Jaisalmer State was a kingdom established in the area of present-day Rajasthan. In 1156 Rawal Jaisal moved the capital from Ludarva to Jaisalmer because the old capital Ludarva was vulnerable to invasions from the Turko-Afghan and Baloch tribes. Bhati rajputs continued to rule Jaisalmer independently until 1818, when it signed a treaty with the British Empire making it a British Protectorate, a Princely State entitled to a 15-gun salute; the state of Jaisalmer had its foundations in. Early Bhati rulers ruled over large empire stretching from Ghazni in modern day Afghanistan to Sialkot and Rawalpindi in modern day Pakistan to Bhatinda and Hanumangarh in Modern day India; the empire crumbled over time because of continuous invasions from the central Asia. Bhati dominions continued to be shifted towards the South as they ruled Multan finally got pushed into Cholistan and Jaisalmer where Rawal Devaraja built Dera Rawal / Derawar. According to Satish Chandra, the Hindu Shahis of Afghanistan made an alliance with the Bhatti rulers of Multhan, because they wanted to end the slave raids made by the Turkic ruler of Ghazni, however the alliance was defeated by Alp Tigin in 977 AD.
Jaisalmer was the new capital founded in 1156 by Maharawal Jaisal Singh and the state took its name from the capital. On 11 December 1818 Jaisalmer became a British protectorate. Traditionally, in the Middle Ages, the main source of income for the kingdom was levies on caravans, but the economy was affected when Bombay emerged as a major port and sea trade replaced the traditional land routes. Maharawals Ranjit Singh and Bairi Sal Singh attempted to turn around the economic decline but the dramatic reduction in trade impoverished the kingdom. A severe drought and the resulting famine from 1895 to 1900, during the reign of Maharawal Salivahan Singh, only made matters worse by causing widespread loss of the livestock that the agriculturally based kingdom relied upon. Maharawal Jawahir Singh’s attempts at modernization failed to turn the kingdom’s economy around and it remained isolated and backward compared with other areas of Rajasthan. 1153 – 1168: Rawal Jaisal Singh 1168 – 1200: Shalivahan Singh II 1200 – 1200: Baijal Singh 1200 – 1219: Kailan Singh 1219 – 1241: Chachak Deo Singh 1241 – 1271: Karan Singh I 1271 – 1275: Lakhan Sen 1275 – 1276: Punpal Singh 1276 – 1294: Jaitsi Singh I 1294 – 1295: Mulraj Singh I 1295 – 1306: Durjan Sal 1306 – 1335: Gharsi Singh 1335 – 1402: Kehar Singh II 1402 – 1436: Lachhman Singh 1436 – 1448: Bersi Singh 1448 – 1457: Chachak Deo Singh II 1457 – 1497: Devidas Singh 1497 – 1530: Jaitsi Singh II 1530 – 1530: Karan Singh II of Jaisalmer 1530 – 1551: Lunkaran Singh 1551 – 1562: Maldev Singh 1562 – 1578: Harraj Singh 1578 – 1624: Bhim Singh of Jaisalmer 1624 – 1634: Kalyan Singh of Jaisalmer 1634 – 1648: Manohar Das Singh 1648 – 1651: Ram-Chandra Singh 1651 – 1661: Sabal Singh 1661 – 1702: Amar Singh of Jaisalmer 1702 – 1708: Jaswant Singh of Jaisalmer 1708 – 1722: Budh Singh 1722 – 1762: Akhi Singh 1762 – 1820: Mulraj II 1820 – 1846: Guj Singh 1846 – Jun 1864: Ranjit Singh 1864 – 1891: Bairi Sal 12 Apr 1891 – 11 Apr 1914: Shalivahan Singh III 9 Jul 1914 – 15 Aug 1947: Jawahir Singh c.1885 – 1891: Mohata Nathmal c.1890 – 1903: Mehta Jagjiwan 189.
– 1900: Thakur Kushal Singh 1900: Rawatmal Purohit Khetrapaliya c.1909: Lakshmi Das Sapat 1911 – Jun 1912: Mohammed Niyaz Ali Kazi Hapiri Jun 1912 – 21 Mar 1930: Murarji Rooji Sapat c.1892 – 1902: HH Shri Panna Lal Ji Soni Nathani c.1930 – 1932: HH Shri Umedmal Ji II Soni Nathani 19.. – 19..: M. L. Khosala 19.. – 19..: Pandit Jamana Lal 19.. – 19..: Munshi Nand Kishore 19.. – 19..: Lala Rakhpat Raj 19.. – 19..: P. K. Shurugula 19.. – 19..: Brij Mohan Nath Zutshi 19.. – 19..: Anand Swaroop 19.. – 19..: Onkar Singh c.1940 – c.1942: Lakhpat Rai Sikund Bada Bagh History of Jaisalmer Salute state Political integration of India Media related to Jaisalmer State at Wikimedia Commons "Jaisalmer". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. 1911. P. 129
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
Doab is a term used in the Indian subcontinent for the "tongue," or water-rich tract of land lying between two converging, or confluent, rivers. It is similar to an interfluve. In the Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, R. S. McGregor defines it as "a region lying between and reaching to the confluence of two rivers." Since North India and Pakistan are coursed by a multiplicity of Himalayan rivers that divide the plains into doabs, the Indo-Gangetic plains consist of alternating regions of river and bangar. The regions of the doabs near the rivers consist of low-lying, but very fertile khadir and the higher-lying land away from the rivers consist of bangar, less prone to flooding but less fertile on average. Khadir is called Nali or Naili, specially in northern Haryana the fertile prairie tract between the Ghaggar river and the southern limits of the Saraswati channel depression in that gets flooded during the rains. Within bangar area, the Barani is any low rain area where the rain-fed dry farming is practiced, which nowadays are dependent on the tubewells for irrigation.
Bagar tract, an example of barani land, is the dry sandy tract of land on the border of Rajasthan state adjoining the states of Haryana and Punjab. Nahri is any canal-irrigated land, for example, the Rangoi tract, an area irrigated by the Rangoi channel/canal made for the purpose of carrying flood waters of Ghagghar river to dry areas. Villages in the doabs have been classified as khadir, khadir-bangar or bangar for many centuries and different agricultural tax rates applied based on a tiered land-productivity scale; the Yamuna-Ganga Doab or Uttar Pradesh Doab designates the flat alluvial tract between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers extending from the Sivalik Hills to the two rivers' confluence at Allahabad. The region has an area of about 23,360 square miles; the region of the Doab figures prominently in the history and myths of Vedic period. The British raj divided the Doab into three administrative districts, viz. Upper Doab, Middle Doab and Lower Doab; the following states and districts form part of the Ganga Doab: Uttarakhand:Dehradun and Haridwar Uttar Pradesh:Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Hapur, Gautam Buddh Nagar and Bulandshahr Delhi Etah, Aligarh, Hathras, Farrukhabad, Mainpuri, Etawah and Mathura.
Mathura is in the trans-Yamuna region of Braj. Kanpur, Fatehpur and Allahabad; each of the tracts of land lying between the confluent rivers of the Punjab region of Pakistan and India has a distinct name, said to have been coined by Raja Todar Mal, a minister of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The names are a combination of the first letters, in the Persian alphabet, of the names of the rivers that bound the Doab. For example, Jech ='Je' +'Ch'; the names are: The Sindh Sagar Doab lies between the Indus and Jhelum rivers. The Jech Doab lies between the Chenab rivers; the Rechna Doab lies between the Ravi rivers. The Bari Doab lies between the Beas rivers; the Bist Doab - between the Beas and the Sutlej rivers. The rivers flowing through the Malwa region, covering current states of Madhya Pradesh and parts of north-eastern Rajasthan has doab region such as Upper Malwa doab and Lower Malwa doab; the Raichur Doab is the triangular region of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states which lies between the Krishna River and its tributary the Tungabhadra River, named for the town of Raichur.
Interamnia, an ancient Latin placename, meaning "between rivers" McGregor, Ronald Stuart, The Oxford Hindi-English Dictionary, Oxford University Press, p. 513, ISBN 978-0-19-864339-5, retrieved 11 September 2013
Shekhawati is a semi-arid historical region located in the northeast part of Rajasthan, India. Shahpura Being the Head Seat of the Shekhawati. Shekhawati is located in North Rajasthan comprising districts of Jhunjhunu, Churu and a part of Nagaur and Jaipur. History has it that in the 17th to 19th centuries, Marwari merchants constructed these grand havelis in the Shekhawati region. Steeped in wealth and affluence, these merchants got busy outdoing others in building more grand edifices – homes, step wells which were richly decorated both inside and outside with painted murals, it is bounded on the northwest by the Jangladesh region, on the northeast by Haryana, on the east by Mewat, on the southeast by Dhundhar, on the south by Ajmer, on the southwest by the Marwar region. Its area is 13784 square kilometers; the inhabitants of Shekhawati are considered brave and hard working people. Sekhawati was first mentioned in the book Bankidas ki Khyat. Contemporary of Bankidas was Colonel W. S. Gardener, who used the word Shekhawati in 1803.
James Tod wrote the first history of Shekhawati. The term Shekhawati was used in Vamsh Bhaskar; this suggests. Shekhawati is named after Rao Shekha. Shekhawati is in the Thar Desert of Rajasthan, has special importance in the history of India; the climate of the desert region is extreme. The temperature ranges from below 0 °C in winter to more than 50 °C in summer; the summer brings. Annual rainfall is at around 450 to 600 mm; the groundwater is as deep as 200 feet, in some places, the groundwater is hard and salty. The people in the region depend on rainwater harvesting; the harvested rainwater from the monsoon season is stored in pucca tanks and used throughout the year for drinking purposes. Shekhawati is a dialect of the Rajasthani language and is spoken by about three million speakers in the Churu and Sikar districts of Rajasthan. Though it is a important dialect from the grammatical and literary points of view little work is carried out on it. In 2001 a descriptive compendium of the grammar of Shekhawati was published.
Shekhawati, like the Bagri dialect of Ganganagar and Hanumangarh districts, has a parallel lexicon which makes it rich from the lexicographical point of view. Word order is SOV and there is an existence of implosives; the presence of high tone at suprasegmental level classifies it with other dialects of Rajasthani. It linguistics; some samples in Shekhawati are: Kai Hoyo? कै होयो? = What happened? The Kai kar rieya ho? थे कै कर रिया हो?= What are you doing? Ma Thane ghano samman desyu. मैं थाने घणो सम्मान देस्यु = I will give you great respect. The sidh ja riya ho? थे सिद्ध जा रिया हो?= Where are you going? The ke kha rahiya ho? थे के खा रहिया हो? = What are you eating? Many historians have considered this region included in the Matsya Kingdom. Rigveda provides certain evidences in this matter. Manusmriti has called this land as'brahmrishi desha'. Shekhawati region was included in'marukantar desha' up to Ramayana period. Out of 16 mahajanapadas prior to Buddha, only two janapadas, namely Avanti and the Kingdom of Virata were counted in Rajasthan area.
This region was influenced by Avanti but on Nandas of Magadha defeated Avanti. Historians believe. In ancient times Shekhawati was not limited to the present two districts. During the Mahabharata period it was extended to the Sarasvati River; this was because the first clan ruling this region, in the Mahabharata period, were descendants of fishermen. So the Vedas were supposed to be written and compiled on this land. During ancient times this region was divided into several janapadas; every janapada was a free republic state. The development of janapadas in Rajasthan started with habitation of Aryan; the northern part of Rajasthan was known as Jangladesh during Mahabharata period. And eastern part Jaipur-Alwar were called the Matsya Kingdom. Pandavas had spent one year of their vanishment in this Kingdom of Virata as their abode, to live in anonymity, after the expiry of their twelve-year-long forest life. Dhosi Hill, the revered Hill, bordering Haryana, famous for Chyavana Rishi's Ashram, place where Chyawanprash was formulated for the first time has extensive mentions in the epic Mahabharat in Vanparv.
According to Vimal Charanlal, this Kingdom of Virata extended from Jhunjhunu to Kotkasim 109 km in the north, Jhunjhunu to Ajmer 184 km in the west, Ajmer to Banas and up to confluence of Chambal River 229 km in the south. The capital of this Kingdom of Virata was Bairat. After the collapse of Gupta dynasty, Shekhawati's some parts like Jhunjhunu, Narhar were controlled by the Kaimkhanis, until they were defeated by Shekhawat Rajputs. Kaimkhani is a branch emerged from Chauhans; the first progenitor of Kaimkhanis was Karamchand, born in the family of Moterao of Chauhan clan, the ruler of Dadrewa. Firuz Shah Tughluq named him Kaimkhan, thus his descendants were called Kaimkhani. Shekhawati was ruled by Shekhawat Rajputs until India's independence. Rao Shekha from Dhundhar established his own independent kingdom with the capital at Amarsar, he was the first independent ruler. After him, Rao Raimal, Rao Suja and Rao Lunkaran become the rulers of Amarsar. Rao Manohar succeeded his father Rao Lunkaran and founded Manoharpur renamed Shahpura.
Shekhawats conquered the Jhunjhunu, Narhar of Kaimkhanis and established their rule
Garhwal is the western region and administrative division of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, home to the Garhwali people. Lying in the Himalayas, it is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Kumaon region, on the south by Uttar Pradesh state, on the northwest by Himachal Pradesh state, it includes the districts of Chamoli, Haridwar, Pauri Garhwal, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarkashi. The people of Garhwal speak the Garhwali language; the administrative center for Garhwal division is the town of Pauri. The Divisional Commissioner is the administrative head of the Division, is a senior Indian Administrative Service officer; as the administrative head of the division, the Commissioner is overall incharge of the 7 districts in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, is aided in his duties by an Additional Commissioner and the District Magistrates. Vinod Sharma is the Divisional Commissioner of the Garhwal Division. Garhwal is the land of forts; this region was made up of many small forts. Therefore, the history of Garhwal before the dynastic rule of the ‘Panwar’ rulers is obscure.
Kanak Pal was the first ruler of the state of Garhwal in 823 AD. The Garhwal Himalayas appear to have been a favorite locale for the voluminous mythology of the Puranic period; the traditional name of Garhwal was Uttarakhand. Excavations have revealed; the earliest reference regarding Garhwal and its pride spots are cited in the Skanda Purana and the Mahabharata in the Van Parva. Skanda Purana extend of this holy land, it finds mention in the 7th-century travelogue of Huen Tsang. However, it is with Adi Shankaracharya that the name of Garhwal will always be linked, for the great 8th-century spiritual reformer visited the remote, snow-laden heights of Garhwal, established a Joshimath and restored some of the most sacred shrines, including Badrinath and Kedarnath; the history of Garhwal as a unified whole began in the 15th century, when king Ajai Pal merged the 52 separate principalities, each with its own garh or fortress. For 300 years, Garhwal remained one kingdom, with its capital at Srinagar.
Pauri and Dehradun were perforce ceded to the Crown as payment for British help, rendered to the Garhwalis during the Gurkha invasion, in the early 19th century. The earliest ruling dynasty of Garhwal known is of the Katyuris; the Katyuri Raja of Uttarakhand was styled'Sri Basdeo Giriraj Chakara Churamani'. The earliest traditions record that the possessions of Joshimath Katyuris in Garhwal extended from Satluj as far as Gandaki and from the snows to plains, including the whole of Rohilkhand. Tradition gives the origin of their Raj at Joshimath in the north near Badrinath and subsequent migration to Katyur Valley in Almora district, where a city called Kartikeyapura was founded. Katyuris ruled Uttarakhand up to the 11th century and in certain pockets after their decline. In Garhwal their disruption brought into existence 52 independent chiefs. One of the important principalities in that period was that of Parmars, who held their sway over Chandpur Garhi or Fortress. Katyuris ruled Uttarakhand up to the 11th century and in certain pockets after their decline.
Kanak Pal was progenitor of this dynasty. Raja Ajay Pal, a scion of the Parmars in the 14th century is credited with having brought these chiefs under his rule. After his conquest Ajay Pal's domain was recognised as Garhwal owing to exuberance of forts, it is possible that after annexing all principalities, Raja Ajay Pal must have become famous as Garhwala, the owner of forts. With the passage of time his kingdom came to be known as Garhwal. Garhwal Kingdom was founded by Rajputs. Nearly 700 years ago, one of these chiefs, Ajai Pal, reduced all the minor principalities under him and founded the Garhwal Kingdom, he and his ancestors ruled over Garhwal and the adjacent state of Tehri-Garhwal, in an uninterrupted line till 1803, when the Gurkhas invaded Kumaon and Garhwal, driving the Garhwal chief into the plains. For 12 years the Gurkhas ruled the country with an iron rod, until a series of encroachments by them on British territory led to the Gurkha War in 1814. At the termination of the campaign and Kumaon were converted into British districts, while the Tehri principality was restored to a son of the former chief.
The British district of Garhwal was in the Kumaon Division of the United Provinces, had an area of 5,629 sq mi. After annexation, Garhwal advanced in material prosperity. IN 1901 the population was 429,900. Two battalions of the Indian army were recruited in the district, which contained the military cantonment of Lansdowne. Grain and coarse cloth were exported, salt, borax and wool were imported. Trade with Tibet was considerable; the administrative headquarters was at the village of Pauri. It was an important mart, as was Kotdwara, the terminus of a branch of the Oudh and Rohilkhand railway from Najibabad. During the turn of the 19th century, the Gurkhas attacked Garhwal and drove the rulers of Garhwal down to the plains. Pradyumna Shah died fighting at the battle of Khurbura. Thereafter the rulers of Garhwal took the help of the British forces in India and regained their kingdom; the rulers of Garhwal gave away 60% of their kingdom for the support the British gave them in driving back the Gurhkas.
During the Second World War, the Raja Narendra Shah contributed his troops and aircraft to the British war effort. In recognition for his services, the British gave him the title of "Maharaja", made him a Knight Commander of the Order of
Rohilkhand is a region of northwestern Uttar Pradesh state of India, named after the Rohilla Afghan tribes. The region was known as Madhyadesh in the Hindu epic Mahabharata. Rohilkhand lies on the upper Ganges alluvial plain and has an area of about 25,000 km²/10,000 square miles, it is bounded by the Ganges River on the south and the west by Uttarakhand and Nepal on the north, by the Awadh region to the east. It includes cities of Bareilly, Rampur, Pilibhit, Budaun, Amroha About 1673, two brothers, left their native hills in Shahdarah and obtained some petty office under the Mughals. Mr. Rohilla's grandson,Chirag-eh-Rohilla was appointed governor of Shahdarah in East Delhi. In 1737, an Afghan named Jai-AL-Rohilla was the jagirdar of area around Farrukhabad, Rohilkhand was known as Kuttahir was in the occupation of a band of Afghan mercenary soldiers known as Rohillas. Taking advantage of the invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali, Ali Mahomed added in 1748 to the lands acquired by him those owned by officers absent on field service.
In this way, he changed its name to Rohilkhand. Rohilkhand was invaded by the Marathas after 3rd Panipat war; the first invasion of Maratha on Rohillakhand took place on 1751–1752,the invasion was result of the charming persona of three beautiful queens of Rohillkhand, namely Begum-eh-khaas Pragya, Paulmi -eh-Shiba and Sadhna-eh-Hayat, the wives of Chirag The Marathas were requested by Safdarjung, the Nawab of Oudh, in 1752, to help him defeat Afghani Rohilla. The Maratha forces and Awadh forces besiegedthe Rohillas, who had sought refuge in Kumaon but had to retreat when Ahmad Shah Abdali invaded India. In 1772, led by Mahadji Sindhia defeated Rohilla chieftain Zabita Khan, whose possessions lay west to Rohilkhand and they destroyed Rohilla tribal chief Najib-ul-Daula's grave, scattering the bones all around. During 1772-73, Mahadji destroyed the power of Pashtun Rohillas in Rohilkhand and captured Najibabad. After plundering Rohillakhand Maratha proceed towards Oudh. Sensing the same fate as Rohilla, Nawab made frantic calls to British troops in Bengal.
British company knew that Nawab of Oudh didn't possess any danger for British company, whereas Maratha will try to invade Bengal and Bihar after overrunning Oudh. British company dispatched 20,000 British troops on the order of Viceroy of British India. British wanted to give it to Nawab; the Maratha and British armies came face to face in Ram Ghat, but the sudden demise of Peshwa and the civil war in Poona to choose the next Peshwa forced Maratha to retreat. Rohilla decided not to pay. Further, British made Oudh a buffer state in order to protect it from Maratha, from there on, British troops start protecting Oudh; the subsidy of one British brigade to provide protection to Nawab and Oudh from Maratha was decided to be Rs 2,10,000. Rohilkhand was under the rule of Rohillas with their capital in City of Bareilly until the Rohilla War of 1774–75; the Rohillas were defeated and driven from their former capital of Bareilly by the Nawab of Oudh with the assistance of the East India Company's troops.
The state of Rampur was established under the Nawab of Oudh. In 1803, British annexed Rohilkhand in Upper Doab. Nawabs of Rampur Sarai Rohilla Railway Station Jewan Khutar Pawayan
Mathura is a city in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It is located 50 kilometres north of Agra, 145 kilometres south-east of Delhi, it is the administrative centre of Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh. In ancient times, Mathura was an economic hub, located at the junction of important caravan routes; the 2011 Census of India estimated the population of Mathura at 441,894. In Hinduism, Mathura is believed to be the birthplace of Krishna, located at the Krishna Janmasthan Temple Complex, it is one of the Sapta Puri, the seven cities considered holy by Hindus. The Kesava Deo Temple was built in ancient times on the site of Krishna's birthplace. Mathura was the capital of the kingdom of Surasena, ruled by the maternal uncle of Krishna. Mathura has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for the Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of Government of India. Mathura has an ancient history and believed to be the homeland and birthplace of Krishna, born in Yadu dynasty. According to the Archaeological Survey of India plaque at the Mathura Museum, the city is mentioned in the oldest Indian epic, the Ramayana.
In the epic, the Ikshwaku prince Shatrughna slays a demon claims the land. Afterwards, the place came to be known as Madhuvan as it was thickly wooded Madhupura and Mathura. Archaeological excavations at Mathura show the gradual growth of a village into an important city; the earliest period belonged to the Painted Grey Ware culture, followed by the Northern Black Polished Ware culture. Mathura derived its importance as a center of trade due to its location where the northern trade route of the Indo-Gangetic Plain met with the routes to Malwa and the west coast. By the 6th century BCE Mathura became the capital of the Surasena Kingdom; the city was ruled by the Maurya empire. Megasthenes, writing in the early 3rd century BCE, mentions Mathura as a great city under the name Μέθορα, it seems it never was under the direct control of the following Shunga dynasty as not a single archaeological remain of a Shunga presence were found in Mathura. The Indo-Greeks may have taken control, direct or indirect, of Mathura some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription, found in Maghera, a town 17 kilometres from Mathura.
The opening of the 3 line text of this inscription in Brahmi script translates as: "In the 116th year of the Yavana kingdom..." or'"In the 116th year of Yavana hegemony" However, this corresponds to the presence of the native Mitra dynasty of local rulers in Mathura, in the same time frame pointing to a vassalage relationship with the Indo-Greeks. After a period of local rule, Mathura was conquered by the Indo-Scythians during the first 1st century BCE; the Indo-Scythian satraps of Mathura are sometimes called the "Northern Satraps", as opposed to the "Western Satraps" ruling in Gujarat and Malwa. However, Indo-Scythian control proved to be short lived, following the reign of the Indo-Scythian Mahakshatrapa Rajuvula, c. 10–25 CE. The Kushan Empire took control of Mathura some time after Rajuvula, although several of his successors ruled as Kushans vassals, such as the Indo-Scythian "Great Satrap" Kharapallana and the "Satrap" Vanaspara, both of whom paid allegiance to the Kushans in an inscription at Sarnath, dating to the 3rd year of the reign of the Kushan emperor Kanishka c. 130 CE.
Mathuran art and culture reached its zenith under the Kushan dynasty which had Mathura as one of its capitals. The preceding capitals of the Kushans included Kapisa and Takshasila/Sirsukh/. Faxian mentions the city as a centre of Buddhism about 400 CE while his successor Xuanzang, who visited the city in 634 CE, mentions it as Mot'ulo, recording that it contained twenty Buddhist monasteries and five Hindu temples, he went east to Thanesar, Jalandhar in the eastern Punjab, before climbing up to visit predominantly Theravada monasteries in the Kulu valley and turning southward again to Bairat and Mathura, on the Yamuna river. The city was sacked and many of its temples destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in 1018 CE and again by Sikandar Lodhi, who ruled the Sultanate of Delhi from 1489 to 1517 CE. Sikander Lodhi earned the epithet of'Butt Shikan', the'Destroyer of Hindu deities'; the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, built the Shahi-Eidgah Mosque during his rule, adjacent to Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi believed to be over a Hindu temple.
Mathura is a holy city for the world's third-largest religion. There are many places of religious importance in Mathura and its neighbouring towns; the twin-city to Mathura is Vrindavan. As the home of Krishna in his youth, the small town is host to a multitude of temples belonging to various sects of Hinduism proclaiming Krishna in various forms and avatars; some notable religious sites in and around Mathura are: Keshav Dev Temple Dwarkadheesh temple Mathura Vishram Ghat Krishna Balaram Mandir Prem Mandir, Vrindavan Kusum Sarovar, Govardhan Baldeo Shri Siddh Shani Mandir, Mundesi Lohwan Mata Mandir Shri Ratneshwar Mahadev Gopinath Maharaj Mandir Shri Jagannath Temple Bhuteshwar Mathura Vrindavan Chandrodaya Mandir, Vrindavan Mathura Museum Birla Mandir Madan Mohan Temple, Vrindavan Naam yog Sadhna Mandir Banke Bihari Temple Radha Raman