Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans. Seafood prominently includes shellfish. Shellfish include various species of molluscs and echinoderms. Sea mammals such as whales and dolphins have been consumed as food, though that happens to a lesser extent in modern times. Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are eaten as seafood around the world in Asia. In North America, although not in the United Kingdom, the term "seafood" is extended to fresh water organisms eaten by humans, so all edible aquatic life may be referred to as seafood. For the sake of completeness, this article includes all edible aquatic life; the harvesting of wild seafood is known as fishing or hunting, the cultivation and farming of seafood is known as aquaculture, or fish farming in the case of fish. Seafood is distinguished from meat, although it is still animal and is excluded in a vegetarian diet. Seafood is an important source of protein in many diets around the world in coastal areas.
Most of the seafood harvest is consumed by humans, but a significant proportion is used as fish food to farm other fish or rear farm animals. Some seafoods are used as food for other plants. In these ways, seafoods are indirectly used to produce further food for human consumption. Products, such as oil and spirulina tablets, are extracted from seafoods; some seafood is used to feed domestic pets, such as cats. A small proportion is used industrially for non-food purposes; the harvesting and consuming of seafoods are ancient practices with archaeological evidence dating back well into the Paleolithic. Findings in a sea cave at Pinnacle Point in South Africa indicate Homo sapiens harvested marine life as early as 165,000 years ago, while the Neanderthals, an extinct human species contemporary with early Homo sapiens, appear to have been eating seafood at sites along the Mediterranean coast beginning around the same time. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old anatomically modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish.
Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones and cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food; the ancient river Nile was full of fish. The Egyptians had implements and methods for fishing and these are illustrated in tomb scenes and papyrus documents; some representations hint at fishing being pursued as a pastime. Fishing scenes are represented in ancient Greek culture, a reflection of the low social status of fishing. However, Oppian of Corycus, a Greek author wrote a major treatise on sea fishing, the Halieulica or Halieutika, composed between 177 and 180; this is the earliest such work. The consumption of fish varied in accordance with the location of the household.
In the Greek islands and on the coast, fresh fish and seafood were common. They were eaten locally but more transported inland. Sardines and anchovies were regular fare for the citizens of Athens, they were sometimes sold fresh, but more salted. A stele of the late 3rd century BCE from the small Boeotian city of Akraiphia, on Lake Copais, provides us with a list of fish prices; the cheapest was skaren. Common salt water fish were yellowfin tuna, red mullet, swordfish or sturgeon, a delicacy, eaten salted. Lake Copais itself was famous in all Greece for its eels, celebrated by the hero of The Acharnians. Other fresh water fish were pike-fish and the less appreciated catfish. Pictorial evidence of Roman fishing comes from mosaics. At a certain time the goatfish was considered the epitome of luxury, above all because its scales exhibit a bright red color when it dies out of water. For this reason these fish were allowed to die at the table. There was a recipe where this would take place in garo, in the sauce.
At the beginning of the Imperial era, this custom came to an end, why mullus in the feast of Trimalchio could be shown as a characteristic of the parvenu, who bores his guests with an unfashionable display of dying fish. In medieval times, seafood was less prestigious than other animal meats, seen as an alternative to meat on fast days. Still, seafood was the mainstay of many coastal populations. Kippers made from herring caught in the North Sea could be found in markets as far away as Constantinople. While large quantities of fish were eaten fresh, a large proportion was salted, and, to a lesser extent, smoked. Stockfish, cod, split down the middle, fixed to a pole and dried, was common, though preparation could be time-consuming, meant beating the dried fish with a mallet before soaking it in water. A wide range of mollusks including oysters and scallops were eaten by coastal and river-dwelling populations, freshwater crayfish were seen as a desirable alternative to meat during fish days. Compared to meat, fish was much more expensive for inland populations in Central Europe, therefo
Soup is a liquid food served warm or hot, made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, or water. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, forming a broth. In traditional French cuisine, soups are classified into two main groups: clear soups and thick soups; the established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch. Other ingredients used to thicken soups and broths include egg, lentils and grains. Soups are similar to stews, in some cases there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20,000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers. Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this. To boil the water hot rocks were used.
This method was used to cook acorns and other plants. The word soup comes from French soupe, which comes through Vulgar Latin suppa from a Germanic source, from which comes the word "sop", a piece of bread used to soak up soup or a thick stew; the word restaurant was first used in France in the 16th century, to refer to a concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors, advertised as an antidote to physical exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups; this prompted the use of the modern word restaurant for the eating establishments. In the US, the first colonial cookbook was published by William Parks in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking. In particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in Boston called "The Restorator", became known as the "Prince of Soups".
The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making. Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time. Commercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market. Canned soup can be prepared by heating in a pan, rather than cooking anything, it can be made in the microwave. Such soups can be used as a base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, cream or pasta. Doctor John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the Campbell Soup Company, invented condensed soup in 1897. Canned soup can be condensed, in which case it is prepared by adding water, or it can be "ready-to-eat", meaning that no additional liquid is needed before eating. Condensing soup allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can and sold at a lower price than other canned soups.
The soup is doubled in volume by adding a "can full" of water or milk, about 10 US fluid ounces. Since the 1990s, the canned soup market has burgeoned, with non-condensed soups marketed as "ready-to-eat", so they require no additional liquid to prepare. Microwaveable bowls have expanded the "ready-to-eat" canned soup market more, offering convenience, making for popular lunch items. In response to concerns over the negative health effects of excessive salt intake, some soup manufacturers have introduced reduced-salt versions of popular soups. Today, Campbell's Tomato, Cream of Mushroom, Chicken Noodle are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year. Other popular brands of soup include Progresso. Dry soup mixes are sold by many manufacturers, are reconstituted with hot water; the first dried soup was bouillon cubes. East Asian-style instant noodle soups include ramen and seasonings, are marketed as a convenient and inexpensive instant meal, requiring only hot water for preparation.
Western-style dried soups include vegetable, chicken base, potato and cheese flavors. In French cuisine, soup is served before other dishes in a meal. In 1970, Richard Olney gave the place of the entrée in a French full menu: "A dinner that begins with a soup and runs through a fish course, an entrée, a sorbet, a roast, salad and dessert, that may be accompanied by from three to six wines, presents a special problem of orchestration". Chè, a Vietnamese cold dessert soup containing sugar and coconut milk, with many different varieties of other ingredient
Stock is a flavored liquid preparation. It forms the basis of many dishes soups and sauces. Making stocks involves simmering animal bones or meat, seafood, or vegetables in water or wine, adding mirepoix or other aromatics for more flavor. Traditionally, stock is made by simmering various ingredients in water. A newer approach is to use a pressure cooker; the ingredients may include some or all of the following: Meat Leftover cooked meat, such as that remaining on poultry carcasses, is used along with the bones of the bird or joint. Fresh meat makes a superior stock, cuts rich in connective tissue such as shin or shoulder of beef or veal are recommended, either alone or added in lower proportions to the remains of cooked poultry, to provide a richer and fresher-tasting stock. Quantities recommended are in the ratio of 1 part fresh meat to 2 parts water. Pork, although a popular base for stock in Chinese cuisine, is considered unsuitable for stock in European cooking due to its greasiness, mutton was traditionally avoided due to the difficulty of avoiding the strong tallowy taint imparted from the fat.
Bones Veal and chicken bones are most used. The flavour of the stock comes like the bone. Connective tissue has collagen in it. Stock made from bones needs to be simmered for longer than stock made from meat. Pressure cooking methods shorten the time necessary to extract the flavour from the bones. Mirepoix Mirepoix is a combination of onions, carrots and sometimes other vegetables; the less desirable parts of the vegetables that may not otherwise be eaten are used. The use of these parts is dependent upon the chef, as many do not appreciate the flavours that these portions impart. Herbs and spices The herbs and spices used depend on availability and local traditions. In classical cuisine, the use of a bouquet garni consisting of parsley, bay leaves, a sprig of thyme, other herbs, is common; this is placed in a sachet to make it easier to remove once the stock is cooked. Today, ready-made stock and stock cubes consisting of dried, compressed stock ingredients are available; these are known as bouillon cubes, as cooking base in the US, or as Oxo cubes in Britain, after a common brand of stock cube sold there.
Many cooks and food writers use the terms stock interchangeably. In 1974, James Beard wrote emphatically that stock and bouillon "are all the same thing". While many draw a distinction between stock and broth, the details of the distinction differ. One possibility is that stocks are made from animal bones, as opposed to meat, therefore contain more gelatin, giving them a thicker texture. Another distinction, sometimes made is that stock is cooked longer than broth and therefore has a more intense flavor. A third possible distinction is that stock is left unseasoned for use in other recipes, while broth is salted and otherwise seasoned and can be eaten alone. In Britain, "broth" can refer to a soup which includes solid pieces of meat, fish, or vegetables, whereas "stock" would refer to the purely liquid base. Traditionally, according to this definition, broth contained some form of fish. Bouillon is the French word for "broth", is used as a synonym for it. Chicken stock is cooked for 6 to 8 hours if the traditional method is followed.
Fish stock is made with finely chopped mirepoix. Fish stock should be cooked for 20 -- 25 minutes -- cooking any longer. Concentrated fish stock is called "fish fumet." In Japanese cooking, a fish and kelp stock called dashi is made by cooking skipjack tuna flakes called katsuobushi in nearly boiling water. Fond blanc, or white stock, is made by using white mirepoix. Chicken bones are the most common for fond blanc. Fond brun, or brown stock; the brown color is achieved by roasting the mirepoix. This adds a rich, full flavour. Veal bones are the most common type used in a fond brun. Tomato paste is added; the acid in the paste helps break down the connective tissue helping accelerating the formation of gelatin, as well as giving color to the stock. Glace viande is stock made from bones from veal, concentrated by reduction. Ham stock, common in Cajun cooking, is made from ham hocks. Jus is a rich reduced stock used as a sauce for roasted meats. Many of these are started by deglazing the roasting pan reducing to achieve the rich flavour desired.
Lamb stock is cooked for several hours. To make a lamb jus, start with a chicken stock and roasted lamb necks and bones. Master stock is a special Chinese stock used for poaching meats, flavoured with soy sauce, ginger and other aromatics. Prawn stock is made from boiling prawn shells, it is used in Southeast Asian dishes such as laksa. Veal stock is cooked for several hours. Vegetable stock is made only of vegetables. Remouillage is a second stock made from the same set of bones. A few basic rules are prescribed for preparing stock: The stock ingredients are simmered starting with cold water; the collagen from connective tissue and skin is denatured into gelatin through gentle, long simmering, thickening the stock somewhat. Stocks are simmered with bubbles just breaking the surface, not boiled
Beurre manié is a dough, consisting of equal parts of soft butter and flour, used to thicken soups and sauces. By kneading the flour and butter together, the flour particles are coated in butter; when the beurre manié is whisked into a hot or warm liquid, the butter melts, releasing the flour particles without creating lumps. Beurre manié should not be confused with roux, a thickener made of equal parts of sometimes clarified butter or many other oils and flour, but, cooked before use. Beurre manié is used as a finishing step for sauces, imparting a smooth, shiny texture prior to service
Capsicum, the pepper, is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Its species are native to the Americas. Following the Columbian Exchange, it has become cultivated worldwide, it has become a key element in many cuisines. In addition to use as spices and food vegetables, Capsicum species have been used as medicines and lachrymatory agents; the generic name may come from Latin capsa, meaning'box' alluding to the pods. The name "pepper" comes from the similarity of piquance of the flavor to that of black pepper, Piper nigrum, although there is no botanical relationship with it or with Sichuan pepper; the original term, chilli came from the Nahuatl word chīlli, denoting a larger Capsicum variety cultivated at least since 3000 BC, as evidenced by remains found in pottery from Puebla and Oaxaca. Different varieties were cultivated in South America, where they are known as ajíes, from the Quechua term for Capsicum; the fruit of Capsicum plants have a variety of names depending on type.
The more piquant varieties are called chili peppers, or chilis. The large, mild form is called bell pepper, or by color or both in North America, sweet pepper or pepper in the United Kingdom and Malaysia but called capsicum in New Zealand, South Africa and India. Capsicum fruits of several varieties with commercial value are called by various European-language names in English, such as jalapeño, peperoncito. Paprika refers to a powdered spice made of dried Capsicum of several sorts, though in Hungary and some other countries it is the name of the fruit as well. Both whole and powdered chili are frequent ingredients in dishes prepared throughout the world, characteristic of several cuisine styles, including Mexican, Sichuan Chinese, Korean and Creole, along with most South Asian and derived curries; the powdered form is a key ingredient in various commercially prepared foodstuffs, such as pepperoni, chili con carne, hot sauces. Ideal growing conditions for peppers include a sunny position with warm, loamy soil, ideally 21 to 29 °C, moist but not waterlogged.
Moist soils can cause seedlings to "damp-off" and reduce germination. The plants will tolerate temperatures down to 12 °C and they are sensitive to frost. For flowering, Capsicum is a non-photoperiod-sensitive crop; the flowers can self-pollinate. However, at high temperature, 33 to 38 °C, pollen loses viability, flowers are much less to pollinate successfully. Capsicum consists of 20–27 species, five of which are domesticated: C. annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. pubescens. Phylogenetic relationships between species have been investigated using biogeographical, chemosystematic and genetic data. Fruits of Capsicum can vary tremendously in color and size both between and within species, which has led to confusion over the relationships among taxa. Chemosystematic studies helped distinguish the difference between species. For example, C. baccatum var. baccatum had the same flavonoids as C. baccatum var. pendulum, which led researchers to believe the two groups belonged to the same species.
Many varieties of the same species can be used in many different ways. This same species has other varieties, as well, such as the Anaheim chiles used for stuffing, the dried ancho chile used to make chili powder, the mild-to-hot, ripe jalapeno used to make smoked jalapeno, known as chipotle. Peru is thought to be the country with the highest cultivated Capsicum diversity since varieties of all five domesticates are sold in markets in contrast to other countries. Bolivia is considered to be the country where the largest diversity of wild Capsicum peppers are consumed. Bolivian consumers distinguish two basic forms: ulupicas, species with small round fruits including C. eximium, C. cardenasii, C. eshbaughii, C. caballeroi landraces. Most of the capsaicin in a pungent pepper is concentrated in blisters on the epidermis of the interior ribs that divide the chambers, or locules, of the fruit to which the seeds are attached. A study on capsaicin production in fruits of C. chinense showed that capsaicinoids are produced only in the epidermal cells of the interlocular septa of pungent fruits, that blister formation only occurs as a result of capsaicinoid accumulation, that pungency and blister formation are controlled by a single locus, Pun1, for which there exist at least two recessive alleles that result in non-pungency of C. chinense fruits.
The amount of capsaicin in hot peppers varies among varieties, is measured in Scoville heat units. The world's current hottest known pepper as rated in SHU is the'Carolina Reaper,', measured at over 2,200,000 SHU. Sources: Tubocapsicum anomalum Makino Vassobia fasciculata Hunz. Witheringia stramoniifolia Kunth Most Capsicum species are 2n=2x=24