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Bragi is the skaldic god of poetry in Norse mythology. Bragi is associated with bragr, the Norse word for poetry; the name of the god may have been derived from bragr, or the term bragr may have been formed to describe'what Bragi does'. A connection between the name Bragi and Old English brego'chieftain' has been suggested but is now discounted. A connection between Bragi and the bragarfull'promise cup' is sometimes suggested, as bragafull, an alternate form of the word, might be translated as'Bragi's cup'. See Bragarfull. Snorri Sturluson writes in the Gylfaginning after describing Odin and Baldr: One is called Bragi: he is renowned for wisdom, most of all for fluency of speech and skill with words, he knows most of skaldship, after him skaldship is called bragr, from his name that one is called bragr-man or -woman, who possesses eloquence surpassing others, of women or of men. His wife is Iðunn. In Skáldskaparmál Snorri writes: How should one periphrase Bragi? By calling him husband of Iðunn, first maker of poetry, the long-bearded god, son of Odin.

That Bragi is Odin's son is mentioned only here and in some versions of a list of the sons of Odin. But "wish-son" in stanza 16 of the Lokasenna could mean "Odin's son" and is translated by Hollander as Odin's kin. Bragi's mother is the giantess Gunnlod. If Bragi's mother is Frigg Frigg is somewhat dismissive of Bragi in the Lokasenna in stanza 27 when Frigg complains that if she had a son in Ægir's hall as brave as Baldr Loki would have to fight for his life. In that poem Bragi at first is overruled by Odin. Loki gives a greeting to all gods and goddesses who are in the hall save to Bragi. Bragi generously offers his sword, an arm ring as peace gift but Loki only responds by accusing Bragi of cowardice, of being the most afraid to fight of any of the Æsir and Elves within the hall. Bragi responds that if they were outside the hall, he would have Loki's head, but Loki only repeats the accusation; when Bragi's wife Iðunn attempts to calm Bragi, Loki accuses her of embracing her brother's slayer, a reference to matters that have not survived.

It may be. A passage in the Poetic Edda poem Sigrdrífumál describes runes being graven on the sun, on the ear of one of the sun-horses and on the hoofs of the other, on Sleipnir's teeth, on bear's paw, on eagle's beak, on wolf's claw, on several other things including on Bragi's tongue; the runes are shaved off and the shavings are mixed with mead and sent abroad so that Æsir have some, Elves have some, Vanir have some, Men have some, these being speech runes and birth runes, ale runes, magic runes. The meaning of this is obscure; the first part of Snorri Sturluson's Skáldskaparmál is a dialogue between Ægir and Bragi about the nature of poetry skaldic poetry. Bragi tells the origin of the mead of poetry from the blood of Kvasir and how Odin obtained this mead, he goes on to discuss various poetic metaphors known as kennings. Snorri Sturluson distinguishes the god Bragi from the mortal skald Bragi Boddason, whom he mentions separately; the appearance of Bragi in the Lokasenna indicates that if these two Bragis were the same, they have become separated for that author or that chronology has become muddled and Bragi Boddason has been relocated to mythological time.

Compare the appearance of the Welsh Taliesin in the second branch of the Mabinogi. Legendary chronology sometimes does become muddled. Whether Bragi the god arose as a deified version of Bragi Boddason was much debated in the 19th century by the scholars Eugen Mogk and Sophus Bugge; the debate remains undecided. In the poem Eiríksmál Odin, in Valhalla, hears the coming of the dead Norwegian king Eric Bloodaxe and his host, bids the heroes Sigmund and Sinfjötli rise to greet him. Bragi is mentioned, questioning how Odin knows that it is Eric and why Odin has let such a king die. In the poem Hákonarmál, Hákon the Good is taken to Valhalla by the valkyrie Göndul and Odin sends Hermóðr and Bragi to greet him. In these poems Bragi could be either a dead hero in Valhalla. Attempting to decide is further confused because Hermóðr seems to be sometimes the name of a god and sometimes the name of a hero; that Bragi was the first to speak to Loki in the Lokasenna as Loki attempted to enter the hall might be a parallel.

It might have been useful and customary that a man of great eloquence and versed in poetry should greet those entering a hall. He is depicted in tenth-century court poetry of helping to prepare Valhalla for new arrivals and welcoming the kings who have been slain in battle to the hall of Odin. In the Prose Edda Snorri Sturluson quotes many stanzas attributed to Bragi Boddason the old, a Norwegian court poet who served several Swedish kings, Ragnar Lodbrok, Östen Beli and Björn at Hauge who reigned in the first half of the 9th century; this Bragi was reckoned as the first skaldic poet, was the earliest skaldic poet remembered by name whose verse survived in memory. Snorri quotes passages from Bragi's Ragnarsdrápa, a poem composed in honor of the famous legendary Viking Ragnar Lodbrók describing the images on a decorated shield which Ragnar had given to Bragi; the images included Thor's fishing for Jörmungandr, Gefjun's ploughing of Zealand from the soil of Sweden, the attack of Hamdir and Sorli against King Jörmunrekk, the never-ending battle between Hedin and Högni.

Bragi son of Hálfdan the Old is mentioned only in the Skjáldskaparmál. This Bragi is the sixth of the second of


Mbizo is a high density suburb in Kwekwe. It is located east of the city center across the railway line from ZIMASCO, the ferro-chrome producer; the suburb is divided into several sections all numbered one up to twenty. Mbizo Section One and Two form the oldest part of the suburb, which were built to house cheap labour for the gold mines in up town. Mbizo Stadium is located across from section one. Nearby, Manunure High School sprawls in a meadow across the street from Section Two; the suburb, as is everything in Zimbabwe's main towns and cities, was formally a black only area, reserved for the poor and African population that streamed to the town in search of jobs. Together with Amaveni, Mbizo supplied the much needed labour to the gold mines scattered across the growing town. Since independence, the population of the suburb has exploded and the suburb itself has expanded from two sections numbered one and two, to eighteen. Most of these sections have extensions called'one extension' and so forth.

It is the home of Samukeliso Sithole, a man who competed in women's events under a pretense of being a woman. Like other townships in the working suburbs of cities across Zimbabwe, Mbizo has seen its share of political disturbances. Since 2000, when the Movement for Democratic Change competed in elections, there has been sporadic political violence in many parts of the ward, from section 1 all to section 20; as in most acts of political violence, ZANU-PF militia units have been at the forefront of political violence in the township, the police has stood by without arresting perpetrators of violence. Members of the MDC have been kidnapped, had their homes burnt and have been persecuted by the Zimbabwe Republic Police on many occasions. Reports of political violence in Mbizo have been reported in 2000, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2008. Mbizo Stadium is a small stadium and it is used for various activities, from hosting music concerts by popular artists like Alick Macheso, Simon Chimbetu to Tongai Moyo, a native of the town.

The stadium is located in the oldest part of the township. It has a capacity of about a thousand people. On November 21, 2014, a stampede occurred at Mbizo Stadium in which killing 11 and injuring 40 people. Reuters reported. After the service, the crowd left toward a single exit in a stampede; the Business Standard reported that the stampede was caused by police firing teargas after some of the crowd attempted to break off parts of the stadium wall to exit. Amaveni Kwekwe

Kristin Baldwin

Kristin K. Baldwin is an American neuroscientist and Professor at the Department of Neuroscience, Dorris Neuroscience Center at Scripps Research, her research focuses on using reprogrammed and induced pluripotent stem cells to model and study the epigenetic changes of the genome and the brain. Baldwin completed a Bachelor of Science in Economics and Zoology with honors at Duke University, Durham, NC, she completed her PhD in Immunology at Stanford University, CA in 1998. Baldwin was a postdoctoral fellow in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, in the laboratory of Mark M. Davis. From 1998 to 2005 she was an associate research scientist / postdoctoral research fellow at the Center for Neurobiology and Behavior, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY. in the laboratory of Richard Axel. Since 2016, she has been an assistant professor, associate professor and full professor at Scripps Research.

Baldwin is a Professor at the Department of Neuroscience and Investigator, Dorris Neuroscience Center at Scripps Research and an adjunct professor at the University of California San Diego Department of Neuroscience. She is a member of Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine. Baldwin research uses direct conversion of fibroblasts to functional neurons or reprogramming of induced pluripotent stem cells to neurons, studies their gene expression to define neuronal subtypes in normal development and different diseases, such as Friedreich's ataxia or addiction, her group identified and characterized antibody libraries for de-differentiating cells. NIH Director's Pioneer Award Kavli Fellow and Session Chair, Kavli Frontiers of Science Symposium Donald E. and Delia B. Baxter Foundation Faculty Scholar California institute of regenerative medicine New Faculty Awardee Pew Scholar in the Biological Sciences Whitehall Grant Award

Haplogroup L2 (mtDNA)

Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup with a widespread modern distribution in Subequatorial Africa. Its L2a subclade is a somewhat frequent and distributed mtDNA cluster on the continent, as well as among African Americans. L2 is a common lineage in Africa, it is believed to approx. 90,000 YBP. Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence. Several L2 haplotypes observed in Guineans and other West Africa populations shared genetic matches with East Africa and North Africa. An origin for L2b, L2c, L2d and L2e in West or Central Africa seems likely; the early diversity of L2 can be observed all over the African Continent, but as we can see in Subclades section below, the highest diversity is found in West Africa. Most of subclades are confined to West and western-Central Africa. According to a 2015 study, "results show that lineages in Southern Africa cluster with Western/Central African lineages at a recent time scale, eastern lineages seem to be more ancient.

Three moments of expansion from a Central African source are associated to L2: one migration at 70–50 ka into Eastern or Southern Africa, postglacial movements 15–10 ka into Eastern Africa. The complementary population and L0a phylogeography analyses indicate no strong evidence of mtDNA gene flow between eastern and southern populations during the movement, suggesting low admixture between Eastern African populations and the Bantu migrants; this implies that, at least in the early stages, the Bantu expansion was a demic diffusion with little incorporation of local populations". L2 is the most common haplogroup in Africa, it has been observed throughout the continent, it is found in one third of Africans and their recent descendants. The highest frequency occurs among the Mbuti Pygmies. Important presence in Western Africa in Senegal. Important in Non-Bantu populations of East Africa, in Sudan and Mozambique, it is abundant in Chad and the Kanembou, but is relatively frequent in Nomadic Arabs and Akan people L2 has five main subhaplogroups: L2a, L2b, L2c, L2d and L2e.

Of these lineages, the most common subclade is L2a, found in both Africa and the Levant. Haplogroup L2 has been observed among specimens at the island cemetery in Kulubnarti, which date from the Early Christian period. L2a is widespread in Africa and the most common and distributed sub-Saharan African Haplogroup and is somewhat frequent at 19% in the Americas among descendants of Africans. L2a has a possible date of origin approx. 48,000 YBP. It is abundant in Chad, in Non-Bantu populations of East Africa at 38%. About 33% in Mozambique and 32% in Ghana; this subclade is characterised by mutations at 2789, 7175, 7274, 7771, 11914, 13803, 14566 and 16294. It is the only subclade of L2 to be widespread all over Africa; the wide distribution of L2a and diversity makes identifying a geographical origin difficult. The main puzzle is the ubiquitous Haplogroup L2a, which may have spread East and West along the Sahel Corridor in North Africa after the Last Glacial Maximum, or the origins of these expansions may lie earlier, at the beginnings of the Later Stone Age ∼ 40,000 years ago.

In East Africa L2a was found 15% in Nile Valley–Nubia, 5% of Egyptians, 14% of Cushite speakers, 15% of Semitic Amhara people, 10% of Gurage, 6% of Tigray-Tigrinya people, 13% of Ethiopians and 5% of Yemenis. Haplogroup L2a appears in North Africa, with the highest frequency 20% Tuareg, Fulani. Found among some Algeria Arabs, it is found at 10% among Moroccan Arabs, some Moroccan Berbers and Tunisian Berbers. Et al. et al. 1991. In patients who are given the drug stavudine to treat HIV, Haplogroup L2a is associated with a lower likelihood of peripheral neuropathy as a side effect. L2a can be further divided into L2a1, harboring the transition at 16309; this subclade is observed at varying frequencies in West Africa among the Malinke and others. All L2 clades present in Ethiopia are derived from the two subclades, L2a1 and L2b. L2a1 is defined by mutations at 12693, 15784 and 16309. Most Ethiopian L2a1 sequences share mutations at nps 16189 and 16309. However, whereas the majority African Americans share Haplogroup L2a complete sequences could be partitioned into four subclades by substitutions at nps L2a1e-3495, L2a1a-3918, L2a1f-5581, L2a1i-15229.

None of those sequences, were observed in Ethiopian 16309 L2a1 samples. Et al. Haplogroup L2a1 has been observed among the Mahra. Haplogroup L2a1 has been found in ancient fossils associated with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic culture at Tell Halula, Syria. A specimen excavated at the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic site of Luxmanda in Tanzania carried the L2a1 clade. Admixture clustering analysis further indicated that the individual bore significant ancestry from the ancient Levant, confirming ancestral ties between the makers of the Savanna Pastoral Neolithic and the Pre-Pottery Neolithic. Subclade L2a1a is defined by substitutions at 3918, 5285, 15244


The Family with sequence similarity 149 member B1 is an uncharacterized protein encoded by the human FAM149B1 gene, with one alias KIAA0974. The protein resides in the nucleus of the cell; the predicted secondary structure of the gene contains multiple alpha-helices, with a few beta-sheet structures. The gene is conserved in mammals, reptiles and some invertebrates; the protein encoded by this gene contains a DUF3719 protein domain, conserved across its orthologues. The protein is expressed at below average levels in most human tissue types, with high expression in brain and testes tissues, while showing low expression levels in pancreas tissues; this gene has a possible 14 exons. It is located on the forward strand of chromosome 10 at 10q22.2 on the positive strand. The total span of the gene, including 5' and 3' UTR, is 3149 base pairs; the gene is flanked on the left by NUDT13 and on the right by DNAJC9-AS1. The FAM149B1 protein has a possible 10 isoforms, which are determined through alternative splicing of the gene.

The primary protein encoded by the FAM149B1 gene is 583 amino acids in length and has a molecular weight of 64 kDal. The protein contains a conserved protein domain, DUF3719 located at the amino acids 115–179; the isoelectric point of the protein before post-translational modifications is 6.3, this isoelectric point is conserved in the protein's isoforms in those with the most similar composition of exons. This protein is considered serine rich, in that it expresses a higher serine composition relative to the composition of other human proteins; this high serine composition is seen in the gene's orthologues. The splice variants of the protein demonstrate some shared qualities of the protein, translated from the primary transcript; because each isoform is a different length and contains various combinations of the available exons, there are variances in the isoelectric point and molecular weight. The isoforms closest to the weight and exon composition to the primary transcript share these characteristics.

The protein isoforms missing the conserved DUF3719 domain are isoforms X5 and X6 because this domain is contained between exons 3–6. There is a negative charge cluster from amino acids 212 to 239. Negative charge clusters coordinate calcium, or magnesium or zinc ions, mannose-binding protein, or aminopeptidase; the protein contains no mixed charge clusters. The secondary structure of the protein is predicted to be a combination of alpha-helices with a few predicted beta-sheet structures; the subcellular location of the protein is the nucleus. There is a leucine zipper pattern in the protein beginning at amino acid 347; the third amino acid in the protein sequence, serine, is predicted to be acetylated. There are multiple predicted phosphorylation sites on various serine and threonine amino acids are predicted for this protein sequence; the conserved DUF3719 domain contains. One predicted sumoylation site was identified in the protein sequence at K267. Overall in the human body, this gene is expressed at levels below the average human gene expression level.

The protein is expressed in most cell types of the human body. Most experimentation shows a higher expression of this protein in kidney and brain tissues, with low expression seen in pancreas tissues; the gene is expressed at lower levels than its normal expression in most cancerous tissues. The gene is seen to be expressed most in fetal and infantile tissues. DNA microarray analysis experiments show expression patterns of FAM149B1 compared to multiple other genes in a sample. FAM149B1 is shown to be at a lower expression level than most other genes in a multiple myeloma cell line and was shown to increase to close to average gene expression levels after the beta-catenin was depleted from the sample. FAM149B1 expression was shown to decrease to lower than average gene expression levels in an ovarian cancer cell line after the use of an anticancer drug named NSC319726; the gene has 9 different identified promoter regions, which correlate to the various isoforms of the gene. The promoter for the primary transcript of the gene has binding sites for a variety of different transcription factors.

Current data supports the FAM149B1 protein interactions with 6 different proteins. One protein was determined to be an interacting protein with FAM149B1 through affinity chromatography techniques; the TBC1D32 protein has a role in many biological processes including determination of left/right symmetry, embryonic digit morphogenesis, heart development, lens development in camera-type eye, non-motile cilium assembly, protein localization to cilium, retinal pigment epithelium development, smoothened signaling pathway involved in dorsal/ventral neural tube patterning. This protein is classified as a developmental protein; the other five proteins that have been predicted to interact with FAM149B1 protein were found through the process of textmining. The human ABHD8 protein is a hydrolase protein found in the extracellular exosome. METTL16 protein is a methyltransferase found in the cytosol of the cell; this protein was experimentally determined to interact with YARS protein, which catalyzes attachment of tyrosine to tRNA, MEPCE which adds a methylphosphate cap at the 5-end of 7SK snRNA.

SLC6A17 is a sodium-dependent vesicular transporter, selective for proline, glycine and alanine, is not chloride-dependent as are most other transporters in its family. The TM

Laurent Montaron

Laurent Montaron, is a French visual artist. Laurent Montaron is an interdisciplinary artist working across film, installation and objects, his work is suffused with the contemporary history of the media and question the tools that shape our representations. By revealing the sometimes irrational element of belief involved with emerging techniques. Ecce, BIASA ArtSpace Ubud, 2019 Everything is Accidental, Mercer Union, Toronto, 2014 Prospectif Cinema: Laurent Montaron, Centre Pompidou, Paris, 2013 Laurent Montaron, Pigna Project Space, Rome, 2013 Laurent Montaron, galerie schleicher+lange, Berlin 2012 Pace, Kunsthaus Baselland, Basel, 2010 You imagine what you desire, 19th Biennale of Sydney, 2014 The Encyclopedic Palace, 55th Venice Biennale, 2013 Open End- Goetz Collection, Haus der Kunst, Munich, 2012 Lost in LA, Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, Los Angeles, 2012