Snappers are a family of perciform fish, mainly marine, but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in fresh water. The family includes about 113 species, one of the best known is the red snapper. Snappers inhabit tropical and subtropical regions of all oceans, some snappers grow up to about 1 m in length however one specific Snapper, the Cubera Snapper, grows up to 5 ft in length. Most are active carnivores, feeding on crustaceans or other fish and they can be kept in aquaria, but mostly grow too fast to be popular aquarium fish. Most species live at depths reaching 100 m near coral reefs, as other fish, snappers harbour parasites. A detailed study conducted in New Caledonia has shown that coral reef-associated snappers harbour about 9 species of parasites per fish species
The proboscis monkey or long-nosed monkey, known as the bekantan in Indonesia, is a reddish-brown arboreal Old World monkey that is endemic to the southeast Asian island of Borneo. This species co-exists with the Bornean orangutan and it belongs in the monotypic genus Nasalis, although the pig-tailed langur has traditionally been included in this genus. The monkey goes by the Indonesian name monyet belanda, or even orang belanda and this species of monkey is easily identifiable because of its unusually large nose. Proboscis monkeys belong to the Colobinae subfamily of the Old World monkeys, the proboscis monkey is a large species, being one of the largest monkey species native to Asia. Only the Tibetan macaque and a few of the gray langurs can rival its size, sexual dimorphism is pronounced in the species. Males have a length of 66 to 76.2 cm and typically weigh 16 to 22.5 kg. Females measure 53.3 to 62 cm in length and weigh 7 to 12 kg. Further adding to the dimorphism is the nose or proboscis of the male, which can exceed 10.2 cm in length.
Theories for the length of their nose suggest it may be sexual selection by the females. Nevertheless, the nose of the female is fairly large for a primate. The proboscis monkey has a coat, the fur on the back is bright orange, reddish brown. The underfur is light-grey, yellowish, or greyish to light-orange, infants are born with a blue coloured face that at 2.5 months darkens to grey. By 8.5 months of age, the face has become cream coloured like the adults, the male has a red penis with a black scrotum. Both sexes have bulging stomachs that give the monkeys what resembles a pot belly, many of the monkeys toes are webbed. Proboscis monkeys generally live in groups composed of one male, some adult females. Some individuals are solitary, mostly males, Monkey groups live in overlapping home ranges, with little territoriality, in a fission-fusion society, with groups gathering at sleeping sites as night falls. There exist bands which arise when groups come together and slip apart yet sometimes groups may join to mate, groups gather during the day and travel together, but individuals only groom and play with those in their own group.
One-male groups consist of 9–19 individuals, while bands can consist of as many as 60 individuals, one-male groups typically consist of three to 12 individuals, but can contain more
The Bhitarkanika Mangroves are a mangrove wetland in Indias Odisha state. The Bhitarkanika Mangroves cover an area of 650 km2 in the delta of the Brahmani and Baitarani rivers. In 1975, an area of 672 km2 was declared the Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary, the core area of the sanctuary, with an area of 145 km2, was declared Bhitarkanika National Park in September 1998. Bhitarkanika Mangroves were designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance in 2002, the Bhitarkanika Mangroves are home to 55 of Indias 58 known mangrove species. The crocodile was shot near Dhamara in 1926, and its skull was preserved by the Kanika King. Crocodile experts estimate the animal to have been between 20 feet and 23 feet long, as the size of the skull was measured one ninth of the length of the body. In 2006 the park was recognized by the Guinness Book of World Records for the largest white crocodile living in captivity measuring 23 feet, the wetland hosts a large and diverse population of resident and migratory birds.
Gahirmatha coast in Kendrapara district is the world’s largest nesting beach for olive ridley turtles is packed with pleasure for tourists, declared a wild life sanctuary in Odisha in 1979 and a world heritage site, Gahirmatha is significant for turtle conservation. The breathtaking view of the sanctuary, located on the point of the Dhamra River. You will be amazed by the area covered by the sanctuary – nearly 1,435 km2. The sanctuary has been declared a heritage site and has slowly attracted attention as an important place in Odisha Tourism. Gahirmatha turtle sanctuary hosts a variety of flora and fauna, one will find flora like bels, zizphus bija, salaia sal, teak and many other varieties in the sanctuary. On a clear night, during the nesting season, you will see thousands of turtles crawling out of the sea. Environmentalists are of the view that this is indeed one of the nature’s miracles, the state government, assisted by international and regional NGOs has created this safe habitat for giant turtles.
Thousands of giant olive ridleys in Gahirmatha, the marine sanctuary, watch out for no less incredible creatures thriving all around. Nearby The temple of Lord Shiva built in the early 9th century in Dangmol is worth visiting, Bhitarkanika wild life sanctuary and national park near the Gahirmatha sanctuary is a major attraction. It is recognized as the second largest mangrove ecosystem in India covering an area of 672 km2, the forest offers shelter to more than 2145 species of birds. It is recognized s a “crocodile sanctuary” and is home to the biggest population of salt water crocodiles in the country
The Sundarbans is a natural region in southern Bangladesh and the extreme southern part of the Indian state of West Bengal in the vast river delta on the Bay of Bengal. It is the largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest in the world, the Sundarbans covers approximately 10,000 square kilometres most of which is in Bangladesh with the remainder in India. The Sundarbans is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Sundarbans South and West are three protected forests in Bangladesh. This region is covered by mangrove forests, and is the largest reserves for the Bengal tiger. The Sundarbans National Park is a National Park, Tiger Reserve, the name Sundarban can be literally translated as beautiful forest in the Bengali language. The name may have derived from the Sundari trees that are found in Sundarbans in large numbers. Alternatively, it has proposed that the name is a corruption of Samudraban, Shomudrobôn. However, the accepted view is the one associated with Sundari or Sundri trees. The history of the area can be traced back to 200–300 AD, a ruin of a city built by Chand Sadagar has been found in the Baghmara Forest Block.
During the Mughal period, the Mughal Kings leased the forests of the Sundarbans to nearby residents, many criminals took refuge in the Sundarbans from the advancing armies of Emperor Akbar. Many have been known to be attacked by tigers, many of the buildings which were built by them fell to hands of Portuguese pirates, salt smugglers and dacoits in the 17th century. Evidence of the fact can be traced from the ruins at Netidhopani, the legal status of the forests underwent a series of changes, including the distinction of being the first mangrove forest in the world to be brought under scientific management. Systematic management of this forest tract started in the 1860s after the establishment of a Forest Department in the Province of Bengal, the first Forest Management Division to have jurisdiction over the Sundarbans was established in 1869. In 1875 a large portion of the forests was declared as reserved forests under the Forest Act,1865. A Forest Division, which is the basic forest management and administration unit, was created in 1879 with the headquarters in Khulna, the first management plan was written for the period 1893–98.
In 1911, it was described as a tract of country which had never been surveyed nor had the census been extended to it. The total area was estimated at 16,900 square kilometres and it was a water-logged jungle, in which tigers and other wild beasts abounded. Attempts at reclamation had not been very successful, the Sundarbans was everywhere intersected by river channels and creeks, some of which afforded water communication throughout the Bengal region both for steamers and for native ships
Not to be confused with the American alligator. The American crocodile is a species of crocodilian found in the Neotropics and it is the most widespread of the four extant species of crocodiles from the Americas. Populations occur from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of southern Mexico to South America as far as Peru and it lives on many of the Caribbean islands such as Cuba, Jamaica and Grand Cayman. Within the United States, the American crocodiles distribution is limited to Puerto Rico, the current US population, estimated at 2,000, represents a significant recovery from a few hundred in the 1970s. The habitat of the American crocodile consists largely of coastal areas and they can be found on beaches and small island formations without any freshwater source, such as some of the many cays and islets across the Bahamas and the Caribbean. They are found in lakes, one of the largest known populations inhabits the Lago Enriquillo. The American is one of the larger crocodile species, males can reach lengths of 6.1 m, weighing up to 907 kg.
On average, mature males are more in the range of 4.1 m to 4.8 m in length weighing about 400 kg, as with other crocodile species, females are smaller, rarely exceeding 3.8 m in length. This species has a more V-shaped snout, compared to other large crocodiles, adults have a uniform grayish-green coloration with white or yellow undersides, while juveniles have dark cross-banding on the tail and back. Despite their large size, American crocodiles do not regularly attack large animals, reptiles and small mammals make up the majority of their diet. On occasion, large mammals such as deer and cattle are taken and their dietary habits in coastal regions are not well studied. Like any other crocodilian, the American crocodile is potentially dangerous to humans. Cuvier originally described the species as Crocodylus acutus in 1807, over time, it commonly became known as the sharp-snout alligator. In 1822, Constantine Samuel Rafinesque postulated that the species was in fact a crocodile, the species was redescribed as Crocodylus floridanus by William T.
Hornaday in 1875, when Hornaday and C. E. Jackson were sent from Washington, DC to Florida to collect alligator hides. He was a monster for size—a perfect whale of a saurian, gray in color—and by all the powers, Crocodylus floridanus is now considered an invalid junior synonym of C. acutus. Like all crocodilians, the American crocodile is a quadruped, with four short, stocky legs, a long, powerful tail and its snout is elongated and includes a strong pair of jaws. Its eyes have nictitating membranes for protection along with lachrymal glands, the nostrils and ears are situated on the top of its head, so the rest of the body can be concealed underwater for surprise attacks. Camouflage helps it prey on food, the snout is relatively longer and narrower than that of the American alligator, although broader on average than that of the Orinoco crocodile
Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. The open ocean has about 35 grams of solids per litre, Salt is essential for life in general, and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. The tissues of animals contain larger quantities of salt than do plant tissues, Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, and salting is an important method of food preservation. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, the scarcity and universal need for salt has led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt is used in ceremonies and has other cultural significance. Salt is processed from salt mines, or by the evaporation of seawater or mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic soda and chlorine, and is used in industrial processes including the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride, paper pulp.
Of the annual production of around two hundred million tonnes of salt, only about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, and agricultural use, edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which usually contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency. As well as its use in cooking and at the table, sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an electrolyte and osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption can increase the risk of diseases, such as hypertension, in children. Such health effects of salt have long been studied, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods. The World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, humans have always tended to build communities either around sources of salt, or where they can trade for it. All through history the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization, the word salary comes from the Latin word for salt because the Roman Legions were sometimes paid in salt.
The Natron Valley was a key region that supported the Egyptian Empire to its north, because it supplied it with a kind of salt that came to be called by its name, natron. Even before this, what is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, even the name Solnisata means salt works. A very ancient salt-works operation has been discovered at the Poiana Slatinei archaeological site next to a spring in Lunca, Neamț County
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
Salmon /ˈsæmən/ is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae. Other fish in the family include trout, grayling. Salmon are native to tributaries of the North Atlantic and Pacific Ocean, many species of salmon have been introduced into non-native environments such as the Great Lakes of North America and Patagonia in South America. Salmon are intensively farmed in parts of the world. Typically, salmon are anadromous, they are born in water, migrate to the ocean. However, populations of species are restricted to fresh water through their lives. Various species of salmon display anadromous life strategies while others display freshwater resident life strategies, folklore has it that the fish return to the exact spot where they were born to spawn, tracking studies have shown this to be mostly true. A portion of a salmon run may stray and spawn in different freshwater systems. The percent of straying depends on the species of salmon, homing behavior has been shown to depend on olfactory memory.
The term salmon comes from the Latin salmo, which in turn may have originated from salire, the nine commercially important species of salmon occur in two genera. The genus Salmo contains the Atlantic salmon, found in the north Atlantic, the genus Oncorhynchus contains eight species which occur naturally only in the North Pacific. As a group, these are known as Pacific salmon, Chinook salmon have been introduced in New Zealand and Patagonia. Coho, freshwater sockeye, and Atlantic salmon have established in Patagonia. † Both the Salmo and Oncorhynchus genera contain a number of species referred to as trout, within Salmo, additional minor taxa have been called salmon in English, i. e. the Adriatic salmon and Black Sea salmon. The steelhead anadromous form of the rainbow trout migrates to sea, a number of other species have common names which refer to them as being salmon. The British Columbia salmon fossil provides evidence that the divergence between Pacific and Atlantic salmon had not yet occurred 40 million years ago, Both the fossil record and analysis of mitochondrial DNA suggest the divergence occurred by 10 to 20 million years ago.
This independent evidence from DNA analysis and the fossil record rejects the theory of salmon divergence. Atlantic salmon reproduce in northern rivers on both coasts of the Atlantic Ocean, landlocked salmon live in a number of lakes in eastern North America and in Northern Europe, for instance in lakes Sebago, Ladoga, Saimaa, Vänern, and Winnipesaukee
In biology/ecology, parasitism is a non-mutual relationship between species, where one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host. Traditionally parasite referred primarily to organisms visible to the naked eye, Parasites can be microparasites, which are typically smaller, such as protozoa and bacteria. Examples of parasites include the plants mistletoe and cuscuta, and animals such as hookworms, unlike predators, parasites typically do not kill their host, are generally much smaller than their host, and will often live in or on their host for an extended period. Both are special cases of consumer-resource interactions, Parasites show a high degree of specialization, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and tapeworms, the Plasmodium species, and fleas, parasitism differs from the parasitoid relationship in that parasitoids generally kill their hosts. Parasites reduce host biological fitness by general or specialized pathology, such as parasitic castration and impairment of secondary sex characteristics, Parasites increase their own fitness by exploiting hosts for resources necessary for their survival, e. g. food, heat and transmission.
Although parasitism applies unambiguously to many cases, it is part of a continuum of types of interactions between species, rather than an exclusive category, in many cases, it is difficult to demonstrate harm to the host. In others, there may be no apparent specialization on the part of the parasite, coined in English in 1611, the word parasitism comes from the Greek παρά + σιτισμός feeding, fattening. Parasites are classified based on their interactions with their hosts and on their life cycles, an obligate parasite is totally dependent on the host to complete its life cycle, while a facultative parasite is not. A direct parasite has one host while an indirect parasite has multiple hosts. For indirect parasites, there always be a definitive host. Parasites that live on the outside of the host, either on the skin or the outgrowths of the skin, are called ectoparasites and those that live inside the host are called endoparasites. Endoparasites can exist in one of two forms, intercellular parasites or intracellular parasites, intracellular parasites, such as protozoa, bacteria or viruses, tend to rely on a third organism, which is generally known as the carrier or vector.
The vector does the job of transmitting them to the host, an example of this interaction is the transmission of malaria, caused by a protozoan of the genus Plasmodium, to humans by the bite of an anopheline mosquito. Those parasites living in a position, being half-ectoparasites and half-endoparasites, are called mesoparasites. An epiparasite is one that feeds on another parasite and this relationship is sometimes referred to as hyperparasitism, exemplified by a protozoan living in the digestive tract of a flea living on a dog. Social parasites take advantage of interactions between members of social organisms such as ants and bumblebees, an extreme example of social parasitism is the ant species of Tetramorium inquilinum of the Alps, which spend their whole lives on the back of Tetramorium host ants. With tiny and deprecated bodies they have evolved for one single task, if they fall off, they most likely would not have the strength to climb back on top of another ant, and eventually they will die
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae. Herring often move in schools around fishing banks and near the coast. Three species of Clupea are recognised, and provide about 90% of all captured in fisheries. Most abundant of all is the Atlantic herring, providing half of all herring capture. Fishes called herring are found in India, in the Arabian Sea, Indian Ocean. Herring played a role in the history of marine fisheries in Europe. These oily fish have a history as an important food fish. A number of different species, most belonging to the family Clupeidae, are referred to as herrings. The origins of the herring is somewhat unclear, though it may derive from the Old High German heri meaning a host, multitude. The type genus of the herring family Clupeidae is Clupea, Clupea contains three species, the Atlantic herring found in the north Atlantic, the Pacific herring found in the north Pacific, and the Araucanian herring found off the coast of Chile. Subspecific divisions have been suggested for both the Atlantic and Pacific herrings, but their biological basis remain unclear, in addition, a number of related species, all in the family Clupeidae, are commonly referred to as herrings.
The table immediately below includes those members of the Clupeidae family referred to by FishBase as herrings which have been assessed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. There are a number of other species called herrings, which may be related to clupeids or just share some characteristics of herrings. Just which of these species are called herrings can vary with locality, some examples, The species of Clupea belong to the larger family Clupeidae, which comprises some 200 species that share similar features. These silvery-coloured fish have a dorsal fin, which is soft. They have no lateral line and have a lower jaw. At least one stock of Atlantic herring spawns in every month of the year, each spawns at a different time and place. Greenland populations spawn in 0–5 metres of water while North Sea herrings spawn at up to 200 metres in autumn
Males of this species can reach sizes up to at least 6.30 m and possibly up to 7.0 m in length. However, an adult male saltwater crocodile rarely reaches or exceeds a size of 6 m weighing 1,000 to 1,200 kg, females are much smaller and often do not surpass 3 m. As its name implies, this species of crocodile can live in environments, but usually resides in saline and brackish mangrove swamps, deltas, lagoons. They have the broadest distribution of any modern crocodile, ranging from the eastern coast of India throughout most of Southeast Asia, the saltwater crocodile is a formidable and opportunistic hypercarnivorous apex predator. Most prey are ambushed and drowned or swallowed whole, due to their size and distribution, saltwater crocodiles are regarded as the most dangerous extant crocodilian to humans. Incomplete fossil records make it difficult to trace the emergence of the species. The genome was sequenced in 2007. The earliest fossil evidence of the dates to around 4. 0–4.5 million years ago.
Scientists estimate that C. porosus is an ancient species that could have diverged from 12 to 6 million years ago, other relatively broad-snouted species such as Mugger and Siamese crocodiles seem to be the most likely candidates to bear the closest relation among living species. Currently, most sources state that the saltwater crocodile does not have a subspecies, based largely on morphological variability, some have claimed that not only are there subspecies but that C. porosus actually houses a species complex. According to Ross, specimens of C, another attempt to derive a species came from Australia, Wells & Wellington, and was based upon large-bodied, relatively large-headed and short-tailed crocodiles from Australia. The type specimen reported for this species was a crocodile nicknamed Sweetheart that was inadvertently killed in 1979. However, this species, C. pethericki, has been considered as a misinterpretation of the physiological changes undergone by very large male crocodiles. The saltwater crocodile has a wide snout compared to most crocodiles, however, it has a longer muzzle than the mugger crocodile, its length is twice its width at the base.
The saltwater crocodile has fewer armour plates on its neck than other crocodilians, on this species, a pair of ridges runs from the eyes along the centre of the snout. The scales are oval in shape and the scutes are either small compared to species or commonly are entirely absent. The adult saltwater crocodiles broad body contrasts with that of most other lean crocodiles, the head is very large.3 cm and a maximum width across the skull of 48 cm. The length of the specimen came from is not known
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London. At 215 miles, it is the longest river entirely in England and it flows through Oxford, Henley-on-Thames and Windsor. The lower reaches of the river are called the Tideway, derived from its tidal reach up to Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire, and flows into the North Sea via the Thames Estuary, the Thames drains the whole of Greater London. Its tidal section, reaching up to Teddington Lock, includes most of its London stretch and has a rise, in Scotland, the Tay achieves more than double the average discharge from a drainage basin that is 60% smaller. Along its course are 45 navigation locks with accompanying weirs and its catchment area covers a large part of South Eastern and a small part of Western England and the river is fed by 38 named tributaries. The river contains over 80 islands, in 2010, the Thames won the largest environmental award in the world – the $350,000 International Riverprize.
The Thames, from Middle English Temese, is derived from the Brittonic Celtic name for the river, recorded in Latin as Tamesis and yielding modern Welsh Tafwys Thames. It has suggested that it is not of Celtic origin. A place by the river, rather than the river itself, indirect evidence for the antiquity of the name Thames is provided by a Roman potsherd found at Oxford, bearing the inscription Tamesubugus fecit. It is believed that Tamesubugus name was derived from that of the river, tamese was referred to as a place, not a river in the Ravenna Cosmography. The rivers name has always pronounced with a simple t /t/, the Middle English spelling was typically Temese. A similar spelling from 1210, Tamisiam, is found in the Magna Carta, the Thames through Oxford is sometimes called the Isis. Ordnance Survey maps still label the Thames as River Thames or Isis down to Dorchester, richard Coates suggests that while the river was as a whole called the Thames, part of it, where it was too wide to ford, was called *lowonida.
An alternative, and simpler proposal, is that London may be a Germanic word, for merchant seamen, the Thames has long been just the London River. Londoners often refer to it simply as the river in such as south of the river. Thames Valley Police is a body that takes its name from the river. The marks of human activity, in cases dating back to Pre-Roman Britain, are visible at various points along the river