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Bremerhaven

Bremerhaven is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham. Though a new city, it has a long history as a trade port and today is one of the most important German ports, playing a role in Germany's trade; the town was founded in 1827, but neighboring settlements such as Lehe were in the vicinity as early as the 12th century, Geestendorf was "mentioned in documents of the ninth century". These tiny villages were built on small islands in the swampy estuary. In 1381, the city of Bremen established de facto rule over the lower Weser stream, including Lehe therefore called Bremerlehe. Early in 1653, Swedish Bremen-Verden's troops captured Bremerlehe by force; the Emperor Ferdinand III ordered his vassal Christina of Sweden Duchess regnant of Bremen-Verden, to restitute Bremerlehe to Bremen. However, Swedish Bremen-Verden soon enacted the First Bremian War and in the following peace treaty Bremen had to cede Bremerlehe and its surroundings to Swedish Bremen-Verden.

The latter developed plans to found a fortified town on the site, much this location became the present-day city of Bremerhaven. In 1672, under the reign of Charles XI of Sweden, in personal union Duke of Bremen-Verden—colonists tried unsuccessfully to erect a castle there. In 1827, the city of Bremen under Burgomaster Johann Smidt bought the territories at the mouth of the Weser from the Kingdom of Hanover. Bremen sought this territory to retain its share of Germany's overseas trade, threatened by the silting up of the Weser around the old inland port of Bremen. Bremerhaven was founded to be a haven for Bremen's merchant marine, becoming the second harbour for Bremen, despite being 50 km downstream. Due to trade with, emigration to North America, the port and the town grew quickly. In 1848, Bremerhaven became the home port of the German Confederation's Navy under Karl Rudolf Brommy; the Kingdom of Hanover called it Geestemünde. Both towns grew and established the three economic pillars of trade and fishing.

Following inter-state negotiations at different times, Bremerhaven's boundary was several times extended at the expense of Hanoveran territory. In 1924, Geestemünde and the neighbouring municipality of Lehe were united to become the new city of Wesermünde, in 1939 Bremerhaven was removed from the jurisdiction of Bremen and made a part of Wesermünde a part of the Prussian Province of Hanover. Bremerhaven was one of the important harbours of emigration in Europe; as the most critical North Sea base of the Nazi War Navy, the Kriegsmarine, 79% of the city was destroyed in the Allied air bombing of Bremen in World War II. All of Wesermünde, including those parts which did not belong to Bremerhaven, was a postwar enclave run by the United States within the British zone of northern Germany. Most of the US military units and their personnel were assigned to the city's Carl Schurz Kaserne. One of the longest based US units at the Kaserne was a US military radio and TV station, an "Amerikanischer Soldatensender", AFN Bremerhaven, which broadcast for 48 years.

In 1993, the Kaserne was returned to the German government. In 1947 the city became part of the federal state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen and was renamed from Wesermünde to Bremerhaven. Today, Bremerhaven is therefore part of the city-state of Bremen, being to all intents and purposes a state comprising two cities, while a city in its own right; this is complicated somewhat by the fact that the city of Bremen has owned the "overseas port" within Bremerhaven since 1927. To further complicate matters, a treaty between the two cities makes Bremerhaven responsible for the municipal administration of those parts owned directly by Bremen; the port of Bremerhaven is the sixteenth-largest container port in the world and the fourth-largest in Europe with 4.9 million twenty-foot equivalent units of cargo handled in 2007 and 5,5 million in 2015. The container terminal is situated on the bank of the river Weser opening to the North Sea. In the wet dock parts, accessible by two large locks, more than 2 million cars are imported or exported every year with 2,3 million in 2014.

Bremerhaven exports more cars than any other city in Europe. Another million tons of "High-and-Heavy" goods are handled with ro-ro ships. In 2011 a new panamax-sized lock has replaced the 1897 Kaiserschleuse the largest lock worldwide. Bremerhaven has a temperate maritime climate. On average, the city receives about 742 mm of precipitation distributed throughout the year, with a slight peak in the summer months between June and August; the hottest temperature recorded was 35.8 °C on 9 August 1992, the coldest was −18.6 °C on 25 February 1956. Due to its unique geographic situation, Bremerhaven suffers from a few transportational difficulties; the city has been connected

Appleton, Illinois

Appleton is a ghost town in Persifer Township, Knox County, United States. Appleton lies one mile north of U. S. Highway 150 and Interstate 74. Knox County Highway 12 runs from north to south through Appleton and the tracks of the BNSF Railway run east to west. Court Creek flows through Appleton before its confluence with the Spoon River in Dahinda. From the 1899 Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, W. Seldon Gale & Geo. Candee Gale published by Munsell Publishing Company, Chicago & New York: "Appleton was laid out by the Hon. J. H. Lewis in the spring of 1888, on the S. E. 1-4 of Section 16. It is situated on the north side of the Santa Fe R. R. and is a station on that road. Mr. Wm. A. Iles has a grain elevator. There is a blacksmith shop and a Church of the United Brethren in Christ. Quite a large amount of grain and stock is shipped from Appleton each year." The site of the original town today is empty except for several streets. Appleton had a post office, as well as many homes and businesses but was prone to flooding.

The size of the town shrank during much of the 20th century, the final homes located in the original town were relocated to higher ground after the Midwest Floods of 1993. A volunteer fire department serves the Appleton area

Harry Cohen

Harry Michael Cohen is a British Labour Party politician, the Member of Parliament for Leyton from 1983 to 1997 and Leyton and Wanstead from 1997 to 2010. Cohen left the George Gascoigne Secondary Modern school on Queens Road in Walthamstow at 15, trained as a public service accountant at the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and Accountancy, as well as studying part-time at East Ham Technical College, he gained MSc in Politics and Administration from Birkbeck College, University of London in 1995. He became an accountant and auditor for the boroughs of Waltham Forest and Haringey later for the union NALGO, he was elected as a local councillor in Waltham Forest at the age of 22, served for 11 years before becoming an MP. Cohen was first elected to the House of Commons at the 1983 general election as MP for Leyton, transferring to the new Leyton and Wanstead constituency after boundary changes for the 1997 general election, he was a member of the House of Commons Defence Select Committee between 1997–2001, has been a member of the Work and Pensions Select Committee since 2005.

On 31 October 2006, Cohen was one of 12 Labour MPs to back Plaid Cymru and the Scottish National Party's call for an inquiry into the Iraq War. Cohen was Chairman of the All-Party Parliamentary Group for Tibet and Secretary of the All-Party Parliamentary Race and Community Group and was a member of the Socialist Campaign Group, a signatory to Jews for Justice for Palestinians, counts Karl Marx, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela and the Dalai Lama as political influences, it was revealed in March 2009 that Cohen had received £104,701 over the previous five years under the Additional Costs Allowance for his Wanstead home based upon the representation that this was his second home. The home that Cohen represented as his primary home was a house in Colchester, despite the fact that Cohen spent little time at that location and used it only as a holiday home; as his Wanstead home is where Cohen resides both when going to Westminster and attending to his constituency, the claim of the Additional Costs Allowance was criticised as an abuse of an expense allowance intended to help Members of Parliament who need to maintain one home in their constituency and another in London.

Cohen responded to criticism by stating that the Additional Costs Allowance was intended to be de facto salary for Members of Parliament. On 30 June 2009 he announced, he said the strain caused by the criticism over his expenses, the formal investigation into his claims, were the main factors behind his departure. On 22 January 2010 the Standards and Privileges Committee of the House of Commons published its report into Cohen's expenses and concluded that he had received over £60,000 in expenses to which he was not entitled; the report did recognise that the ill-health of Cohen's wife had been a significant factor in the decisions he had made but maintained that he had still committed a serious breach of the rules. The report recommended that Cohen apologise to the House, which he did on 29 January 2010, that the Resettlement Grant of £65,000 paid to Members of Parliament upon retirement, be withheld; the House ratified the latter punishment on 1 February 2010. Harry Cohen official site Guardian Unlimited Politics - Ask Aristotle: Harry Cohen MP Guardian Unlimited Politics - MPs Uncovered: Harry Cohen MP TheyWorkForYou.com - Harry Cohen MP The Public Whip - Harry Cohen MP voting record BBC News - Harry Cohen profile 9 March 2005 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Harry Cohen