Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 211 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the sixth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populous city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other countries in South America except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight by PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic, who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
The secret royal inspector was a temporary position unique to the Joseon Dynasty, in which an undercover official directly appointed by the king was sent to local provinces to monitor government officials and look after the populace while traveling incognito. Unlike regular inspectors whose activities under Office of Inspector General were official and public, the appointment and activities of secret royal inspectors were kept secret throughout the mission. Young officials of low or middle rank were appointed as secret royal inspectors because they had to travel long distance for an extended period of time. Young officials were more to have strong sense of justice and less to have personal connection with local officials. Though secret royal inspector was a temporary position, its authority was equivalent to a governor and had the power to dismiss local officials including governor in the name of the king. For their secret mission, they received a letter of appointment, a description of their destination and mission, "horse requisition tablet" called mapae, which they used to requisite horses and men from a local station run by the central government.
To ensure secrecy of the mission, a secret royal inspector could open bongseo only after leaving the capital. When they arrived at the assigned district, they surveyed the area in disguise. After the secret survelliance was completed, they revealed themselves by presenting mapae or bongseo and inspected the magistrate's office and records. If they found cases that were unjustly judged, they presided in retrial to redress wrongs. After the completion of their mission, inspectors returned to the capital and presented a report to the king – detailing wrongs committed by former and active local officials, reporting on the mood of the populace, recommending hidden talents for appointment and virtuous villagers for award; the title is mentioned for the first time in 1555 during Myeongjong's reign, but it existed as early as 1509 during Jungjong's reign. The activities of secret royal inspectors became more frequent and prevalent during late Joseon period; the last secret royal inspector was Yi Myeon-sang, who served in Jeolla province in 1892.
The secret inspector system was effective in reducing corruption in provinces, but it had many problems. According to one account, the survival rate of secret royal inspector was only 30 percent. Sometimes they fell bandits, or assassins sent by a corrupt official. In addition, secret royal inspectors had to pay expenses for the mission out of their pocket. Therefore, a secret royal inspector sometimes had to pose as a beggar more out of necessity than for sake of secrecy. After Sukjong's time, secret royal inspector system was abused as a weapon in factional fighting. Since the Middle Joseon period, about 670 secret royal inspectors went into action. Famous figures who served as secret royal inspectors include Jo Gwang-jo, Yi Hwang, Jeong Yak-yong, writer Kim Man-jung. Yi Sibal, Yi Geon-chang and Park Mun-su are famous for their work as secret royal inspector. Secret royal inspectors were popular subject for fiction in modern times. Many legends about Park Mun-su as the avenger for the people exploited by corrupt officials have passed down through folk tales.
The exploits of secret royal inspector were featured in Chunhyangjeon. In recent years, the 1981–1983 TV series'Secret Royal Inspector', the 2002 TV series'Inspector Park Mun-su,' 2009 TV series'Tamra, Island,' and several film adaptations of Chunhyangjeon have secret royal inspector as their main protagonist. "Undercover royal inspector" is more literal and accurate translation of Amhaeng-eosa, but it is more translated as secret royal inspector
Kyle Walters is a former professional Canadian football defensive back and is the general manager for the Winnipeg Blue Bombers of the Canadian Football League. Walters built the Winnipeg team, he played for seven seasons for the Hamilton Tiger-Cats and won a Grey Cup championship as a player with the team in 1999. Following his retirement, he became the defensive coordinator for the University of Guelph Gryphons and served as their head coach from 2006 to 2009, he played CIAU football for the Gyphons in the early 1990s. The Winnipeg Blue Bombers named Walters interim General Manager for the remainder of the 2013 CFL season following a disappointing 1-5 start; the team didn't finish any better, going 2-10 the rest of the way and failing to qualify for the CFL playoffs. Despite the disappointing finish to the year, the Bombers removed the interim tag and named Walters GM for the 2014 CFL season. In 2014 the Bombers finished 7-11 following a 5-1 start. In the offseason Walters made some key signings for the offensive line, including Stanley Bryant and Jermarcus Hardrick.
Walters helped to build to foundation of a successful Blue Bombers team that saw them have four consecutive double-digit win seasons in 2019. The team carried this success into the 107th Grey Cup which they won over the Hamilton Tiger-Cats 33-12. Due to the championship caliber team he had built, the Bombers extended his contract in 2019 through to the 2023 season. Walters prefers to do the scouting for the team and work in the background, while Mike O'Shea does most of the media interviews for the team. O'Shea was extended at the same time, though his contract ends one year earlier in 2022. Winnipeg Blue Bombers bio