The brainstem is the posterior part of the brain, continuous with the spinal cord. In the human brain the brainstem includes the midbrain, the pons and medulla oblongata of the hindbrain; the midbrain continues with the thalamus of the diencephalon through the tentorial notch, sometimes the diencephalon is included in the brainstem. The brainstem is a small component of the brain, making up only around 2.6 percent of the total weight of the brain. It is though, a crucial part of the brain providing the main motor and sensory nerve supply to the face and neck via the cranial nerves. Ten pairs of cranial nerves come from the brainstem, it is of prime importance in the conveyance of motor and sensory pathways from the rest of the brain to the body, from the body back to the brain. These pathways include the corticospinal tract, the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, the spinothalamic tract; the parts of the brainstem play important roles in the regulation of cardiac and respiratory function, helping to control heart rate and breathing rate.
Other roles include the regulation of the central nervous system, in the regulation of the sleep cycle. The parts of the brainstem are the midbrain, the pons, the medulla oblongata, only sometimes the diencephalon is included; the midbrain is divided into three parts: tectum and the ventral tegmental area. The tectum, which forms the ceiling; the tectum comprises the paired structure of the superior and inferior colliculi and is the dorsal covering of the cerebral aqueduct. The inferior colliculus is the principal midbrain nucleus of the auditory pathway and receives input from several peripheral brainstem nuclei, as well as inputs from the auditory cortex, its inferior brachium reaches to the medial geniculate nucleus of the diencephalon. The superior colliculus is positioned above the inferior colliculus, marks the rostral midbrain, it is involved in the special sense of vision and sends its superior brachium to the lateral geniculate body of the diencephalon. The tegmentum which forms the floor of the midbrain, is ventral to the cerebral aqueduct.
Several nuclei and the reticular formation are contained here. The ventral tegmental area is composed of paired cerebral peduncles; these transmit axons of upper motor neurons. The midbrain consists of: Periaqueductal gray: The area of gray matter around the cerebral aqueduct, which contains various neurons involved in the pain desensitization pathway. Neurons synapse here and, when stimulated, cause activation of neurons in the nucleus raphe magnus, which project down into the posterior grey column of the spinal cord and prevent pain sensation transmission. Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. Red nucleus: This is a motor nucleus that sends a descending tract to the lower motor neurons. Substantia nigra pars compacta: This is a concentration of neurons in the ventral portion of the midbrain that uses dopamine as its neurotransmitter and is involved in both motor function and emotion, its dysfunction is implicated in Parkinson's disease.
Reticular formation: This is a large area in the midbrain, involved in various important functions of the midbrain. In particular, it contains lower motor neurons, is involved in the pain desensitization pathway, is involved in the arousal and consciousness systems, contains the locus coeruleus, involved in intensive alertness modulation and in autonomic reflexes. Central tegmental tract: Directly anterior to the floor of the fourth ventricle, this is a pathway by which many tracts project up to the cortex and down to the spinal cord. Ventral tegmental area: A dopaminergic nucleus, known as group A10 cells is located close to the midline on the floor of the midbrain. Rostromedial tegmental nucleus: A GABAergic nucleus located adjacent to the ventral tegmental area; the pons lies between the midbrain. The pons is separated from the midbrain by the superior pontine sulcus, from the medulla by the inferior pontine sulcus, it contains tracts that carry signals from the cerebrum to the medulla and to the cerebellum and tracts that carry sensory signals to the thalamus.
The pons is connected to the cerebellum by the cerebellar peduncles. The pons houses the respiratory pneumotaxic center and apneustic center that make up the pontine respiratory group in the respiratory center; the pons co-ordinates activities of the cerebellar hemispheres. The pons and medulla oblongata are parts of the hindbrain; the medulla oblongata just referred to as the medulla, is the lower half of the brainstem continuous with the spinal cord. Its upper part is continuous with the pons; the medulla contains the cardiac and ventral respiratory groups, vasomotor centres, dealing with heart rate and blood pressure. Another important medullary structure is the area postrema whose functions include the control of vomiting. From the front In the medial part of the medulla is the anterior median fissure. Moving laterally on each side are the medullary pyramids; the pyramids contain the fibers of the corticospinal tract, or the upper motor neuronal axons as they head inferiorly to synapse on lower motor neuronal cell bodies within the anterior grey column of the spinal cord.
The anterolateral sulcus is lateral to the pyramids. Emerging from the anterolateral sulci are the CN XII rootlets. Lateral to these rootlets and the anterolateral sulci are the olives; the olives are s
Series 3 of Project Catwalk began 9 January 2008, features 13 contestants vying for the prizes, which include £25,000, a clothing range courtesy of Oli, a full feature fashion spread in Grazia magazine. Kelly Osbourne returns as the show's host. Akos Asumadu-Sakyi Ashley Gemma Jo Lawden Kristina Lomax Lezel Lynda Murray Rachel Ritfeld Sammy Bennett Sarah Butler Tanita Baptiste Xenia Tash Wilson Green background and WINNER means the designer won the competition Brown background means they advanced to Fashion Week, but did not win. Blue background and WIN means. Red background and OUT means the designer was out of the competition. Turquoise background and HIGH means the designer was either in the top two, or first announced to be in the top for that challenge. Light blue background and HIGH means. Pink background and LOW means. Orange background and LOW means. Episode 1 – A Catfight on the Catwalk The designers had to create an outfit that reflected their personalities. However, the only fabrics they had access to for the task would be garments from each others wardrobes.
Guest Judge: Zandra Rhodes WINNER: Ross OUT: JamesEpisode 2 – Re-Designing Nancy The designers had to create a dress for Nancy Dell'Olio to get her from the worst dressed list to the best dressed list. They have to work in teams of two; this week there would be a double elimination. The Teams were:Viv with Fionnuala Katy with Angie Clinton with Keko Jules with Debbie Jasper with Chelsey Ross with TomGuest Judge: Nancy Dell'Olio WINNER: Jasper and Chelsey OUT: Jules and Keko. Episode 3 – Mac Daddy The designers had to re-invent the Macintosh. Half of the group design womenswear, the other half design menswear. Guest Judge: Gary Bott WINNER: Katy and Ross OUT: DebbieEpisode 4 – Fireworks With Firetrap The designers had to work in teams of three to create a capture collection for a Firetrap customer shopping for a music festival; the Teams were:Fionnuala with Jasper and Angie Viv with Ross and Chelsey Katy with Clinton and TomGuest Judge: Sophie Clinch WINNER: Viv and Clinton OUT: AngieEpisode 5 – Fashion Future The designers use vintage clothing as material to create new trend setting looks.
Guest Judge: Henry Holland WINNER: Tom OUT: FionnualaEpisode 6 – A Fashionable Cause The designers designed a shirt for the "Fashion Targets Breast Cancer" charity incorporating the charity's signature target logo. Guest Judge: Vanja Strok WINNER: Jasper OUT: TomEpisode 7 – Show Stopper The designers make a stage costume for a pop star Sophie Ellis-Bextor. Guest Judge: Sophie Ellis-Bextor WINNER: Chelsey OUT: ClintonEpisode 8 – Airline Challenge The designers make an airline flight attendant uniform. Guest Judge: Niall Duffy WINNER: Katy OUT: None; the judges decided to keep the bottom two and Ross, eliminate two designers in the next challenge. Episode 9 – Kelly Osbourne Dress Challenge The designers create an evening-gown for Kelly Osbourne. Guest Judge: Jade Bien-Aimee Sutherland WINNER: Chelsey OUT: Ross and Katy; this episode marks the last of the series in the traditional format. The three finalists: Chelsey and Jasper now must produce a collection to exhibit at London Fashion Week. Of note, this episode was dedicated to the guest judge Jade Bien-Aimee Sutherland, who committed suicide in December 2007 by jumping off Albert Bridge in London.
She was the former stylist to Naomi Campbell. Episode 10 – Finale In the final episode of the series, Viv and Japser showcased their twelve piece collections. Viv's was inspired by the British seaside town of Whitby, Chelsey's by Venice, Jasper's by Salvador Dalí's surrealist castle. Viv was placed third, Chelsey came a close second, but the winner was Jasper Garvida. WINNER: Jasper RUNNER-UP: Chelsey THIRD PLACE: Viv
Kaklık is a town in Honaz district of Denizli Province, Turkey. It is situated in the plain, named Kaklık plain, it is on both the state highway the railroad. The distance to Honaz is 11 km and to Denizli is 35 km; the population of Kaklık was 4,864 as of 2012. Kaklık is an old settlement; the name of the settlement refers to partridges which are abundant around. In the 11th century, the settlement was a part of Seljuks of Turkey. After it was captured by the Crusades, it was returned to Seljuks in 1206. In 1423 it was incorporated into Ottoman Empire. After the First World War, during the partition of Turkey the settlement was offered to Italia, but it was occupied by Greek forces. After the Turkish War of Liberation, the town was returned to Turkey. Following the construction of the highway in 1936, Kaklık flourished and in 1971 it was declared a seat of township. Situated in the fertile plain, the town's economy depends on agriculture. Cereal, sugar beet and anise are among the more important crops.
Travertine mining is another profitable activity