Brčko

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Brčko
Брчко
Town and municipality
Brčko
Brčko
Brčko is located in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Brčko
Brčko
Location within Bosnia and Herzegovina
Coordinates: 44°52′N 18°49′E / 44.87°N 18.81°E / 44.87; 18.81
Country  Bosnia and Herzegovina
District Brčko District
Government
 • Mayor Siniša Milić (SNSD)
 • President of the District Assembly Esed Kadrić (SDA)
 • International Supervisor
(Suspended)
Bruce G. Berton
Area
 • Town and municipality 402 km2 (155 sq mi)
Elevation 92 m (302 ft)
Population (2013 census)[1]
 • Town and municipality 83,516
 • Density 210/km2 (540/sq mi)
 • Urban 43,007
Postcode 76100
Area code(s) +387 049
Website Official website

Brčko (pronounced [br̩̂tʃkoː]) is a town, municipality and the administrative seat of Brčko District in northern Bosnia and Herzegovina. It lies on the banks of Sava river across from Croatia, as of 2013, it has a population of 83,516 inhabitants.

It is the only existent entirely self-governing free city in Europe.[2]

Name[edit]

Its name is very likely linked to the Breuci, an Illyrian tribe inhabiting the area in antiquity.[citation needed]

Geography[edit]

Brčko District and Brčko town

The city is located on the country's northern border, across the Sava River from Gunja in Croatia.

Brčko is the seat of the Brčko District, an independent unit of local self-government created on the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina following an arbitration process, the local administration was formerly supervised by an international supervisory regime headed by Principal Deputy High Representative who is also ex officio the Brčko International Supervisor. This international supervision was frozen since 23 May 2012.[3]

History[edit]

Brčko was a geographic point of contention in 1996 when the U.S.-led Implementation Force (IFOR) built Camp McGovern on the outskirts of the city. Camp McGovern under the overwatch of 3-5 CAV 1/BDE/1AR Division (US) commanded by LTC Anthony Cucculo was constructed from a war torn farming cooperative structure in the Zone of Separation (ZOS) for the purpose of establishing peacekeeping operations, the mission was to separate the forming warring factions. The ZOS was one kilometer wide of no man's land, where special permission was required for Serbian or Bosnian forces to enter. Various checkpoints and observation points (OP's) were established to control the separation.

Although Brčko was a focal point for tension in the late 1990s, considerable progress in multi-ethnic integration in Brčko has since occurred including integration of secondary schooling. Reconstruction efforts and the Property Law Implementation Plan have improved the situation regarding property and return. Today, Brčko has returned to a strategic transshipment point along the Sava River. The population of Brčko has not returned to its pre-war ethnic mix of Bosniacs, Serbs, and Croats. Brčko sits at the east-west apex of Republika Srpska, the ethnic Serb portion of Bosnia & Herzegovina, and as such is critical to the RS for its economic future.

Brčko was the strategic component of Dayton Peace Accords which could not be negotiated[clarification needed]. After several weeks of intensive negotiation, the issue of Brčko was to be decided by international arbitration. Brčko Arbitration ruled in May 1997 that Brčko would be a special district managed by an ambassadorial representative from the international community, the first Ambassador to Brčko was an American with support staff from the UK, Sweden, Denmark & France.

The first international organization to open office in Brčko at that time was the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) headed by Randolph Hampton.

Following PIC meeting on 23 May 2012, it was decided to suspend, not terminate, the mandate of Brčko International Supervisor. Brčko Arbitral Tribunal, together with the suspended Brčko Supervision, will still continue to exist.[3]

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
194849,969—    
195365,078+5.43%
197174,771+0.77%
198182,768+1.02%
199187,627+0.57%
201383,516−0.22%

According to 2013 census the Brčko district had 83,516 inhabitants

Ethnic groups[edit]

The ethnic composition of Brčko:[4]

2013
Village/Town Nationality
Total
Bosniaks
%
Croats
%
Serbs
%
Brčko Town
17,489
44.40
1,457
03.65
19,420
49.30
39,893

Page text.[5]

Transport[edit]

Rail[edit]

A railway station is near the city centre on the line from Vinkovci to Tuzla. However, no passenger trains operate to Brčko, the closest operating railway station is in Gunja, Croatia; just on the other side of the border.

Sport[edit]

Brčko has three football clubs (FK Jedinstvo Brčko, FK Lokomotiva Brčko and the youngest club FK Ilićka 01). They all play in the Second League of Republika Srpska.

Features[edit]

Brčko has the largest port in Bosnia, on the Sava river, it is also home to an economics faculty and to a rather important theatre festival;

Gallery[edit]

Twin towns — sister cities[edit]

Brčko is twinned with:

Famous residents[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 44°52′N 18°49′E / 44.87°N 18.81°E / 44.87; 18.81