Brandeis University is a private research university in Waltham, Massachusetts. Founded in 1948 as a non-sectarian, coeducational institution sponsored by the Jewish community, Brandeis was established on the site of the former Middlesex University; the university is named after the first Jewish Justice of the US Supreme Court. In 2018, it had a total enrollment of 5,800 students on its suburban campus spanning 235 acres; the institution offers more than 43 majors and 46 minors, two-thirds of undergraduate classes have 20 students or fewer. It is a member of Association of American Universities since 1985 and of the Boston Consortium, which allows students to cross-register to attend courses at other institutions including Boston College, Boston University and Tufts University; the university has a strong liberal arts focus and attracts a geographically and economically diverse student body, with 72% of its non-international undergraduates being from out of state, 50% of full-time undergraduates receiving need-based financial aid and 13.5% being recipients of the federal Pell Grant.
It has the eighth-largest international student population of any university in the United States. Alumni and affiliates of the university include former first lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt, Nobel Prize laureate Roderick MacKinnon and Fields Medalist Edward Witten, as well as foreign heads of state, governors and recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, Academy Award, Emmy Award, MacArthur Fellowship. Middlesex University was a medical school located in Waltham, at the time the only medical school in the United States that did not impose a quota on Jews; the founder, Dr. John Hall Smith, died in 1944. Smith's will stipulated that the school should go to any group willing to use it to establish a non-sectarian university. Within two years, Middlesex University was on the brink of financial collapse; the school had not been able to secure accreditation by the American Medical Association, which Smith attributed to institutional antisemitism in the American Medical Association, and, as a result, Massachusetts had all but shut it down.
Dr. Smith's son, C. Ruggles Smith, was desperate for a way to save something of Middlesex University, he learned of a New York committee headed by Dr. Israel Goldstein, seeking a campus to establish a Jewish-sponsored secular university. Smith approached Goldstein with a proposal to give the Middlesex campus and charter to Goldstein's committee, in the hope that his committee might "possess the apparent ability to reestablish the School of Medicine on an approved basis." While Goldstein was concerned about being saddled with a failing medical school, he was excited about the opportunity to secure a 100-acre "campus not far from New York, the premier Jewish community in the world, only 9 miles from Boston, one of the important Jewish population centers." Goldstein agreed to accept Smith's offer, proceeding to recruit George Alpert, a Boston lawyer with fundraising experience as national vice president of the United Jewish Appeal. Alpert had worked his way through Boston University School of Law and co-founded the firm of Alpert and Alpert.
Alpert's firm had a long association with the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad, of which he was to become president from 1956 to 1961 He is best known today as the father of Richard Alpert. He was influential in Boston's Jewish community, his Judaism "tended to be social rather than spiritual." He was involved in assisting children displaced from Germany. Alpert was to be chairman of Brandeis from 1946 to 1954, a trustee from 1946 until his death. By February 5, 1946, Goldstein had recruited Albert Einstein, whose involvement drew national attention to the nascent university. Einstein believed the university would attract the best young people in all fields, satisfying a real need. In March 1946, Goldstein said the foundation had raised ten million dollars that it would use to open the school by the following year; the foundation purchased Middlesex University's land and buildings for two million dollars. The charter of this operation was transferred to the Foundation along with the campus.
The founding organization was announced in August and named The Albert Einstein Foundation for Higher Learning, Inc. The new school would be a Jewish-sponsored secular university open to students and faculty of all races and religions; the trustees offered to name the university after Einstein in the summer of 1946, but Einstein declined, on July 16, 1946, the board decided the university would be named after Louis Brandeis. Einstein objected to what he thought was excessively expansive promotion, to Goldstein's sounding out Abram L. Sachar as a possible president without consulting Einstein. Einstein took great offense at Goldstein's having invited Cardinal Francis Spellman to participate in a fundraising event. Einstein became alarmed by press announcements that exaggerated the school's success at fundraising. Einstein threatened to sever ties with the foundation on September 2, 1946. Believing the venture could not succeed without Einstein, Goldstein agreed to resign himself, Einstein recanted.
Einstein's near-departure was publicly denied. Goldstein said that, despite his resignation, he would continue to solicit donations for the foundation. On November 1, 1946, the foundation announced that the new university would be named Brandeis University, after Louis D. Brandeis, justice of the United States Supreme Court. By the end of 1946, the foundation said it had raised over five hundred thousand dollars, two months it said it had doubled that amount. Brandeis felt it was in no position to make the investment in the medical school that would enable it
The Swiss national championship in ice hockey has been contested in various forms since 1909. The Swiss National Championship was first contested in 1909, continued until 1937, when it was replaced by the Nationalliga A. Due to World War I, it was not contested in the 1915 seasons. Between 1916 and 1933, alongside the Swiss National Championship, the Swiss International Championship was contested. Unlike the National Championship, which had restrictions on the number of foreigners allowed to play, an unlimited number of foreign players were allowed to compete in the International Championship. Since the 1937-38 season, the Nationalliga A, now called the National League A, is established as the highest level league in Switzerland. In the 1985-86 season, the Swiss Champion was first awarded in the playoffs; the women's national championship has been contested annually since 1987. The league is known as the Leistungsklasse A, it is known as Swiss Women’s Hockey League A. 2008: ZSC Lions 2009: HC Davos 2010: SC Bern 2011: HC Davos 2012: ZSC Lions 2013: SC Bern 2014: ZSC Lions 2015: HC Davos 2016: SC Bern 2017: SC Bern 2018: ZSC Lions 2019: SC Bern 1957: HC Neuchâtel Young Sprinters 1958: HC Neuchâtel Young Sprinters 1959: Genève-Servette HC 1960: ZSC Lions 1961: ZSC Lions 1962: HC Ambrì-Piotta 1963: HC Neuchâtel Young Sprinters 1964: EHC Visp 1965: SC Bern 1966: Grasshopper Club Zürich 1972: Genève-Servette HC 2015: SC Bern 2016: ZSC Lions 2017: EHC Kloten 2018: SC Rapperswil-Jona Lakers 2019: EV Zug National League A Swiss League Swiss Women’s Hockey League A List of NLA seasons All-time standings 1909-2008 Swiss Ice Hockey Association
The Chicago Bears of the National Football League sport a wishbone'C' logo, which the team has used since the 1960s. Since the team's inception in 1920, the Bears' uniforms have received little changes, with minor changes and various patches added; the classic look of the club's uniforms has given it the title of one of the best uniform sets in the league. During its history, the Bears have worn uniforms manufactured by Nike and Champion; the club has had few official logos throughout their history. When the team was known as the Decatur Staleys in 1920, they used A. E. Staley's logo as football was intended to help promote the company; the first was introduced in the early 1940s with a bear running with a football. The next logo featured a navy blue bear on top of a football; the team kept this until 1962. The change in their logo from the black bear was due to the addition of logos on helmets, which pro football teams started adding in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Unlike some NFL franchises that have had many different looks over time, the Bears have kept the wishbone'C' for over 40 years.
The Bears'C' logo first appeared on the helmets in 1962.. The logo changed from white to a white-bordered orange logo eleven years and has remained unchanged since. In 1974, the team decided to keep the same white'C' logo but to change the color of it from white to orange with a white trim; this is the current logo to this date. For most of the 1940s through the late 1960s the Bears, unlike most all NFL teams, wore helmets and face masks made by Chicago-based Wilson Sporting Goods; this headgear was of a different shape than that of the Riddell company, the principal supplier to NFL teams.. In 1982, the club's standard gray facemasks became dark blue; the gray facemasks and white'C' logo returned in 2019 for the Bears' game against the New York Giants. In 1994, in honor of the NFL's 75th Anniversary, the Bears helmets were all blue and without the logo; the Bears would don a similar helmet to the 1994 helmet with the Monsters of the Midway throwbacks, with the helmets still being blue, but with a gray facemask.
In 1920, the Staleys introduced the official team uniforms of red jerseys with brown stripes. This design of vertical stripes was a popular trend for football jerseys of the 1920s; the players' jersey number was displayed only on the back. After moving to Chicago and becoming the Bears, the team switched to blue jerseys in 1923; the color scheme was switched to navy blue and orange in honor of George Halas' alma mater, the University of Illinois. In the 1930s, the franchise's team uniform underwent some substantial alterations, introducing a white jersey with orange-and-blue stripes in 1932. After various changes, by 1933, the Bears donned all-orange jerseys with navy numbers and matching navy blue helmets; the Bears experimented with all-orange uniforms during the decade, booed by the New York crowd during a game against the New York Giants for being "loud". In 1935, the Bears introduced an orange jersey with black arm stripes. In 1936, they modified the design into "an early version of psychedelia" by adding three orange stripes to their helmets, changing the color of the jerseys from orange to white, complementing the new white jerseys with fourteen navy and orange alternating stripes on the sleeves, introducing socks with a similar striped pattern extending from ankle to knee.
Due to poor response from the fans and the media, this design lasted only one season. By 1949, the team was wearing the familiar navy blue shirts with rounded numbers. In 1956, the team added "TV numbers" to the sleeves. By 1957 the NFL, in part for easier television viewing, ordered home teams to wear dark, primary-colored jerseys and road teams white. By 1960 the team's home jerseys had added orange trim to the round white numerals. In 1961 the orange sleeve stripes were given white borders. At the turn of the decade, the Bears added names to the back to the players jersey; the initials "GSH" were added to the left sleeve of the jerseys in the 1984 season. For decades, the team was known as the only NFL team to wear jersey numbers that were not the traditional block-style numbers. Although a handful of other NFL teams such as the early-1960s Pittsburgh Steelers, the Houston Oilers during their early AFL days experimented with rounder jersey numbers, by the mid-1960s the Bears were the only team left to continue wearing rounded jersey numbers, though on a few occasions in 1971 and 1972 the team appeared in jerseys with plain block numerals.
Since the mid-1990s, several teams have shifted away from the block numbers in favor of numbers that match a specific team font