Jorim is a simmered Korean dish, made by boiling vegetables, fish, seafood, or tofu in seasoned broth until the liquid is absorbed into the ingredients and reduced down. Jorim dishes are soy sauce-based, but gochujang or gochutgaru can be added when fishier, red-fleshed fish such as mackerel, saury, or hairtail are used. In Korean royal court cuisine, jorim is called jorini. Jorim is a verbal noun derived from the Korean verb jorida. Although it was a used culinary technique, the term did not appear until the 18th century, due to the slow development of culinary terminology. Instead, jorim dishes were classified as jochi, a category that encompasses jjim and jjigae as well as jorim; the first mention of the verbal noun jorim as a food category appeared in Siuijeonseo, a 19th century cookbook, in describing jang-jorim methods. Dubu-jorim – simmered tofu galchi-jorim – simmered largehead hairtail gamja-jorim – simmered potatoes godeungeo-jorim – simmered chub mackerel and radish jang-jorim – simmered soy sauce simmered beef kkaennip-jorim – simmered perilla leaves kkongchi-jorim – simmered saury ueong-jorim – simmered burdock roots yeongeun-jorim – simmered lotus roots Braising Jjim Kho
Sauerbraten is a German pot roast that can be prepared with a variety of meats—most beef, but from venison, mutton and traditionally, horse. Before cooking, the cut of meat is marinated for several days in a mixture of vinegar or wine, herbs and seasonings. Since tougher cuts of meat are used for Sauerbraten, the longer marinating of the meat acts to tenderize it, resulting in a finished dish, tender and juicy; the ingredients of the marinade vary based on regional traditions throughout Germany. Sauerbraten is regarded as one of the national dishes of Germany, it is one of the best-known German dishes, is found on the menus of German-style restaurants outside Germany. Several regional variations on the dish include those from Franconia, Rhineland, Saarland and Swabia. In a few parts of Germany potato pancakes are served with sauerbraten. Sauerbraten is traditionally served with traditional German side dishes, such as Rotkohl, Knödel or Kartoffelklöße, Spätzle, boiled potatoes. Julius Caesar has been assigned a role in the inspiration for sauerbraten as he sent amphoras filled with beef marinated in wine over the Alps to the newly founded Roman colony of Cologne.
According to this legend, this inspired the residents of Cologne to imitate the Roman import. While quite common, these claims are unsubstantiated. Several sources believe sauerbraten was invented by Charlemagne in the 9th century AD as a means of using leftover roasted meat. Saint Albertus Magnus known as Saint Albert the Great and Albert of Cologne, is credited with popularizing the dish in the 13th century. Sauerbraten was made from horse meat. There are many regional variants of sauerbraten. Many of the variations are in the ingredients used for the marinade in which the cut of meat is immersed for several days before cooking; the marinade's base is either red wine, vinegar or a combination of both. While Germany produces white wines such as Riesling and Gewürztraminer, regions of Germany that are closer to France use red wine as the base for the marinade. Wine vinegar, apple cider vinegar and other varieties can be used as a base. Recipes from eastern regions of Germany closer to Poland and the Czech Republic tend to use vinegar as the base more frequently.
In many regions and vinegar are used together. Rheinischer Sauerbraten is prepared in Germany's Rhineland region—along the valley of the Rhine River. Raisins and sometimes sugar beet syrup are added in cooking to provide sweetness to complement the sourness of the marinade. Sauerbraten can be made with many different kinds of roasting meat. Tougher, less expensive cuts of meat are used -- a rump bottom round of beef. Venison or other game are prepared as sauerbraten as the spices and vinegar take away the gamey taste of the meat. A solid cut from the bottom round or rump is marinated for three or four days, or as many as 10, before cooking. Red wine vinegar and wine form the basis of the marinade, which includes earthy aromatic spices such as peppercorns, juniper berries, cloves and bay leaves and less coriander, mustard seed, mace and thyme; the marinade may include vegetables such as onions and carrots. The acidic marinade helps tenderize the meat. Buttermilk is used as a marinade in certain regional varieties.
It is advised to marinate the meat in an earthenware, plastic, or enamel container rather than one made of bare metal, as the acidic marinade would react with a metal vessel during the extended marinating. After the meat is removed from the marinade and dried, it is first browned in oil or lard and braised with the strained marinade in a covered dish in a medium oven or on the stovetop. After simmering for four hours or more, depending on the size of the roast, the marinade will continue to flavor the roast and, as the meat cooks, its juices will be released resulting in a tender roast. After the roast is cooked, the marinade is strained and returned to a saucepan where it is thickened which add body and flavor to the sauce. Before it closed in 1982, Luchow's German restaurant in New York City used crushed gingersnap cookies to season and thicken the gravy of its sauerbraten, one of the favored dishes; this style was made popular in the U. S. after the publication of “Luchow's German Cookbook: The Story and the Favorite Dishes of America's Most Famous German Restaurant” by Jan Mitchell in 1952.
Packaged sauerbraten seasonings are available. Cooked sauerbraten in marinade is sold in some supermarkets. While sauerbraten is most traditionally eaten with beer, it pairs well with the following wine varietals: Burgundy, Cabernet Franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Pinot noir and Syrah. Babcock, Erika M. L.. Rika's Stories from the Other Side. IUniverse. Barer-Stein, Thelma. You Eat. A FireFly Book. Casada, Jim & Casada, Ann; the Complete Venison Cookbook: From Field to Table. Krause Publications. Garrett, Theodore Francis. Th
Fish sauce is a liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. It is used as a staple seasoning in the cuisines of Southeast and East Asia Indonesian, Cambodian, Thai, Lao and Vietnamese. Following widespread recognition of its ability to impart a savory umami flavor to dishes, it has been embraced globally by chefs and home cooks; the umami flavor in fish sauce is due to its glutamate content. Soy sauce is regarded by some in the West as a vegetarian alternative to fish sauce though they are different in flavor. Fish sauce is not only added to dishes as a seasoning, but used as a base in dipping sauces. Sauces that included fermented fish parts with other ingredients such as meat and soy bean were recorded in China 2300 years ago. During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fish fermented with soybeans and salt was used as a condiment. By the time of the Han dynasty, soy beans were fermented without the fish into soy paste and its by-product soy sauce.
With fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce. A fish sauce, called kôechiap in Hokkien Chinese, or kecap in Indonesia might be the precursor of ketchup. By 50–100 BC, demand for fish pastes in China had fallen drastically, with fermented bean products having become a major trade commodity. Fish sauce, developed massive popularity in Southeast Asia. Food scholars traditionally divide East Asia into two distinct condiment regions, separated by a bean-fish divide: Southeast Asia using fermented fish and Northeast Asia, using fermented beans. Fish sauce re-entered China in the 17th and 18th centuries, brought from Vietnam and Cambodia by Chinese traders up the coast of the southern provinces Guangdong and Fujian. Fish sauces were used in ancient Mediterranean cuisine; the earliest recorded production was between 4th–3rd century BC by the Ancient Greeks, who fermented scraps of fish called garos into one. It is believed to have been made with a lower salt content than modern fish sauces.
The Romans made a similar condiment called either liquamen. According to Pliny the Elder, "garum consists of the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, so that garum is the liquor from putrefaction." Garum was made in the Roman outposts of Spain exclusively from mackerel by salting the scrap fish innards, sun fermenting the flesh until it fell apart for several months. The brown liquid would be strained and sold as a condiment; the process lasted until the 16th century, when garum makers switched to anchovy and removed the innards. Garum was ubiquitous in Classical Roman cooking. Mixed with wine it was known as oenogarum, or with vinegar, oxygarum, or mixed with honey, meligarum. Garum was one of the trade specialties in Hispania Baetica. Garum was maligned as smelling bad or rotten, being called, for example, "evil-smelling fish sauce" and is said to be similar to modern Colatura di Alici, a fish sauce used in Neapolitan cuisine. In English garum was translated as fishpickle.
The original Worcestershire sauce is a related product because it is fermented and contains anchovies. Fish sauces have been prepared from different species of fish and shellfish, from using the whole fish, or by using just fish blood or viscera. Most modern fish sauces contain only fish and salt made from anchovy, mackerel, or other strong-flavored, high oil fish; some variants add spices. For modern fish sauces, fish or shellfish is mixed with salt at a concentration of 10% to 30%, it is sealed in a closed container for up to two years. Once the original draft has been made, some fish sauces will be produced through a re-extraction of the fish mass via boiling. To improve the visual appearance and add taste, second-pass fish sauces have added caramel, molasses, or roasted rice, they are thinner, less costly. Some volume manufacturers of fish sauce will water down a first-press to manufacture more product. Fish sauce, only fermented has a pronounced fishy taste. Extended fermentation reduces this and gives the product a nuttier and more savory flavor.
An anonymous article, "Neuc-num", in Diderot and d'Alembert's 18th-century Encyclopédie, states: "It is said that Europeans become accustomed enough to this type of sauce". While there is no strict grading system for fish sauces, first-tapping, or first-pressing sauces are the most sought after; some top brands are beginning to adopt the "Extra Virgin" designation and tout more artisan processes. Second-pass or volume sauces are identified as they have a thin watery consistency. Southeast Asian fish sauce is made from anchovies and water, is intensely flavoured. Anchovies and salt are arranged in wooden barrels to ferment and are pressed, yielding the salty, fishy liquid; the salt extracts the liquid via osmosis. Southeast Asians use fish sauce as a cooking sauce. However, there is a sweet and sour version of this sauce, used more as a dipping sauce. Fish sauce in Burma is called ngan bya yay. In Cambodia, fish sauce is known as teuk trei, of which there are a variety of sauces using fish sauce as a base.
The Indonesian semi-solid fish paste or fermented krill terasi, the Cambodian prahok and the Malay fermented krill brick belacan or budu from liquid anchovies are other popular variations of fish sauces. In Lao/Isan, it is called nam pa. A chunkier, more aromatic version known as padaek is used; the Philippine fish sauce is known as patis. It is one of the most important ingredients in Filipino cuisine. Patis is
Wine is an alcoholic drink made from fermented grapes. Yeast consumes the sugar in the grapes and converts it to ethanol, carbon dioxide, heat. Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts produce different styles of wine; these variations result from the complex interactions between the biochemical development of the grape, the reactions involved in fermentation, the terroir, the production process. Many countries enact legal appellations intended to define qualities of wine; these restrict the geographical origin and permitted varieties of grapes, as well as other aspects of wine production. Wines not made from grapes include rice wine and fruit wines such as plum, pomegranate and elderberry. Wine has been produced for thousands of years; the earliest known traces of wine are from Georgia and Sicily although there is evidence of a similar alcoholic drink being consumed earlier in China. The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Areni-1 winery in Armenia. Wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece and Rome.
Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians and was used by both the Greek cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bacchanalia; the earliest archaeological and archaeobotanical evidence for grape wine and viniculture, dating to 6000–5800 BC was found on the territory of modern Georgia. Both archaeological and genetic evidence suggest that the earliest production of wine elsewhere was later having taken place in the Southern Caucasus, or the West Asian region between Eastern Turkey, northern Iran; the earliest evidence of a grape-based fermented drink was found in China, Georgia from 6000 BC, Iran from 5000 BC, Sicily from 4000 BC. The earliest evidence of a wine production facility is the Areni-1 winery in Armenia and is at least 6100 years old. A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were mixed with rice to produce mixed fermented drinks in China in the early years of the seventh millennium BC.
Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu, contained traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds found in wine. However, other fruits indigenous to the region, such as hawthorn, cannot be ruled out. If these drinks, which seem to be the precursors of rice wine, included grapes rather than other fruits, they would have been any of the several dozen indigenous wild species in China, rather than Vitis vinifera, introduced there 6000 years later; the spread of wine culture westwards was most due to the Phoenicians who spread outward from a base of city-states along the Mediterranean coast of what are today Syria, Lebanon and Palestine. The wines of Byblos were exported to Egypt during the Old Kingdom and throughout the Mediterranean. Evidence includes two Phoenician shipwrecks from 750 BC discovered by Robert Ballard, whose cargo of wine was still intact; as the first great traders in wine, the Phoenicians seem to have protected it from oxidation with a layer of olive oil, followed by a seal of pinewood and resin, similar to retsina.
Although the nuragic Sardinians consumed wine before the arrival of the Phoenicians The earliest remains of Apadana Palace in Persepolis dating back to 515 BC include carvings depicting soldiers from Achaemenid Empire subject nations bringing gifts to the Achaemenid king, among them Armenians bringing their famous wine. Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer and others. In ancient Egypt, six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y", a royal chief vintner. Five of these amphoras were designated as originating from the king's personal estate, with the sixth from the estate of the royal house of Aten. Traces of wine have been found in central Asian Xinjiang in modern-day China, dating from the second and first millennia BC; the first known mention of grape-based wines in India is from the late 4th-century BC writings of Chanakya, the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya. In his writings, Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of wine known as madhu.
The ancient Romans planted vineyards near garrison towns so wine could be produced locally rather than shipped over long distances. Some of these areas are now world-renowned for wine production; the Romans discovered that burning sulfur candles inside empty wine vessels kept them fresh and free from a vinegar smell. In medieval Europe, the Roman Catholic Church supported wine because the clergy required it for the Mass. Monks in France made wine for years. An old English recipe that survived in various forms until the 19th century calls for refining white wine from bastard—bad or tainted bastardo wine; the English word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic *winam, an early borrowing from the Latin vinum, "wine" or " vine", itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o-. The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo, meaning "in" or " of the new wine", wo-no-wa-ti-si, meaning "wine garden", written in Linear B inscriptions. Linear B includes, inter alia, an ideogram for wine
A slow cooker known as a crock-pot, is a countertop electrical cooking appliance used to simmer at a lower temperature than other cooking methods, such as baking and frying. This facilitates unattended cooking for many hours of dishes that would otherwise be boiled: pot roast, soups and other dishes. A wide variety of dishes can be prepared in slow cookers, including ones made such as cocoa and bread; the Naxon Utilities Corporation of Chicago, under the leadership of Irving Naxon, developed the Naxon Beanery All-Purpose Cooker for the purposes of cooking a bean meal. Naxon was inspired by a story his grandmother told about how back in her native Lithuanian town, her mother made a stew called cholent, a traditional Jewish stew, which took several hours to cook in an oven. A 1950 advertisement shows a slow cooker called the "Simmer Crock" made by the Industrial Radiant Heat Corp. of Gladstone, NJ. The Rival Company from Sedalia, bought Naxon in 1970, consequentially acquired Naxon’s patent for the bean simmer cooker.
Rival asked inventor Robert Glen Martin, from Boonville, Missouri, to develop Naxon’s bean cooker into a large scale production model which could cook an entire family meal, going further than just cooking a bean meal. Martin designed and produced the mass-making machines for Rival’s manufacturing line of the Crock-Pot; the cooker was reintroduced under the name "Crock-Pot" in 1971. Slow cookers achieved popularity in the US during the 1970s, when many women began to work outside the home, they could start dinner cooking in the morning before going to work and finish preparing the meal in the evening when they came home. In 1974, Rival introduced removable stoneware inserts; the brand now belongs to a subsidiary of Jarden Corporation. Other brands of this appliance include Cuisinart, GE, Hamilton Beach, KitchenAid, Magic Chef, West Bend Housewares, the now defunct American Electric Corporation. A basic slow cooker consists of a lidded round or oval cooking pot made of glazed ceramic or porcelain, surrounded by a housing metal, containing an electric heating element.
The lid itself is made of glass, seated in a groove in the pot edge. The contents of a crock pot are at atmospheric pressure, despite the water vapor generated inside the pot. A slow cooker is quite different from a pressure cooker and presents no danger of an abrupt pressure release; the "crock," or ceramic pot, itself acts as both a heat reservoir. Slow cookers come in capacities from 500 mL to 7 L; because the heating elements are located at the bottom and also partway up the sides, most slow cookers have a minimum recommended liquid level to avoid uncontrolled heating. Many slow cookers have two or more heat settings. Most slow cookers have no temperature deliver a constant heat to the contents; the temperature of the contents rises until it reaches boiling point, at which point the energy goes into boiling the liquid closest to the hot surface. At a lower setting, it may just simmer at a temperature below the boiling point. To use a slow cooker, the cook places raw food and a liquid, such as stock, water, or wine, in the slow cooker.
Some recipes call for pre-heated liquid. The cook turns it on; some cookers automatically switch from cooking to warming (maintaining the temperature at 71–74 °C after a fixed time or after the internal temperature of the food, as determined by a probe, reaches a specified value. Heating element heats the contents to a steady temperature in the 79–93 °C range; the contents are enclosed by the crock and the lid, attain an constant temperature. The vapor, produced at this temperature condenses on the bottom of the lid and returns as liquid, into which some water-soluble vitamins are leached; the liquid transfers heat from the pot walls to its contents, distributes flavors. The slow cooker's lid is essential to prevent the warm vapor from escaping, taking heat with it and cooling the contents. Basic cookers, which have only high, low, or keep warm settings, must be turned on and off manually. More advanced cookers have computerized timing devices that let a cook program the cooker to perform multiple operations and to delay the start of cooking.
Because food cooked in a slow cooker stays warm for a long time after it is switched off, people can use the slow cookers to take food elsewhere to eat without reheating. Some slow cookers have lids that seal to prevent their contents from spilling during transport. Recipes intended for other cooking methods must be modified for slow cookers. Quantities of liquids may need adjustment, as there is a little evaporation, but there should be enough liquid to cover the food. Many published recipes for slow cookers are designed for convenience and use few ingredients, use prepared sauces or seasonings; the long, moist cooking is suitable for tough and cheap cuts of meat including pork shoulder, beef chuck and brisket. For many slow-cooked dishes, these cuts give better results than more expensive ones, they are often used to cook while no one is there to care for it, meaning the cook can f
Soy sauce is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds. Soy sauce in its current form was created about 2,200 years ago during the Western Han dynasty of ancient China, spread throughout East and Southeast Asia where it is used in cooking and as a condiment. Soy sauce is considered as old as soy paste—a type of fermented paste obtained from soybeans—which had appeared during the Western Han dynasty and was listed in the bamboo slips found in the archaeological site Mawangdui. There are several precursors of soy sauce. Among them the earliest one is Qingjiang, listed in Simin Yueling. Others are Jiangqing and Chiqing which are recorded in Qimin Yaoshu in AD 540. By the time of the Song dynasty, the term soy sauce had become the accepted name for the liquid condiment, which are documented in two books: Shanjia Qinggong and Pujiang Wushi Zhongkuilu during the Song dynasty. Like many salty condiments, soy sauce was a way to stretch salt an expensive commodity.
During the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, fermented fish with salt was used as a condiment in which soybeans were included during the fermentation process. By the time of the Han dynasty, this had been replaced with the recipe for soy paste and its by-product soy sauce, by using soybeans as the principal ingredient, with fermented fish-based sauces developing separately into fish sauce; the 19th century Sinologist Samuel Wells Williams wrote that in China, the best soy sauce is "made by boiling beans soft, adding an equal quantity of wheat or barley, leaving the mass to ferment. The earliest soy sauce brewing in Korea seems to have begun prior to the era of the Three Kingdoms c. 57 BC. The Records of the Three Kingdoms, a Chinese historical text written and published in the 3rd century, mentions that "Goguryeo people are good at brewing fermented soy beans." In the section named Dongyi, in the Book of Wei. Jangdoks used for soy sauce brewing are found in the mural paintings of Anak Tomb No.3 from the 4th century Goguryeo.
In Samguk Sagi, a historical record of the Three Kingdoms era, it is written that ganjang and doenjang along with meju and jeotgal were prepared for the wedding ceremony of the King Sinmun in February 683. Sikhwaji, a section from Goryeosa, recorded that ganjang and doenjang were included in the relief supplies in 1018, after a Khitan invasion, in 1052, when a famine occurred. Joseon texts such as Guhwangchwaryo and Jeungbo sallim gyeongje contain the detailed procedures on how to brew good quality ganjang and doenjang. Gyuhap chongseo explains how to pick a date for brewing, what to forbear, how to keep and preserve ganjang and doenjang. Chinese Buddhist monks introduced soy sauce into Japan in the 7th century, where it is known as shōyu. Records of the Dutch East India Company list soy sauce as a commodity in 1737, when seventy-five large barrels were shipped from Dejima, Japan, to Batavia on the island of Java. Thirty-five barrels from that shipment were shipped to the Netherlands. In the 18th century and scholar Isaac Titsingh published accounts of brewing soy sauce.
Although earlier descriptions of soy sauce had been disseminated in the West, his was among the earliest to focus on the brewing of the Japanese version. By the mid-19th century, Japanese soy sauce disappeared from the European market, the condiment became synonymous with the Chinese product. Europeans were unable to make soy sauce because they did not understand the function of Aspergillus oryzae, the fungus used in its brewing. Soy sauce made from ingredients such as Portobello mushrooms were disseminated in European cookbooks during the late 18th century. A Swedish recipe for "Soija" was published in the 1770 edition of Cajsa Warg's Hjelpreda i Hushållningen för Unga Fruentimber and was flavored with allspice and mace. Soy sauce is made either by hydrolysis; some commercial sauces have both chemical sauces. Flavor and aroma developments during production are attributed to non-enzymatic Maillard browning. Variation is achieved as the result of different methods and durations of fermentation, different ratios of water and fermented soy, or through the addition of other ingredients.
Traditional soy sauces are made by mixing soybeans and grain with mold cultures such as Aspergillus oryzae and other related microorganisms and yeasts. The mixture was fermented in large urns and under the sun, believed to contribute extra flavors. Today, the mixture is placed in a humidity controlled incubation chamber. Traditional soy sauces take months to make: Soaking and cooking: The soybeans are soaked in water and boiled until cooked. Wheat is roasted, crushed. Koji culturing: An equal amount of boiled soybeans and roasted wheat are mixed to form a grain mixture. A culture of Aspergillus spore is added to the grain mixture and mixed or the mixture is allowed to gather spores from the environment itself; the cultures include: Aspergillus: a genus of fungus, used for f
Brisket is a cut of meat from the breast or lower chest of beef or veal. The beef brisket is one of the nine beef primal cuts, though the precise definition of the cut differs internationally; the brisket muscles include the deep pectorals. As cattle do not have collar bones, these muscles support about 60% of the body weight of standing or moving cattle; this requires a significant amount of connective tissue, so the resulting meat must be cooked to tenderize the connective tissue. According to the Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Second Edition, the term derives from the Middle English brusket which comes from the earlier Old Norse brjósk, meaning cartilage; the cut overlies the sternum and connecting costal cartilages. Brisket can be cooked many ways, including baking and roasting. Basting of the meat is done during the cooking process; this tough cut of meat, due to the collagen fibers that make up the significant connective tissue in the cut, is tenderized when the collagen gelatinizes, resulting in more tender brisket.
The fat cap, left attached to the brisket, helps to keep the meat from drying during the prolonged cooking necessary to break down the connective tissue in the meat. Water is necessary for the conversion of collagen to gelatin, the hydrolysis product of collagen. Popular methods in the United States include rubbing with a spice rub or marinating the meat cooking over indirect heat from charcoal or wood; this is a form of smoking the meat. A hardwood, such as oak, hickory, or mesquite, is sometimes added, alone or in combination with other hardwoods, to the main heat source. Sometimes, they make up all of the heat source, with chefs prizing characteristics of certain woods; the smoke from these woods and from burnt dripping juices further enhances the flavor. The finished meat is a variety of barbecue. Smoked brisket done this way is popular in Texas barbecue. Once finished, pieces of brisket can be returned to the smoker to make burnt ends. Burnt ends are most popular in Kansas City-style barbecue, where they are traditionally served open-faced on white bread.
The traditional New England boiled dinner features brisket as a main-course option. Brisket is cooked in a slow cooker, as this tenderizes the meat due to the slow cooking method, 8 hours for a three-pound brisket. In the United States, the whole boneless brisket, based on the Institutional Meat Purchase Specifications, as promulgated by the USDA, has the meat-cutting classification IMPS 120; the North American Meat Processors Association publishes a photographic version of IMPS called the Meat Buyer's Guide. The brisket muscles are sometimes separated for retail cutting: the lean "first cut" or "flat cut" is the deep pectoral, while the fattier "second cut", "point", "fat end", or "triangular cut" is the superficial pectoral. For food service use, they are IMPS 120B, respectively. Brisket has a long history in the United States dating back to the indigenous Indians of southern Texas. Brisket has long been a standing staple for residents there. In traditional Jewish cooking, brisket is most braised as a pot roast as a holiday main course served at Rosh Hashanah, on the Sabbath.
For reasons of economics and kashrut, it was one of the more popular cuts of beef among Ashkenazi Jews. Brisket is the most popular cut for corned beef, which can be further spiced and smoked to make pastrami; the Jewish community in Montreal makes Montreal-style smoked meat, a close relative of pastrami, from brisket. In Hong Kong, it is cooked with spices over low heat until tender, is served with noodles in soup or curry. In Korean cuisine, traditionally it is first boiled at low temperature with aromatic vegetables pressed with a heavy object in a container full of a soy sauce-based marinade; the ensuing preserved meat is served in match-length strips as an accompaniment to a meal. This is called jang jorim. Brisket is the main ingredient in a spicy soup called yuk ke jang, part of the class of soups that are complete meals in Korean cuisine. Nowadays, it is popular to cook thin slices of it over a hot plate. In Thai cuisine, it is used to prepare suea rong hai, a popular grilled dish from Isan.
In New Zealand cuisine, it is used in a boil-up. Boiled in seasoned water with green vegetables and potatoes, it is popular amongst Maori people, it is a common cut of meat used in Vietnamese phở soup. In Britain, it is not smoked, but is one of a number of low-cost cuts cooked slowly in a lidded casserole dish with gravy; the dish, known as a pot roast in the United States, but more as braised or stewed beef in the UK, is accompanied by root vegetables. Good results may be achieved in a slow cooker. Cooked brisket, being boneless, carves well after refrigeration, is a versatile, cheaper cut. In Italian cuisine, brisket is used to prepare a typical Northern Italy recipe. In Pakistan it is used in a national dish. In Germany, brisket is braised in dark German beer and cooked with celery, onions, bay leaves, a small bundle of thyme. List of steak dishes Moskin, Julia. "Brisket Is Worth the Wait". The New York Times. Retrieved March 17, 2015. Green, Aliza. Field Guide to Meat. Philadelphia: Quirk Books. ISBN 1-931686-79-3.
Media related to Brisket of beef at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of brisket at Wiktionary