Breaking called breakdancing or b-boying/b-girling, is an athletic style of street dance from the United States. While diverse in the amount of variation available in the dance, breakdancing consists of four kinds of movement: toprock, power moves and freezes. Breakdancing is set to songs containing drum breaks in hip-hop, soul music and breakbeat music, although modern trends allow for much wider varieties of music along certain ranges of tempo and beat patterns. Breaking was created by the African American youth in the early 1970s; the earliest breakdancers were the 1st Generation Bboys known as Trixie, Dancing Doug, A1 Bboy Sasa, The Legendary Smith Twins and Clark Kent. The groups included the "Zulu Kings". By the late seventies, the dance had begun to spread to other communities and was gaining wider popularity. A practitioner of this dance is called b-girl, or breaker. Although the term "breakdance" is used to refer to the dance in popular culture and in the mainstream entertainment industry, "b-boying" and "breaking" are the original terms and are preferred by the majority of the pioneers and most notable practitioners.
Instead of the original term b-boying, the mainstream media promoted the art-form as breakdancing, by which it came to be known. Some enthusiasts consider "breakdancing" an ignorant and derogatory term due to the media’s exploitation of the artform; the media displayed a simplified version of the dance, making it seem like the so-called "tricks" were everything trading the culture for money and promotion. The term "breakdancing" is problematic because it has become a diluted umbrella term that includes popping and electric boogaloo, which are not styles of "breakdance", but are funk styles that were developed separately from breaking in California; the dance itself is properly called "breaking" by rappers such as KRS-One, Talib Kweli, Mos Def, Darryl McDaniels of Run-D. M. C; the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", "breaker" were the original terms used to describe the dancers who performed to DJ Kool Herc's breakbeats. DJ Kool Herc is a Jamaican-American DJ, responsible for developing the foundational aspects of hip-hop music.
The obvious connection of the term "breaking" is to the word "breakbeat". DJ Kool Herc has commented that the term "breaking" was 1970s slang for "getting excited", "acting energetically" or "causing a disturbance". Most breaking pioneers and practitioners prefer the terms "b-boy", "b-girl", and/or "breaker" when referring to these dancers. For those immersed in hip-hop culture, the term "breakdancer" may be used to disparage those who learn the dance for personal gain rather than for commitment to the culture. B-boy London of the New York City Breakers and filmmaker Michael Holman refer to these dancers as "breakers". Frosty Freeze of the Rock Steady Crew says, "we were known as b-boys", hip-hop pioneer Afrika Bambaataa says, "b-boys, what you call break boys... or b-girls, what you call break girls." In addition, co-founder of Rock Steady Crew Santiago "Jo Jo" Torres, Rock Steady Crew member Marc "Mr. Freeze" Lemberger, hip-hop historian Fab 5 Freddy, rappers Big Daddy Kane and Tech N9ne use the term "b-boy".
Many elements of breakdancing can be seen in other antecedent cultures prior to the 1970s. B-boy pioneers Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon and Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert, both of Rock Steady Crew, cite James Brown and Kung Fu films as influences. Many of the acrobatic moves, such as the flare, show clear connections to gymnastics. In the 1877 book'Rob Roy on the Baltic' John MacGregor describes seeing near Norrköping a'...young man quite alone, practicing over and over the most inexplicable leap in the air...he swung himself up, round on his hand for a point, when his upper leg described a great circle...'. The engraving shows a young man breakdancing; the dance was called the Giesse Harad Polska or'salmon district dance'. In 1894 Thomas Edison filmed Walter Wilkins, Denny Toliver and Joe Rastus dancing and performing a "breakdown". In 1898 he filmed a young street dancer performing acrobatic headspins. However, it was not until the 1970s that b-boying developed as a defined dance style in the United States.
There is evidence of this style of dancing in Kaduna, Nigeria in 1959. Beginning with DJ Kool Herc, Bronx-based DJs would take the rhythmic breakdown sections of dance records and prolong them by looping them successively; the breakbeat provided a rhythmic base that allowed dancers to display their improvisational skills during the duration of the break. This led to the first battles—turn-based dance competitions between two individuals or dance crews judged with respect to creativity and musicality; these battles occurred in cyphers—circles of people gathered around the breakers. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated entirely by Puerto Rican-Americans. A separate but related dance form which influenced breakdancing is uprock called rocking or Brooklyn rock. Uprock is an aggressive dance that involves two dancers mimicking ways of fighting each other using mimed weaponry in rhythm with the music.
Uprock as a dance style of its own never gained the same widespread popularity as breakdancing, except for some specific moves adopted by breakers who use it as a variation for their toprock. When used in a breakdancing battle, opponents respond by performing similar uprock moves creating a short uprock battle; some breake
Mrs. Puff is a fictional character in the animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants and both films based on the franchise. Voiced by Mary Jo Catlett, Mrs. Puff debuted in the season one episode "Boating School" on August 7, 1999. Mrs. Puff was designed by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg, he developed the character in response to a request from Nickelodeon that the show star a schoolteacher. Hillenburg did not want to write SpongeBob SquarePants as a school-age child, so Mrs. Puff was introduced as his driving instructor rather than an elementary school educator. Mrs. Puff is SpongeBob's paranoid driving teacher and the owner of the town boating school, similar to a driver's education facility, she would like nothing more than to pass SpongeBob, as he is her most dedicated and hard-working student, but he panics when he tries to drive a boat and fails every driving test he takes. His failures result in crashes that lead to mass destruction and endanger Mrs. Puff. While she tries her best to be friendly and patient with her students, Mrs. Puff finds SpongeBob's unintentional recklessness exasperating.
She is the long-standing love girlfriend of Mr. Krabs; the character has received a positive critical reception and has become well known in popular culture for her distinctive voice and temperamental personality. Catlett received an Annie Award nomination in 2001 for her voice-over work as Mrs. Puff along with Tom Kenny as the title character, making them the first SpongeBob cast members to be nominated for an award. Mrs. Puff is featured in a variety of merchandise, such as plush toys and video games, has appeared at theme parks and in Toyota commercials. Mrs. Puff is an anthropomorphic porcupinefish who owns the underwater boating school that SpongeBob attends. Despite her efforts, she has been unsuccessful at teaching SpongeBob, he is her most committed student, knows the answer to every question on the oral exam, but panics every time he takes the driving part of her course. He crashes her vehicles and causes town wide destruction in the process. Mrs. Puff displays the blowfish's inflation defense mechanism when she is scared or when SpongeBob crashes, akin to a car's airbag deploying.
Mrs. Puff's friendliness toward other characters varies, she sympathizes with the short-tempered Squidward Tentacles, considers him to be the prime example of an outstandingly good driver. Patrick, who has attended Mrs. Puff's class multiple times, is treated with respect by her in spite of his slow-wittedness. Of all the residents of Bikini Bottom, she is closest to SpongeBob. While she dreads having to drive with SpongeBob, she acts as a motherly figure towards him. A running gag in the series is Mrs. Puff's extensive criminal record; as a result of SpongeBob's reckless driving, he lands Mrs. Puff in jail since she assumes responsibility for his actions; this gag is introduced in "Hall Monitor", when Mrs. Puff is held responsible after SpongeBob inadvertently destroys Bikini Bottom. In "Doing Time", SpongeBob and Patrick attempt to break her out of prison to no avail, it is revealed that she prefers prison to working as a teacher because she does not have to drive with SpongeBob. In "No Free Rides", it is implied that Mrs. Puff once had to move to a new town and start a new school with a new name.
Mrs. Puff was married to another blowfish named Mr. Puff in the past, but he was captured by humans and turned into a novelty lamp. Since she and Mr. Krabs have pursued a romantic relationship and gone on many dates together; as of the show's tenth season, Mrs. Puff and Mr. Krabs have been dating for sixteen years. Krabs' love, he gives her a variety of pet names in spin-off media. In his review of the third season, Bryan Pope of DVD Verdict examined the two characters' relationship and mistook Mrs. Puff for Krabs' wife. Mrs. Puff was designed by series creator Stephen Hillenburg, she was the last of the principal SpongeBob characters to be designed, having not been conceptualized until after Hillenburg had completed his show bible. The June 2003 issue of Nickelodeon Magazine states that when Hillenburg pitched SpongeBob to Nickelodeon, he "had yet to come up with the idea that Mrs. Puff and SpongeBob would be on an endless quest to get SpongeBob a driver's license". Thus, some early development artwork for the show depicted SpongeBob driving a submarine-esque vehicle with ease.
Mrs. Puff's development originated with a request by Nickelodeon. Nickelodeon wanted to make SpongeBob a child since their most successful cartoons at the time focused on young, school-age characters. Hillenburg stated that the network wanted SpongeBob to be like "Arnold under the sea," but he told them, "No, that's not the show." As a compromise, Hillenburg decided to "put him in school - but it would be a driving school". Showrunner Vincent Waller suggested that if the network had creative control over the show every episode would take place at Mrs. Puff's school, not at a variety of locations; the choice to make Mrs. Puff a blowfish, who inflates into a ball when SpongeBob crashes, was made to evoke the appearance of car airbags; because she was created late in production, her design incorporates elements of the earlier characters' appearances, such as the same type of skirt as Pearl and the same rounded teeth as Squidward. The episode "Doing Time" was one of the first to b
The following is a list of characters from the series, S. A; the series focuses on Hikari Hanazono, a high school student who holds the second overall position at the elite Hakusen Academy, her tireless efforts to challenge and defeat Kei Takishima, the first ranked student and Hikari's rival since childhood, while unaware that Kei is in love with her. Together, they form the Special A class, consisting of the seven top-ranked students of their school, along with their childhood friends Akira Toudou, Tadashi Karino and Jun Yamamoto, Ryuu Tsuji. Hikari Hanazono Voiced by: Yuko Goto, she holds the 2nd position in school for having the best grades. Self-proclaimed as Kei Takishima's greatest rival, she is determined to beat him in any kind of competition. Stubborn, hard headed and good-spirited, Hikari never backs down from a challenge one from Kei, cannot turn away from someone who asks for her help. Though she has never beaten Kei at anything, she looks for opportunities to surpass him and is unfazed when he defeats her.
While she is good at sports and academics, Hikari is notably bad at teaching and cooking. She is too strong at times breaking things in the process. Although she can handle her own in a fight, nonetheless, gets irritated whenever she puts herself in danger. A kindhearted girl who always worries about others, Hikari sometimes lacks common sense and tends to be unaware towards how people regard her, her optimistic personality, straightforwardness, tendency to always see the good in people sometimes prevents her from realizing the more subtle aspects of relationships. Although Hikari is rather sensitive to others, she is quite dense, she is oblivious to the romantic feelings Kei has for her, though everyone else knows that Kei is in love with her. In volume four, Hikari begins to fall in love with Kei, though she does not realize it until volume 6. Hikari felt that if she conveyed her feelings she would lose against Kei, believing that it is all a competition, they admit they are in love with each other and become a couple in chapter 53.
Kei Takishima Voiced by: Jun Fukuyama. As Hikari's undefeated rival, he likes to refer to her as "Miss Second Place", which never fails to provoke her, he has the ability to do anything right on his first try. He prefers to do things on his own until Hikari shows him how much fun it can be to work together with others. Kei loves Hikari, a fact that he does not deny, has loved her since they were children. However, he has not confessed his love to her because he knows that Hikari does not understand those feelings and would think that he is referring to a love between friends. Although he is stoic most of the time and always maintains a calm facade, things involving Hikari can bring intense anxiety out of him, it always bothers him whenever Hikari pushes herself too hard or causes trouble, but her strong will and determination are the reasons why he admires and respects her. He is always calm in solving problems, but when the problem is about Hikari, he gets agitated, he makes several attempts to express his feelings to Hikari, though is thwarted by some sort of misunderstanding on Hikari's part.
Kei confesses to her in chapter 32 but Hikari, somewhat realizing she may be in love with him, mistakes it as a competition. On in chapter 52 Hikari reveals that she reciprocates his feelings. Jun Yamamoto Voiced by: Tsubasa Yonaga; the son of a music producer and a talented singer, Jun loves music more than anything else, is a gifted violinist. Quiet and kindhearted, Jun has a split personality which he has concealed from everyone except Megumi and Ryuu. Triggered whenever he is kissed by a girl or receives a lot of affection, he becomes irresistible to nearly all women and is able to charm them effortlessly, his split personality resulted from an hypnotism program that Jun watched as a child and first emerged when he was still in grade six. During a date with a girl, he changed and all the other girls around him became mesmerized by him. After he begins dating Sakura, Jun's alternate personality emerges; the only thing that can bring Jun back to his original self is by losing consciousness. Megumi Yamamoto Voiced by: Ayahi Takagaki.
She shares her brother's love of music. She is a cute and nice girl with long curly brown hair, who joins in disputes. Megumi refuses to speak because she wants to save her voice for singing, she writes on a sketchpad to communicate with others, but will speak when upset, which have devastating after-effects. She speaks to people on a consistent basis with the exception of Yahiro, who encourages her to sing, her singing causes all who listen to her to get knocked out, however Yahiro theorizes that she sings well, but that it needs to be in an