Richard Head was an author and bookseller. He became famous with his satirical novel The English Rogue – one of the earliest novels in English that found a continental translation; the most important primary source on Head's life is William Winstanley's biographical entry published in his Lives of the most famous English poets – a credible if not reliable source insofar as Winstanley could claim to have been acquainted with Head. According to Winstanley, Head was a minister's son, born in Ireland, his father was killed in the Irish rebellion of 1641. His mother took him to England, they moved on to Plymouth, to Bridport in Dorset where Head is known to have attended the town's grammar school in 1650. Head was admitted to the same Oxford college his father had attended, his financial means being insufficient Head was taken from college and bound apprentice to a "Latin bookseller" in London "attaining to a good Proficiency in the Trade", as Winstanley put it. "His genius being addicted to Poetry" he published his first poetical and satirical piece which Winstanley recorded as Venus Cabinet Unlock'd.
This may be a reference to Giovanni Benedetto Sinibaldi's The cabinet of Venus unlocked, her secrets laid open. Being a translation of part of Sinibaldus, his Geneanthropeia, a collection of some things out of other Latin authors, never before in English. Head married around that time. A second addiction to gambling cost him the profit he made with his shop. Head moved – or fled – to his homeland Ireland, where he gained esteem with his first comedy Hic et ubique, or, The Humors of Dublin – printed with a dedication to James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth at his return to England in 1663; the Duke's recompense remaining below expectations Head had to survive as a bookseller with shop addresses in Little Britain, in Petty Canons Alley, off Paternoster Row and opposite Queen's Head Alley. Winstanley located him in Queen's Head Alley. If his reports are trustworthy, Head gathered some wealth in little time only to gamble it away again a little later; the English Rogue solved some of his financial problems.
Its tales of drastic adventures were based on the model of Spanish rogue stories, which were fashionable due to the contemporary publication of Scarron's Roman Comique, savoury with the events Head could claim to have based on his personal experience. The censor, so Winstanley reported, rejected the manuscript as "too much smutty"; the softened book edition sold brilliantly and created a complex publishing history: the first edition published by Henry Marsh sold out within the year. Marsh died that year, Francis Kirkman the business partner, to whom Marsh had been indebted, secured the rights and sold Head's title in four further editions between 1666 and 1667, it remains unclear how the ensuing volumes two and four, published in 1671, 1674 and 1680, came to be written. Winstanley speaks of Head as the author indiscriminately. In the dedication to his Proteus redivivus Head, explicitly denies a hand in any part but the first. Kirkman asserted nonetheless that he and Head were responsible for the fourth parts.
The preface to the latter is signed by both men – facts which make Head's belated disclaimer suspicious. Head's imprint as a publisher is found on several titles. Works from his pen appeared until 1677. Winstanley reports. Richard Head's English Rogue became one of the first works of English prose fiction to be translated into a continental language, its German title was Simplicianischer Jan Perus, dessen Geburt und Herkommen, kurtzweiliger Lebens-Lauff, unterschiedliche Verheyrathung, Schwencke, Reise, Gefängnuß, Verurtheil- und Bekehrung, – the title being designed to sell the English work on the market Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen had created with his Simplicius Simplicissimus. Numerous imitations of Head's rogue story followed on the English market such as The French Rogue: or, The Life of Monsieur Ragoue de Versailles. A threefold cord to unite soules for unto God. 1. The mysterie of godlinesse opened. 2. The imitation of Christ proposed. 3. The crowne of afflicted saints promised.
As it was compacted by M. Richard Head, M. A.and sometimes minister of the Gospel, in his labours at Great Torrington in Devon. Published now, after his death, for publike profit; the Christians dayly solace in experimentall observations. By R. H.. Hic et ubique, or, The humours of Dublin a comedy, acted with general applau
Errisbeg Mountain or Errisbeg situated at Roundstone, County Galway, in the West of Ireland with a height of 300 m. Media related to Errisbeg at Wikimedia Commons
Porcupine Bank is an area of the Irish shelf, on the fringes of the Atlantic Ocean 200 kilometres west of Ireland. The raised area of seabed, 200 m below sea level at its highest, lies between the deep-water Porcupine Seabight and Rockall Trough; the name comes from the bank's discovery in 1862 by HMS Porcupine, a British sail and paddle-wheel ship used for surveying. The northern and western slopes of the bank feature species of cold-water corals. According to Dr. Anthony Grehan of the National University of Ireland, the untouched site could benefit dwindling fish stocks and aid medical research. "These are by far the most pristine and hence spectacular examples of cold-water coral reefs that I’ve encountered in ten years of study in Irish waters. There is evidence of recent recruitment of corals and many other reef animals in the area suggesting this area is an important source of larvae supply to other areas further along the Porcupine Bank." In an 1870 paper presented to the Geological Society of Ireland, Mr W Fraser suggested that these reefs mark the site of the sunken island of Hy-Brasil.
Hy-Brasil was recorded on maps of the 15th and 16th centuries and is sometimes referred to as the other Atlantis
Ilha de Vera Cruz
Ilha de Vera Cruz was the first name given by the Portuguese navigators to the newly discovered land on the northeast coast of what became known as Brazil. The name was changed to Terra de Santa Cruz; when the discoverers, under Pedro Álvares Cabral, first touched land in South America on April 22, 1500, they thought they had found an island, as reflected in the chosen name. They took possession for the Kingdom of Portugal of what was believed to be an island of strategic importance on a western connection between Portugal and the Moluccas and other islands of the East Indies; this discovery marked the beginning of Portuguese colonization in South America. The name was changed to Terra de Santa Cruz when it was realized that it was not an island, but in fact part of a continent. In 1534, the colonies of Terra de Santa Cruz became the Captaincies of Brazil, land grants to Portuguese captains General by King John III of Portugal
Inis Oírr / Inisheer, the island's official name, Inis Oirthir, meaning "east island", traditionally Inis Thiar, meaning "rear island". In Irish Inis Oírr is pronounced like Inish-Ear, it is most eastern of the three Aran Islands in Galway Bay, Ireland. With about 260 permanent residents, it is less than Inishmore. Caomhán of Inis Oírr is the island's patron saint. There are three primary settlements on Inis Oírr - Baile an Chaisleáin, Baile an Feirme & Baile an Lorgain; the official name, Inis Oírr, was brought into usage by the Ordnance Survey Ireland. It may be a compromise between the traditional local name Inis Thiar and the previous official name Inis Oirthir. There is no Irish word corresponding to the second element in the official name, it seems from the annals that the island's name always contained the element iarthar or thiar in the sense of "rear or back island" and not "west" as is the usual sense of this word. The form Inis Oirthir, used by the 17th century scholar Ruaidhrí Ó Flaithbheartaigh, seems to have arisen out of his own misreading of the annals.
The island is an extension of The Burren. The terrain of the island is composed of limestone pavements with crisscrossing cracks known as "grikes", leaving isolated rocks called "clints"; the limestones date from the Visean period, formed as sediments in a tropical sea 350 million years ago, compressed into horizontal strata with fossil corals, sea urchins and ammonites. Glaciation following the Namurian phase facilitated greater denudation; the result is. The effects of the last glacial period are most in evidence, with the island overrun by ice during this glaciation; the impact of earlier Karstification has been eliminated by the last glacial period, so any Karstification now seen dates from 10,000 years ago and the island Karst is thus recent. Solutional processes deepened the grykes of the limestone pavement. Pre-existing lines of weakness in the rock contribute to the formation of extensive fissures separated by clints; the rock karstification facilitates the formation of sub-terrainean drainage.
The island has a temperate climate. Average air temperatures range from 15 °C in July to 6 °C in January; the soil temperature does not drop below 6 °C. Since grass will grow once the temperature rises above 6 °C, this means that the island has one of the longest growing seasons in Ireland, supports diverse and rich plant growth. Late May is the sunniest time, likely the best time to view flowers, with the gentians and avens peaking; the island supports arctic and alpine plants side-by-side, due to the unusual environment. Like the Burren, the Aran islands are known for their remarkable assemblage of animals; the grikes provide moist shelter, thus supporting a wide range of plants including dwarf shrubs. Where the surface of the pavement is shattered into gravel, many of the hardier Arctic or Alpine plants can be found, but when the limestone pavement is covered by a thin layer of soil, patches of grass are seen, interspersed with plants like the gentian and orchids. Notable insects present include the butterfly the pearl-bordered fritillary, brown hairstreak, marsh fritillary and wood white.
In 1885 a burial site called Cnoc Raithní was discovered which dates back to 1500BC. This is earliest evidence of human settlement of the island. Saint Caomhán, the patron saint of Inisheer, according to some traditions, was the elder brother of Kevin of Glendalough; the ruins of Teampall Chaomháin have to be uncovered annually as the floor of it is well below the level of the sand. In the Middle Ages, the island was ruled by the O'Brien dynasty who provided most of the Kings of Thomond; this rule was exercised. The Tribes of Galway paid the O'Briens an annual tribute of twelve tuns of wine "in consideration of their protection and expenses in guarding the bay and harbour of Galway against pirates and coast plunderers." The remains of a 14th-century O'Brien Castle called'O'Briens Castle' is sited near the island's highest point. In 1582 the O'Flahertys of Connemara captured it. Today O'Flahertys still live on the island. In 1652 it was given to the Cromwellian invasion force and the O'Flaherty's were defeated.
They saw no use for it and the castle was dismantled, it has been unoccupied since. The cargo vessel Plassey was shipwrecked off Inis Oírr on 8 March 1960, has since been thrown above high tide mark at Carraig na Finise on the island by strong Atlantic waves; the ship features in the opening credits of the TV Show Father Ted. A group of local Islanders, the Inisheer Rocket Crew, rescued the entire crew from the stricken vessel using a breeches buoy—an event captured in a pictorial display at the National Maritime Museum in Dún Laoghaire; the table below reports data on Inis Oírr's population taken from Discover the Islands of Ireland and the Census of Ireland. Census data in Ireland before 1841 reliable; the island is reached by ferry from Rossaveal in Connemara and Doolin in County Clare as well as from the other
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere in the Southern Hemisphere, with a small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It may be considered a subcontinent of the Americas, how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas; the reference to South America instead of other regions has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics. It is bordered on the west on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, it includes twelve sovereign states, a part of France, a non-sovereign area. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Tobago, Panama may be considered part of South America. South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers, its population as of 2016 has been estimated at more than 420 million. South America ranks fourth in fifth in population. Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina and Peru. In recent decades Brazil has concentrated half of the region's GDP and has become a first regional power.
Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains. Most of the continent lies in the tropics; the continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, societies and states reflect Western traditions. South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas; the continent is delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America.
All of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate. South America is home to Angel Falls in Venezuela. South America's major mineral resources are gold, copper, iron ore and petroleum; these resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity has hindered the development of diversified economies; the fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export. South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on earth. South America is home to many interesting and unique species of animals including the llama, piranha, vicuña, tapir; the Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of the Earth's species.
Brazil is the largest country in South America, encompassing around half of the continent's land area and population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among three regions: The Andean States, the Guianas and the Southern Cone. Traditionally, South America includes some of the nearby islands. Aruba, Curaçao, Trinidad and the federal dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northerly South American continental shelf and are considered part of the continent. Geo-politically, the island states and overseas territories of the Caribbean are grouped as a part or subregion of North America, since they are more distant on the Caribbean Plate though San Andres and Providencia are politically part of Colombia and Aves Island is controlled by Venezuela. Other islands that are included with South America are the Galápagos Islands that belong to Ecuador and Easter Island, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chiloé and Tierra del Fuego. In the Atlantic, Brazil owns Fernando de Noronha and Martim Vaz, the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands are governed by the United Kingdom, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands may be associate
Hy Brasil, Avalon Beach
Hy Brasil sometimes Hy-Brasil, is a heritage-listed former weekend retreat and now house located at 62 Chisholm Road, Avalon Beach, Northern Beaches Council, New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Alexander Stewart Jolly and built in 1936, it is known as The Gem and Hi Brasil. It was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999; the land on which Hy Brasil is located was part of 490 hectares of land granted to John Joseph Therry on 31 August 1833. It was subdivided as part of a subdivision for villa sites; the first owners of the land were Joseph Dalton and Daniel Claney who transferred the land to George Holland in December 1882. Holland held the possession of the land until July 1927 when he sold it to Redway Thomas Pawley and Arthur George Potter; the ownership of the land passed on to Albert Travers Black after just two months and a year Kathleen Wilhelmina Jolly, wife of Alexander Stewart Jolly, purchased it from Albert Travers Black in 1923. She became the registered proprietor of the land on 4 March 1931.
Mrs Jolly transferred the land, still undeveloped together with its surrounding neighbouring allotments, to the Australian Land Development & Investment Company limited on 15 April 1931. The land was purchased by Arthur Wilson on 24 June 1935 and shortly after he commissed Alexander S. Jolly to design a weekend retreat on the property and called it'The Gem'.'The Gem', a stone and timber cabin now known as Hy Brasil, was built in 1936. Another change in ownership occurred in February 1949 and Rachel Jane Donaldson became the registered proprieor of the property, she held the ownership of the house until when it was bought by Ted Herman in 1958. The name Hy Brasil is associated the mythical Irish island of Brasil called Hy Brasil, which in Irish folk legend is an island that contains the Garden of Eden. Hy Brasil was nominated for a Permanent Conservation Order in 1980 by the Herman family; the Order was placed on 31 July 1981 and was transferred to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.
Hy Brasil comprised a main living space with verandahs to the west and east facades and bedroom and kitchen to the south facade. Constructed of local rock faced Hawkesbury sandstone; the house has been planned around a large central stone fireplace and the use of natural materials of stone and timber represents a distinct "organic" design philosophy. Particular interest exists with the fireplace structure as the mantel consists of a three-metre-long stone slab; the house has a contemporary style in its design influenced by Californian Bungalow and Organic architectural movements with the use of large picture windows, exposed internal stained timber rafters and beams coupled with a low pitched horizontal roof. Hy Brasil which derives its name from the mythical Isle location of the Garden of Eden, has magnificent views of the Tasman Sea to the east and Pittwater to the west. Pedestrian access to the house is via a narrow winding pathway up a steep slope through large sandstone boulders. Native trees have been retained around the house and supplemented by plantings of ornamental exotics, notably sweet gum, pampas grass, fruit salad plant, tree ferns, giant bird-of-paradise flower and azaleas.
Cover use has been made of the local sandstone, cut to provide steps, garden seats, retaining walls, pools and a barbeque. The area to the west of the house contains terraced lawns leading down to a sandstone cliff which forms a well-defined boundary to the property. Below the cliff, natural bushalnd extends down to the properties below; the overall impression of Hy Brasil's setting is one of blending of the house into natural bushland. As at 29 October 2007, Hy Brasil is of State significance as one of three "organic" houses designed by Alexander Stewart Jolly in Avalon. Hy Brasil with its simple construction of stone and timber and set in its native bushland setting represents Jolly's architecture and philosophy regarding the built form and its relationship to the natural Australian landscape. Hy Brasil was listed on the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999 having satisfied the following criteria; the place is important in demonstrating the course, or pattern, of cultural or natural history in New South Wales.
Hy Brasil is of State significance as an excellent example of twentieth century "organic" architecture and is one of three listed works by Alexander Stewart Jolly. The unique bushland setting of the building, large tile and stone terracing form an integral part of the design philosophy; this distinctive style influenced the "Sydney School" architectural movement of the mid sixties. The place is important in demonstrating aesthetic characteristics and/or a high degree of creative or technical achievement in New South Wales; the ridge-top siting of Hy Brasil is prominent from the surrounding area and takes advantage of superb panoramic views of the Tasman Sea and Pittwater. Native bushland has been retained and enhanced by the well chosen exotic ornamental planting to provide a setting which complements the natural qualities of the house. Australian residential architectural styles This Wikipedia article was based on Hy Brasil, entry number 00079 in the New South Wales State Heritage Register published by the State of New South Wales and Office of Environment and Heritage 2018 under CC-BY 4.0 licence, accessed on 1 June 2018.
Media related to Hy-Brasil at Wikimedia Commons