the war. Includes over one hundred personal photographs. Byers, Ann. Oskar Schindler: Saving Jews from the Holocaust. Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow, 2005. - Biography of Schindler, with emphasis on his rescue activities during the war. Part of the "Holocaust Heroes and Nazi Criminals" series for young adult readers. Includes glossary and index. Crowe, David M. Oskar Schindler: The Untold Account of His Life, Wartime Activities, the True Story Behind the List. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2004. - A comprehensive account of Schindler's early life, business career, rescue attempts, postwar experiences in Germany and Argentina.
Based on personal interviews and archival sources, including Schindler's personal papers discovered in 1997. Includes extensive bibliography and index. Fensch, editor. Oskar Schindler and His List: The Man, the Book, the Film, the Holocaust and its Survivors. Forest Dale, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 1995. - A collection of essays and interviews which illuminate Schindler and the international effect of his story. Includes a reprint of an article written about Schindler in 1949 and sections about Thomas Keneally's book Schindler's List, Steven Spielberg's film adaptation of the story, issues and implications of the Holocaust. Fogelman, Eva. Conscience & Courage: Rescuers of Jews During the Holocaust. New York: Doubleday, 1994. - Relates stories about Schindler and his efforts to save Jews in the context of other rescue efforts and courageous acts during the Holocaust. Examines the motivation of Schindler and other rescuers, including personal and historical factors. Gruntová, Jitka: Legendy a fakta o Oskaru Schindlerovi.
Praha, 2002. - Comprehensive account of Schindler's life, creation of the famous list and the daily reality of the life in the Brünnlitz factory. Based on interviews and archival sources. Hillman, Laura. I will plant you a lilac tree – a memoir of a Schindler's list survivor. Simon and Schuster, 2006; the story of a Schindler's List survivor, her family, her relationship with fellow inmate Dick Hillman in various concentration and
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
The Sunday Telegraph
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings. It is the sister paper of The Daily Telegraph published by the Telegraph Media Group. A separate operation with a different editorial staff, since 2013 the Telegraph has been a seven-day operation. Official website
Nazi concentration camps
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War. The first Nazi camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 after Hitler became Chancellor and his Nazi Party was given control of the police by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring. Used to hold and torture political opponents and union organizers, the camps held around 45,000 prisoners. In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Social Democrats, Jehovah's Witnesses and persons accused of'asocial' or socially'deviant' behavior by the Germans. Heinrich Himmler's Schutzstaffel took full control of the police and the concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35. Himmler expanded the role of the camps to hold so-called "racially undesirable elements", such as Jews, Gypsies/Romanis/Sintis, Poles, disabled people, criminals; the number of people in the camps, which had fallen to 7,500, grew again to 21,000 by the start of World War II and peaked at 715,000 in January 1945.
Beginning in 1934 the concentration camps were administered by the Concentration Camps Inspectorate, which in 1942 was merged into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt, they were guarded by SS-Totenkopfverbände. Holocaust scholars draw a distinction between concentration camps and extermination camps, which were established by Nazi Germany for the industrial-scale mass murder of Jews in the ghettos by way of gas chambers. Use of the word "concentration" came from the idea of confining people in one place because they belong to a group, considered undesirable in some way; the term itself originated in 1897 when the "reconcentration camps" were set up in Cuba by General Valeriano Weyler. In the past, the U. S. government had used concentration camps against Native Americans and the British had used them during the Second Boer War. Between 1904 and 1908, the Schutztruppe of the Imperial German Army operated concentration camps in German South-West Africa as part of its genocide of the Herero and Namaqua peoples.
The Shark Island Concentration Camp in Lüderitz was the largest camp and the one with the harshest conditions. When the Nazis came to power in Germany, they moved to suppress all real and potential opposition; the general public was intimidated by the arbitrary psychological terror, used by the special courts. During the first years of their existence when these courts "had a strong deterrent effect" against any form of political protest; the first camp in Germany, was founded in March 1933. The press announcement said that "the first concentration camp is to be opened in Dachau with an accommodation for 5,000 people. All Communists and – where necessary – Reichsbanner and Social Democratic functionaries who endanger state security are to be concentrated there, as in the long run it is not possible to keep individual functionaries in the state prisons without overburdening these prisons." Dachau was the first regular concentration camp established by the German coalition government of National Socialist Workers' Party and the Nationalist People's Party.
Heinrich Himmler Chief of Police of Munich described the camp as "the first concentration camp for political prisoners." On 26 June 1933, Himmler appointed Theodor Eicke commandant of Dachau, who in 1934 was appointed the first Inspector of Concentration Camps. In addition, the remaining SA-run camps were taken over by the SS. Dachau served as a model for the other Nazi concentration camps; every community in Germany had members who were taken there. The newspapers continuously reported on "the removal of the enemies of the Reich to concentration camps" making the general population more aware of their presence. There were jingles warning as early as 1935: "Dear God, make me dumb, that I may not come to Dachau."Between 1933 and the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945, more than 3.5 million Germans were forced to spend time in concentration camps and prisons for political reasons, 77,000 Germans were executed for one or another form of resistance by Special Courts, courts-martial, the civil justice system.
Many of these Germans had served in government, the military, or in civil positions, which enabled them to engage in subversion and conspiracy against the Nazis. As a result of the Holocaust, the term "concentration camp" carries many of the connotations of "extermination camp" and is sometimes used synonymously; because of these ominous connotations, the term "concentration camp" itself a euphemism, has been replaced by newer terms such as internment camp, resettlement camp, detention facility, etc. regardless of the actual circumstances of the camp, which can vary a great deal. After September 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, concentration camps became places where millions of ordinary people were enslaved as part of the war effort starved and killed. During the war, new Nazi concentration camps for "undesirables" spread throughout the continent. According to statistics by the German Ministry of Justice, about 1,200 camps and subcamps were run in countries occupied by Nazi Germany, while the Jewish Virtual Library estimates that the number of Nazi camps was closer to 15,000 in all of occupied Europe and that many of these camps were run for a limited amount of time before they were closed.
Camps were being created near the centers of dense populations focusing on areas with large communities of Jews, Polish intelligentsia, Communists or Romani. Since millio
Joseph Bau was a Polish-Israeli artist, inventor, comedian, commercial creator, copy-writer and survivor of the Płaszów concentration camp. Bau was trained as a graphic artist at the Jan Matejko Academy of Fine Arts in Poland, his education was interrupted by World War II and he was transferred to the Płaszów concentration camp in late 1942 from the Kraków Ghetto. Having a talent in gothic lettering, he was employed in the camp for making signs and maps for the Germans. While in Płaszów, Bau created a miniature - the size of his hand – illustrated book with his own poetry, he forged documents and identity papers for people who managed to escape from the camp. During his imprisonment, Bau fell in love with Rebecca Tennenbaum, they were secretly married, despite the prohibition by the Germans, in the women's barracks of Płaszów. This was dramatized in Steven Spielberg's Academy Award-winning movie Schindler's List, where he was played by Rami Heuberger. Bau himself appears in the film's epilogue placing a stone on Oskar Schindler's grave in Jerusalem, along with his wife Rebecca.
After Płaszów, Bau was transferred to Gross-Rosen concentration camp and to Schindler's camp where he stayed until the end of the war, while Rebecca was sent to Auschwitz. After liberation, Bau was reunited with his wife finished his degree at University of Plastic Arts in Kraków. In 1950, he immigrated to Israel together with his wife and three-year-old daughter, where their other daughter, was born, he worked as a graphic artist at the Brandwein Institute for the government of Israel. Bau opened his own studio in 1956 in Tel Aviv, now a museum managed by daughters Hadassa and Clila, he was well known for creating graphic fonts and drawing titles for Israeli movies in the 1960s and 1970s. He authored a number of Hebrew books and continued to write poetry. Bau's wife Rebecca died in 1997. Bau died from pneumonia in Tel Aviv on May 24, 2002, at age 81; the English version of Joseph Bau's memoir, Dear God, Have You Ever Gone Hungry? came out in June 1998. It was first published in Hebrew and Polish and was published in several languages, including Chinese.
Joseph Bau created his own animated films, for which he has been referred to in the press as the "Israeli Walt Disney" or as the "founder of Israel's animation industry". His paintings and drawings have been listed by Sotheby's as significant contributions to the art of the Holocaust and his works have been shown in galleries in New York, Baltimore and Minneapolis. Joseph Bau's art is filtered through the prism of his own experiences, it reflects both the brutal reality of life during the war, as well as the joy and humour he observed in years in Israel. Joseph Bau was nominated for the prestigious Israel Prize in 1998. Joseph Bau's Home Page Giuseppe Sedia, Josef Bau: Israel’s Walt Disney and Mapmaker of Hell, in The Krakow Post, 7 September 2012