Brentwood, Essex

Brentwood is a town in the Borough of Brentwood, in the county of Essex in the East of England. It is in the London commuter belt, 20 miles east-north-east of Charing Cross, near the M25 motorway; as of 2017, the population of the town is estimated to be 54,885. Brentwood is a suburban town with high street. Beyond this are residential developments surrounded by open countryside and woodland. Brentwood has been twinned since 1978 with Roth and since 1994 with Montbazon, France, it has a relationship with Brentwood, Tennessee in the United States. The name was assumed by some in the 1700s to derive from a corruption of the words'burnt' and'wood', with the name Burntwood still visible on some 18th-century maps. However, brent was the middle English for "burnt"; the name describes the presumed reason for settlement in the part of the Forest of Essex that would have covered the area, where a major occupation was charcoal burning. Although a Bronze Age axe has been found in Brentwood and there are clear signs of an entrenched encampment in Weald Country Park, it is considered unlikely that there was any significant early settlement of the area.

At the time, most of Essex was covered by the Great Forest. It is believed that despite the Roman road between London and Colchester passing through the town, the Saxons were the earliest settlers of the area; the borough was on a crossroads, where the Roman road from Colchester to London crossed the route the pilgrims took over the River Thames to Canterbury. A chapel was built in or around 1221, in 1227 a market charter was granted, its growth may have been stimulated by the cult of St. Thomas the Martyr, to whom the chapel was dedicated: the 12th-century ruin of Thomas Becket Chapel was a popular stopping point for pilgrims on their way to Canterbury; the ruin stands in the centre of the high street and the nearby parish church of Brentwood retains the dedication to St. Thomas of Canterbury. Pilgrims Hatch, or'Pilgrims' gate', was named from pilgrims who crossed through on their way to the chapel, it is however, that Brentwood's development was due chiefly to its main road position, its market, its convenient location as an administrative centre.

Early industries were connected with textile and garment making and brickmaking. During the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, Brentwood was the meeting place for some of the instigators, such as John Ball and Jack Straw, they met in local pubs and inns. The first event of the Peasants' Revolt occurred in Brentwood, when men from Fobbing and Stanford were summoned by the commissioner Thomas Bampton to Brentwood to answer as to who had avoided paying the poll tax. Bampton insisted; the peasants refused to pay and a riot ensued as Bampton attempted to arrest the peasants. The peasants moved to kill Bampton; the rioters fearing the repercussions of what they had done, fled into the forest. After the riot the peasants initiated the Peasants' Revolt; the Essex assizes were sometimes held here, as well as at Chelmsford. One such pub was The White Hart, one of the oldest buildings in Brentwood; the ground floor was stabling and in the mid-1700s the owners ran their own coach service to London. On 13 September 2009, the roof suffered significant damage during a fire.

Marygreen Manor, a handsome 16th-century building on London Road, is mentioned in Samuel Pepys' diaries and is said to have been visited by the Tudor monarch Henry VIII when Henry Roper, Gentleman Pursuant to Queen Catherine of Aragon, lived there in 1514. It is now a restaurant. In 1686 Brentwood's inns were stabling for 183 horses. There were 11 inns in the town in 1788. Protestant martyr William Hunter was burnt at the stake in Brentwood in 1555. A monument to him was erected by subscription in 1861 at Wilson's Corner. Brentwood School was founded in 1557 and established in 1558, in Ingrave Road and behind the greens on Shenfield Road by Sir Anthony Browne and the site of Hunter's execution in commemorated by a plaque in the school. Thomas Munn,'gentleman brickmaker' of Brentwood, met a less noble end when he was hanged for robbing the Yarmouth mail and his body was exhibited in chains at Gallows Corner, a road junction a few miles from Brentwood, in Romford. A ducking stool was mentioned in 1584.

As the Roman road grew busier, Brentwood became a major coaching stop for stagecoaches, with plenty of inns for overnight accommodation as the horses were rested. A'stage' was ten miles, being about 20 miles from London, Brentwood would have been a second stop for travellers to East Anglia; this has not changed. Some of the pubs date back to the 16th centuries. Brentwood was significant as a hub for the London postal service, with a major post office since the 18th century; the major post office on the high street was closed in the 2008 budget cuts. Daniel Defoe wrote about Brentwood as being "...full of good inns, chiefly maintained by the excessive multitude of car


Saraiyahat is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Dumka district, Jharkhand state, India. It is located 48 km from the district headquarters. Saraiyahat, the CD Block headquarters, is located at 24°34′49″N 87°0′47″E; as per 2011 Census of India, Saraiyahat CD Block had a total population of 156,291 all of which were rural. There were 75,756 females. Scheduled Castes numbered 14,191 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 28,050. Population below 6 years was 27,416. Saraiyahat is a village with a population of 1,459 as per 2011 census. Hindi and Santali are languages spoken in the region; as of 2011 census, the total number of literates in Saraiyahat CD Block was 75,591 out of which 46,721 were males and 28,870 were females. As of 2011 census, literacy in Dumka district was 61.02. Literacy in Jharkhand was 66.41% in 2011. Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%. See – List of Jharkhand districts ranked by literacy rate The 130 km Bhagalpur-Dumka-Rampurhat railway project is an extension of the Bhagalpur-Mandar Hills section functioning for a long time.

Service was extended to Hansdiha in 2012, at that time work was on in the 42 km Hansdiha-Dumka sector. See – Jasidih–Dumka–Rampurhat railway line

Belle Genius

Belle Genius was an American-bred, Irish-trained Thoroughbred racehorse and broodmare. Bought for only $8,500 as a yearling, she was matched against high-class opposition from the start of her track career. After finishing fifth in the Chesham Stakes and the Cherry Hinton Stakes she won a minor event at Thirsk before recording her biggest win in the Group 1 Moyglare Stud Stakes, she went on to finish fourth in the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies but was sent to Dubai and finished unplaced on her only subsequent start. After her retirement from racing she had some success as a dam of winners, her last recorded foal was born in 2009. Belle Genius was a chestnut mare bred in Kentucky by Lindsay A. Semple; as a yearling in September 1993 she was consigned to the Keeneland sale but attracted little interest and was bought for $8,500 by the bloodstock agency Newmarket International. The filly was sent to Europe where she entered the ownership of L J Price and joined the Newmarket stable of Paul Kelleway, a trainer who had built his reputation by winning major races with cheaply-bought horses.

She was from the first crop of foals sired by the Canadian-bred stallion Beau Genius who won several major stakes races in North America including the Philip H. Iselin Stakes in 1990. Belle Genius's dam Time and Tide showed modest racing ability, winning one minor race from nine starts, she was descended from a half-sister to the dam of Godetia. Rather than beginning her racing career in a maiden race Belle Genius made her track debut in the Chesham Stakes over six furlongs at Royal Ascot on 16 June. Ridden by Michael Wigham she started a 50/1 outsider but was beaten by less than three lengths as she finished fifth behind the colt Montjoy. On 5 July the filly was stepped up to Group 3 class for the Cherry Hinton Stakes at Newmarket Racecourse and started the 33/1 outsider of the seven-runner field, she led in the early stages before fading in the last quarter mile and coming home fifth behind Red Carnival. Paul Eddery took over from Whigham when the filly was dropped in class for a maiden race over seven furlongs at Thirsk Racecourse on 8 August.

The race was an "auction" event, meaning that the weights were determined by the prices fetched by the offspring of the participants' sires at the yearling sales. Starting favourite against thirteen opponents she led approaching the final furlong and won by a length from Juweilla to whom she was conceding ten pounds in weight. Jason Weaver took the ride when Belle Genius was sent to Ireland to contest the Group 1 Moyglare Stud Stakes over seven furlongs at the Curragh on 11 September and started a 20/1 outsider; the Phoenix Stakes winner Eva Luna started favourite while the other six runners included Sharp Point and Glounthaune Garden. Belle Genius was among the leaders from the start a Beating the Buzz set the pace, before going to the front just inside the last quarter mile, she kept on well in the closing stages to win by one and a half lengths from Tereshkova with Eva Luna a length away in third. Following her win at the Curragh, Belle Genius was bought for an undisclosed sum by Sheikh Mohammed's Godolphin organisation.

For her final appearance of the season the filly was sent to the United States for the Breeders' Cup Juvenile Fillies at Churchill Downs on 5 November. Racing on dirt for the first time she made steady progress in the second half of the race and came home fourth behind Flanders, Serena's Song and Stormy Blues. After the end of her first season, Belle Genius joined the stable of Godolphin's main trainer Saeed bin Suroor and relocated to the United Arab Emirates, she missed the whole of the 1995 season before returning in March 1996 when she finished fifth in a handicap race at Jebel Ali. After her retirement from racing Belle Genius became a broodmare for Sheikh Mohammed's Darley Stud, he produced at least nine foals and six winners between 1998 and 2009: Battish, a bay colt, foaled in 1998, sired by Pennekamp. Won one race. Birjand, bay filly, 1999, by Green Desert. Won three races. Dam of Lucky Nine. Rozanee, chestnut filly, 2000, by Nashwan. Failed to win in six races. Bin Rahy, chestnut colt, 2003, by Rahy.

Won one race. Fereeji, bay colt, 2004, by Cape Cross. Won two races. Dellini, bay filly, 2005, by Green Desert. Won one race. Zelloof, bay filly, 2006, by Kheleyf. Won one race. Wisecraic, chestnut colt, 2007, by Kheleyf. Won two races. Muzdaan, chestnut filly, 2009, by Exceed And Excel. Failed to win in two races. Belle Genius was inbred 3 × 4 to Raise A Native, meaning that this stallion appears in both the third and fourth generations of her pedigree