Bradley Phillip Bell is an American television writer and producer. Bell is an eight-time Daytime Emmy Award winner and is executive producer and head writer for The Bold and the Beautiful, an American soap opera. Bradley Bell was born in Chicago, the son of William J. Bell and Lee Phillip Bell. Bell's parents co-created the soap operas The Bold and the Beautiful, his mother was an Emmy Award-winning broadcast journalist and talk show personality. Bell graduated from the Latin School of Chicago before attending the University of Colorado at Boulder and the University of Wisconsin at Madison, he concluded his studies at University of California, Los Angeles where he majored in television production before going on to join the writing staff of The Young and the Restless. In 1987, Bell contributed to the creation and launch of The Bold and the Beautiful the world's most popular daytime television soap opera with more than 45 broadcasters in over 110 countries, according to the Guinness Book of World Records.
Bell was promoted to associate producer in 1989 and again to supervising producer in 1992. He has been the head writer and executive producer of the show since 1995 respectively, it wasn't until 2000. By 2015, he has been awarded with Emmys for his writing in 2010, 2013, 2015 amongst 11 nominations and took home three statuettes for helming the Best Drama Series in a record three consecutive years in 2009, 2010, 2011 amongst 9 nominations in addition to two Emmy wins in other categories. On January 14, 2015 CBS Television City, celebrating 7000 episodes of The Bold and The Beautiful, dedicated Studio 31 to Bell in honor of his work since the first day of the series. Bell married Colleen Bell in October 1991 and they have 4 children, they live in Los Angeles, California. According to the Center for Investigative Reporting and Colleen Bell use "at least 2 million" gallons of water per year to irrigate their personal estate. Bell's sister, Lauralee Bell is an actress best known for her role as Christine Blair on The Young and the Restless and The Bold and the Beautiful.
Bell has an older brother, Bill Bell, the president of Bell Dramatic Serial Company and Bell-Phillip Television Productions, Inc. Bradley Bell on IMDb Bradley Bell's 2011 Daytime Emmy Acceptance Speech on YouTube Bradley Bell on TV.com
Megan Malia Leilani McClung was the first female United States Marine Corps officer killed in combat during the Iraq War. Major McClung was serving as a public affairs officer in Al Anbar Province, Iraq when she was killed. Megan Malia Leilani McClung was born on April 14, 1972 in Honolulu, Hawaii to Re McClung, she was raised in Orange County and graduated from Mission Viejo High School, Mission Viejo, CA in 1990. Megan became one of the first women to attend Admiral Farragut Academy in New Jersey, her family had a history of military service. Her paternal grandfather served in the United States Army during World War II, her father was a U. S. Marine Corps infantry officer, her maternal grandfather was a U. S. Navy officer and pilot, she attended the United States Naval Academy and receiving her officer's commission in 1995. McClung graduated with her master's degree in Criminology from Boston University in 2006, several months prior to her death. McClung was commissioned an officer in the Marine Corps in 1995 and served on active duty until 2004, when she entered the Reserves.
In 2004, she joined Kellogg and Root, an American engineering and construction company and went to Iraq as a private contractor. In 2006, she returned to active duty with the Marines and in January 2006, she was deployed to Iraq as a public affairs officer with the I Marine Expeditionary Force, she was promoted to the rank of Major in June. In December 2006, she was in the final month of a year-long deployment to Iraq. On December 6, 2006, McClung was serving with the I Marine Expeditionary Force as the Marine Corps head of public affairs for Al Anbar Province, in charge of embedded journalists. Earlier in the day, she had been accompanying Oliver North with his Fox News camera crew in Ramadi, she subsequently was escorting Newsweek journalists into downtown Ramadi. A massive improvised explosive device destroyed McClung's Humvee killing McClung and the other two occupants; the Newsweek journalists were not injured. McClung was the first female Marine officer to be killed in the Iraq war, as well as the first female graduate of the United States Naval Academy to be killed in action since the school was founded in 1845.
Major Megan McClung was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery on December 19, 2006. While in high school and college, McClung competed as a gymnast. McClung was a marathoner. In October 2006, she organized and ran in the Marine Corps Marathon's satellite competition, Marine Corps Marathon Forward in Iraq. McClung was posthumously honored at Boston University's Metropolitan College 2007 commencement ceremonies with the 2006 “Excellence in Graduate Study in Criminal Justice”, presented by Dr. Daniel LeClair; the second annual Major McClung Memorial Run was held August 23, 2008 at Naval Air Station Whidbey Island to raise money for wounded Marines and their families. Marine LtGen Carol Mutter honored Major McClung for her sacrifice during a speech at the Republican National Convention on September 4, 2008. In 2008, the first Major Megan M. McClung Memorial Scholarship will be awarded to a college student by her parents, Drs. Re and Michael and the Women Marines Association.
In 2010, The Major Megan McClung Memorial Scholarship Fund was established at her alma mater, Admiral Farragut Academy, provides need-based financial aid to a deserving female cadet. In Iraq, Army General Ray Odierno was responsible for building a state of the art broadcast studio, which allowed live interviews as well as numerous press events, he dedicated the studio to Major McClung; the Defense Information School, the United States Department of Defense's training school for photojournalists and other public affairs personnel, presents the Maj. Megan McClung Leadership Award to one graduating member of each Public Affairs Qualification Course. Barbara Dulinsky, first female Marine to serve in a combat zone American Forces Press Service. "Roadside Bombs Kills Four Soldiers. DefenseLink News. U. S. Department of Defense. Retrieved 2006-12-31."Female USMC Officer Raised In OC Killed In Iraq Combat". Los Angeles - NBC4. December 11, 2006. Archived from the original on 2006-12-27. Retrieved 2006-12-31.
Fumento, Michael. "In Memoriam:Farewell to Maj. Megan McClung, USMC"; the American Spectator. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2006-12-31."Megan M. McClung, United States Marine Corps". Arlington National Cemetery. December 19, 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-31. Mitchell, Greg. "Marine Officer in Iraq Killed — While Escorting Journalists". Editor & Publisher. Retrieved 2006-12-31. Ritchie, Erika I.. "O. C. native dies in Iraq. The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-06. Rivenburg, Roy. "Marine died backing her beliefs. She was killed by a roadside bomb December 6". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved December 17, 2008. Strupp, Joe. "Marine Officer Who Died In Iraq Had Been Escorting Oliver North and'Newsweek' Journalist". Editor & Publisher. Retrieved 2006-12-31. Zimmerman, Beth. "First female leatherneck officer killed in Iraq, Public affairs major was'Marine's Marine'". Marine Corps Times. Retrieved 2006-12-31. "First Female Marine Officer Killed In Iraq: Maj. Megan M. McClung, A Marine Corps Spokeswoman, Dies While Escorting
Reticular theory is an obsolete scientific theory in neurobiology that stated that everything in the nervous system, such as brain, is a single continuous network. The concept was postulated by a German anatomist Joseph von Gerlach in 1871, was most popularised by the Nobel laureate Italian physician Camillo Golgi. However, the theory was refuted by observations of a Spanish pathologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, using a staining technique discovered by Golgi, which showed that nervous tissue, like other tissues, is made of discrete cells; this neuron doctrine turned out to be the correct description of the nervous system, whereas the reticular theory was discredited. The proponents of the two contrasting theories and Ramón y Cajal were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1906, "in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system". In 1863 a German anatomist Otto Friedrich Karl Deiters described the existence of an unbranched tubular process extending from some cells in the central nervous system from the lateral vestibular nucleus.
In 1871 Gerlach proposed that the brain is composed of "protoplasmic network", hence the basis of reticular theory. According to Gerlach, the nervous system consisted of a single continuous network called the reticulum. In 1873 Golgi invented a revolutionary method for microscopic research based on a specific technique for staining nerve cells, which he called "la reazione nera", he was able to provide an intricate description of nerve cells in various regions of the cerebro-spinal axis distinguishing the axon from the dendrites. He drew up a new classification of cells on the basis of the structure of their nervous prolongation, he criticized Gerlach's theory of the "protoplasmic network". Golgi claimed to observe in the gray matter an dense and intricate network, composed of a web of intertwined branches of axons coming from different cell layers; this structure, which emerges from the axons and is therefore different from that hypothesized by Gerlach, appeared in his view to be the main organ of the nervous system, the organ that connected different cerebral areas both anatomically and functionally by means of the transmission of an electric nervous impulse.
Although Golgi's earlier works between 1873 and 1885 depicted the axonal connections of cerebellar cortex and olfactory bulb as independent of one another, his works including the Nobel Lecture showed the entire granular layer of the cerebellar cortex occupied by a network of branching and anastomosing nerve processes. This was due to his strong conviction in the reticular theory. In 1877 an English physiologist Edward Schäfer described the absence of connections between the nerve elements in the mantles of the jellyfish; the Norwegian zoologist Fridtjof Nansen reported in 1887 that he found no connections between the processes of the ganglion cells of aquatic animals in his doctoral research. By the late 1880s, serious opposition to the reticular theory began to emerge. Wilhelm His in Leipzig studied the embryological development of the central nervous system and concluded that his observations were consistent with the classic cell theory, not the reticular theory. In 1891, another German anatomist Wilhelm Waldeyer supported the theory by stating that the nervous system, as other tissues, was composed of cells, which he named "neurons."
Using the same Golgi's technique, Ramón y Cajal confirmed that discrete neurons did exist, thereby strengthening the concept of the growing neuron doctrine. Golgi, never accepted these new findings, a controversy and rivalry between the two scientists lasted after they were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1906; the Nobel award is dubbed as creating the "storm center of histological controversy". Ramón y Cajal commented that: "What a cruel irony of fate of pair, like Siamese twins united by the shoulders, scientific adversaries of such contrasting character!". In the 1950s electron microscopy confirmed the existence of individual neurons in the central nervous system, the existence of gaps in between neurons called synapse; the reticular theory was put to rest. SOME HISTORICAL LANDMARKS IN CELL THEORY OF THE BRAIN NEURON DOCTRINE VS. RETICULAR THEORY Who Is Camillo Golgi