Jennifer Lynn Connelly is an American actress, who began her career as a child model. She appeared in magazine and television advertising, before she made her film acting debut in the crime film Once Upon a Time in America. Connelly continued modeling and acting, starring in a number of films, including the horror film Phenomena, the musical fantasy film Labyrinth, the romantic comedy Career Opportunities, the period superhero film The Rocketeer, she gained critical acclaim for her work in the science fiction film Dark City, for playing a drug addict in Darren Aronofsky's drama Requiem for a Dream. In 2002, Connelly won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for portraying Alicia Nash in Ron Howard's biopic A Beautiful Mind, her subsequent credits include the Marvel superhero film Hulk, in which she played Bruce Banner's love interest Betty Ross, the horror film Dark Water, the drama Blood Diamond, the science fiction film The Day the Earth Stood Still, the romantic comedy He's Just Not That Into You, the biopic Creation.
In the 2010s, she took on supporting roles in Aronofsky's epic film Noah and in Robert Rodriguez's action film Alita: Battle Angel. Connelly was named Amnesty International Ambassador for Human Rights Education in 2005, she has been the face of Balenciaga fashion advertisements, as well as for Revlon cosmetics. In 2012, she was named the first global face of the Shiseido Company. Magazines, including Time, Vanity Fair and Esquire, as well as the Los Angeles Times newspaper, have included her on their lists of the world's most beautiful women. Connelly was born in New York, in the Catskill Mountains, she is the daughter of Ilene, an antiques dealer, Gerard Karl Connelly, a clothing manufacturer. Her father was Roman Catholic, of Irish and Norwegian descent. Connelly's mother was Jewish, was educated at a yeshiva. Connelly was raised in Brooklyn Heights, near the Brooklyn Bridge, where she attended Saint Ann's, a private school specializing in the arts, her father suffered from asthma, so the family moved to Woodstock, New York, in 1976 to escape the city smog.
Four years the family returned to Brooklyn Heights, Connelly returned to Saint Ann's. When Connelly was 10 years old, an advertising executive friend of her father suggested she audition as a model, her parents sent a picture of her to the Ford Modeling Agency, which shortly after added her to its roster. Connelly began modeling for print advertisements before moving on to television commercials. In an interview with The Guardian, she revealed that, after having done some modeling, she had no aspirations to become an actress, she appeared on the covers of several issues of Seventeen in 1986 and 1988. In December 1986, she recorded two pop songs for the Japanese market: "Monologue of Love" and "Message of Love", she sang in phonetic Japanese. When her mother began taking her to acting auditions, Connelly was selected for a supporting role as the aspiring dancer and actress Deborah Gelly in Sergio Leone's 1984 gangster epic Once Upon a Time in America; the role required her to perform a ballet routine.
During the audition, who had no ballet training, tried to imitate a ballerina. Her performance, the similarity of her nose to Elizabeth McGovern's, who played the character as an adult, convinced the director to cast her. Connelly described the movie as "an idyllic introduction to movie-making". While Once Upon a Time in America was being filmed, Connelly made her first television appearance, in the episode "Stranger in Town" of the British series Tales of the Unexpected. Connelly's first leading role was in Italian giallo-director Dario Argento's 1985 film Phenomena. In the film, she plays a girl who psychically communicates with insects to pursue the killer of students of the Swiss school where she has enrolled. Connelly next had the lead in the coming-of-age movie Seven Minutes in Heaven, released the same year. Of her early career, Connelly said, "Before I knew it, became what I did, it was a peculiar way to grow up, combined with my personality." She described feeling like "a kind of walking puppet" through her adolescence, without having time alone to deal with the attention her career was generating.
Connelly gained public recognition with Jim Henson's 1986 film Labyrinth with David Bowie, in which she played Sarah, a teenager on a quest to rescue her brother Toby from the world of goblins. Although a disappointment at the box office, the film became a cult classic; the New York Times, while noting the importance of her part, panned her portrayal: "Jennifer Connelly as Sarah is disappointing.... She looks right, but she lacks conviction and seems to be reading rehearsed lines that are recited without belief in her goal or real need to accomplish it." Two years she starred as a ballet student in the Italian film Étoile, portrayed college student Gabby in Michael Hoffman's Some Girls. Balancing work and school, she studied English for two years at Yale University in 1988 and 1989, before transferring to Stanford University in 1990 to study drama. There, she trained with Howard Fine and Harold Guskin. Encouraged by her parents to continue with her film career, Connelly left college and returned to the movie industry the same year.
In 1990, Dennis Hopper directed The Hot Spot, in which Connelly played Gloria Harper, a woman being blackmailed. The film was a box office failure but Connelly was praised. Stephen Schaefer wrote for USA Today, "Anyone looking for proof that little girls do grow up fast i
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Producers Guild of America
The Producers Guild of America is a trade association representing television producers, film producers and New Media producers in the United States. The PGA's membership includes over 7,000 members of the producing establishment worldwide, its co-presidents are Lucy Fisher. The PGA is overseen by a National Board of Directors. Vance Van Petten has served as the organization's National Executive Director since 2000; the Producers Guild of America offers several benefits to its members, including health insurance and pension benefits. As of 2015, the gender ratio of the PGA's membership is 43 % female; the Producers Guild of America began as two separate organizations, with the Screen Producers Guild being formed in 1950. Its first president was William Perlberg. In 1957, television producers followed suit, forming the Television Producers Guild, with Ben Brady as its first president; these merged in 1962 to form the PGA under producer Walter Mirisch. Subsequent Presidents of the PGA have included Stanley Rubin, Leonard B.
Stern, Kathleen Kennedy, Marshall Herskovitz, the teams of Hawk Koch / Mark Gordon, Gary Lucchesi / Lori McCreary. The Golden Laurel Awards (subsequently renamed the Producers Guild of America Awards were first held in 1990, establishing the Guild Awards as one of the bellwethers for the Academy Awards. 20 of the 29 winners of the Producers Guild of America Award for Best Theatrical Motion Picture have gone on to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. The Producers Guild of America's awards show was established in 1990 as the Golden Laurel Awards, created by PGA Treasurer Joel Freeman, Diane Robison, Terrie Frankel, Bernard Wiesen, Charles B. FitzSimons with the support of Guild President Leonard B. Stern, in order to honor the visionaries who produce and execute motion picture and television product; the ceremony has been hosted each year by celebrity host/presenters, including Ronald Reagan, Ted Turner, Garry Marshall, Jack Lemmon, James Earl Jones, Grant Tinker, Michael Douglas, Walter Matthau, Shirley MacLaine, Marlo Thomas, Kevin Spacey, Mark Wahlberg, Kerry Washington, Anne Hathaway, Steve Carell, Neil Patrick Harris and Jennifer Lawrence, among others.
In 2001, the Producers Guild of America merged with the American Association of Producers, enabling the Guild to represent all members of the producing team. Since that time, the Guild has been composed of three Councils: The Producers Council, the AP Council and the New Media Council. In 2001, producers John Schwally and Nelle Nugent established the Producers Guild of America East Regional Chapter of the Guild, located in New York and servicing Guild members based on the East Coast. Since 2012, Peter Saraf has served as chair of the region; the Producers Guild of America has an international committee aimed towards connecting producers across nations in creative industries. Founded by Stuart J. Levy, Nicholas de Wolff, William Stuart, it is presently co-chaired by Elizabeth Dell and Kayvan Mashayekh. On January 19, 2018, the Producers Guild of America adopted new sexual harassment guidelines. In 2012, the Producers Guild introduced the "Producers Mark", a certification mark to feature film credits, allowing approved producers to add the lowercase initials p.g.a. following their "Produced By" credit.
Unlike other post-nominal letters that appear in motion picture credits, the "Producers Mark" does not indicate membership in the Producers Guild. Rather, it certifies that the credited producer performed a major portion of the producing duties on a motion picture; the Mark is licensed for use in motion picture credits on a film-by-film basis. A producer's having received the Mark on a prior film has no impact on the decision to certify a current or future credit with the "Producers Mark". During 2012 and 2013, Producers Guild of America Presidents Hawk Koch and Mark Gordon conducted negotiations and secured separate agreements with every major Hollywood studio requiring the studios to submit any films they developed and produced internally for "Producers Mark" certification; the first film to be released with the "Producers Mark" was The Magic of Belle Isle, followed immediately thereafter by Lawless. Since that time, hundreds of motion pictures have had their credits certified via the "Producers Mark".
The Producers Guild determines which credited producers are eligible for certification via a thorough vetting process, requiring initial application from the film's owner/distributor and candid input from its producers, as well as numerous third party sources, which may include the film's director, editor, cinematographer or other department heads. The Guild uses the same process to recommend which producers are eligible for producing honors and awards, including the Guild's "Darryl F. Zanuck Award" and the Academy Award for Best Picture given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Any copyright owner of a film that has an established U. S. distributor may apply for the "Producers Mark", but application for and use of the "Producers Mark" by individual producers is purely voluntary. In 2002, the New Media Council was formed by the Producers Guild of America in order to recognize and protect producers working in digital and emerg
American Gangster (film)
American Gangster is a 2007 American biographical crime film directed and produced by Ridley Scott and written by Steven Zaillian. The film is fictionally based on the criminal career of Frank Lucas, a gangster from La Grange, North Carolina who smuggled heroin into the United States on American service planes returning from the Vietnam War, before being detained by a task force led by detective Richie Roberts; the film stars Denzel Washington and Russell Crowe in their first lead acting roles together since 1995's Virtuosity. The film co-stars Ted Levine, John Ortiz, Josh Brolin, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Norman Reedus, Ruby Dee, Lymari Nadal and Cuba Gooding Jr. Development for the film began in 2000, when Universal Pictures and Imagine Entertainment purchased the rights to a New York magazine story about the rise and fall of Lucas. Two years screenwriter Steven Zaillian introduced a 170-page scriptment to Scott. Original production plans were to commence in Toronto for budget purposes; because of the film's rising budget Universal canceled production in 2004.
After negotiations with Terry George, it was revived with Scott at the helm in March 2005. Principal photography commenced over a period of five months from July to December 2006. American Gangster premiered in New York on October 20, 2007, was released in the United States and Canada on November 2; the film was well received by most film critics, grossed over US$266.5 million worldwide, with domestic grosses standing at $130.1 million. Many of the people portrayed, including Roberts and Lucas, have stated that the film took a lot of creative license with the story, three former DEA agents sued Universal claiming the agency's portrayal was demoralizing. American Gangster was nominated for twenty-one awards, including two Academy Award nominations for Best Art Direction and Best Supporting Actress, won three including a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Supporting Role for Dee. In 1968, Frank Lucas is the right-hand man of Harlem gangster Ellsworth "Bumpy" Johnson.
When Johnson dies of a heart attack, Lucas takes control of the Harlem crime scene. After handing in $1 million that he found in a mobster's car, Newark detective Richie Roberts is ostracized in his precinct. After his exiled and addicted partner overdoses on a potent brand of heroin called "Blue Magic", Captain Lou Toback puts Roberts in charge of a task force that targets local suppliers. Lucas buys Blue Magic directly from producers in Thailand and smuggles it into the U. S. through returning Vietnam War servicemen. His low overhead allows him to wholesale Blue Magic to most of the dealers in the New York area. With this monopoly, Lucas expands his control to nightclubs and prostitution, he buys a mansion for his mother and recruits his five brothers, including Huey and Turner, as lieutenants to spread his empire. During his rise to becoming Harlem's crime boss, Lucas falls in love with Eva, a Puerto Rican beauty queen; as Lucas' business prospers, he makes a point of operating and dressing with a modest conservatism both as a sign of strength and to avoid attracting police attention.
He stays away from the drugs to avoid making hard decisions under the influence. However, Lucas violates these principles when he attends the Fight of the Century with Eva, sporting gaudy clothes that were a present by Eva. Meanwhile, Lucas needs to deal with Lucchese mafia boss Dominic Cattano, who threatens to destroy Lucas' family unless he gets in on a deal, corrupt NYPD detectives led by Nick Trupo, who attempts to extort and blackmail him to give them a cut. Lucas must compete with local crime figure Nicky Barnes, a young gun trying to take over Harlem, diluting Lucas' Blue Magic and selling it under the same brand name. After the Fall of Saigon cuts off Lucas' supply, he is forced to rely on the other crime rings. Roberts' detectives witness Frank Lucas' cousin and driver shoot a woman and use the threat of a long sentence to get him to wear a wire; the gathered information allows Roberts and his task force to identify and search one of the last planes carrying Lucas' stock, discovering Blue Magic in the coffins of dead returning servicemen.
With this evidence they obtain a warrant to follow the drugs into Newark's projects and Lucas' heroin processing facility. In the ensuing shootout, Steve Lucas, Frank Lucas' young nephew who gave up a promising career for the New York Yankees to join Lucas' crime family, is killed. Meanwhile, whose prized Shelby Mustang Lucas had destroyed, his men break into Lucas' mansion to steal his emergency cash supply hidden under the doghouse, killing the dog; as Lucas gets ready to go after Trupo, his mother dissuades him from killing a cop, warning him that she and Eva will leave him if he does. Lucas is arrested. In the police station, Lucas is rebuffed. Lucas threatens Roberts' life, in which Lucas explains his hatred for police officers. Roberts offers Lucas a chance at a shorter jail sentence if he aids his investigation of dirty cops in the NYPD and Lucas duly provides Roberts with the names. In the end, three quarters of the New York DEA are arrested and convicted, a distraught Trupo commits suicide.
Roberts, having just passed the bar exam, defends Lucas as his first client. Lucas is sentenced
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
Simon Wiesenthal Center
The Simon Wiesenthal Center is a Jewish human rights organization established in 1977 by rabbi Marvin Hier. According to its mission statement, it is "a global human rights organization researching the Holocaust and hate in a historic and contemporary context; the Center confronts anti-Semitism and terrorism, promotes human rights and dignity, stands with Israel, defends the safety of Jews worldwide, teaches the lessons of the Holocaust for future generations."The Center is headquartered in Los Angeles, California. It is accredited as a non-governmental organization at the United Nations, the UNESCO, the Council of Europe; the Center interacts on an ongoing basis with a variety of public and private agencies, meeting with elected officials, the United States and foreign governments and heads of state. The Center promotes the prosecution of Nazi war criminals, fights against extremist groups, neo-Nazism, hate on the Internet; the Center is involved in Holocaust and tolerance education. Its "Campus Outreach" division is part of the Israel on Campus Coalition.
The Center is named after Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal. The organization is named after a leading Nazi hunter. Simon Wiesenthal had nothing to do with the operation or activities of the SWC other than giving it its name; the SWC is headed by its dean and founder. Rabbi Abraham Cooper is the associate dean and Rabbi Meyer May is the executive director; the organization publishes Response. The Center's educational arm, Museum of Tolerance, was founded in 1993 and hosts 350,000 visitors annually; some of the programs sponsored by the Museum include: Tools for Tolerance Teaching Steps to Tolerance Task Force Against Hate National Institute Against Hate Crimes Tools for Tolerance for Teens New York Tolerance Center is a professional development multi-media training facility targeting educators, law enforcement officials, state/local government practitioners. The Simon Wiesenthal Center and its Museum of Tolerance is one of many partner organizations of the Austrian Service Abroad and the corresponding Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service.
In April 2016, the New York City Council stopped funding for the Simon Wiesenthal Center's Museum of Tolerance following the arrest of a former board member, accused of raising $20 million from a city correctional officers' union through kickbacks. The Simon Wiesenthal Center issued a statement saying that the member had resigned from its board on June 15, that the Centre was unaware of any alleged unethical or illegal activities regarding its donors. Moriah Films known as the Jack and Pearl Resnick Film Division of the SWC, was created to produce theatrical documentaries to educate both national and international audiences, with a focus on contemporary human rights and ethical issues and Jewish experience. Two films produced by the division and The Long Way Home have received the Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature. Moriah films has worked with numerous actors to narrate their productions. Including but not limited to Elizabeth Taylor, Michael Douglas, Nicole Kidman, Morgan Freeman, Patrick Stewart, Sandra Bullock.
The headquarters of the Simon Wiesenthal Center is in Los Angeles. However, there are international offices located in New York City, Toronto, Paris and Buenos Aires. Through its national and international offices, the Center carries out its above mentioned mission of preserving the memory of the Holocaust. Between 1984 and 1990 the Center published seven volumes of Simon Wiesenthal Center Annual, focusing on the scholarly study of the Holocaust, broadly defined; this series is ISSN 0741-8450. The Library and Archives of the center in Los Angeles has grown to a collection of about 50,000 volumes and non-print materials. Moreover, the Archives incorporates photographs, letters, artifacts and rare books, which are available to researchers and the general public. Efraim Zuroff, director of the Simon Wiesenthal Center office in Jerusalem, is the coordinator of Nazi war crimes research worldwide for the Wiesenthal Center and the author of its annual "Status Report" on the worldwide investigation and prosecution of Nazi war criminals which includes a "most wanted" list of Nazi war criminals.
In November 2005, the Simon Wiesenthal Center gave the name of four suspected former Nazi criminals to German authorities. The names were the first results of Operation Last Chance, a drive launched that year by the center to track down former Nazis for World War II-era crimes before they die of old age. In 2013, the SWC released a comprehensive report on the Boycott and Sanctions movement, a global campaign promoting boycotts of several types against Israel; the report analyzed the campaign throughout its various outlets and asserted that the BDS movement is a "thinly-disguised effort to coordinate and complement the violent strategy of Palestinian and Muslim'rejectionists' who have refused to make peace with Israel for over six decades, to pursue a high-profile campaign composed of anti-Israel big lies to help destroy the Jewish State by any and all means". The report said that the BDS campaign attacks Israel's entire economy and society, holding all Israelis as collectively guilty. On March 8, 2007, the head of international relations for the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Stanley Trevor Samuels, was convicted of defamation by a Paris courthouse for accusing the French-based Committee fo
Hawaii is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U. S. state located in Oceania, the only U. S. state located outside North America, the only one composed of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean; the state encompasses nearly the entire volcanic Hawaiian archipelago, which comprises hundreds of islands spread over 1,500 miles. At the southeastern end of the archipelago, the eight main islands are—in order from northwest to southeast: Niʻihau, Kauaʻi, Oʻahu, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, Kahoʻolawe and the Island of Hawaiʻi; the last is the largest island in the group. The archipelago is ethnologically part of the Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Hawaii's diverse natural scenery, warm tropical climate, abundance of public beaches, oceanic surroundings, active volcanoes make it a popular destination for tourists, surfers and volcanologists.
Because of its central location in the Pacific and 19th-century labor migration, Hawaii's culture is influenced by North American and East Asian cultures, in addition to its indigenous Hawaiian culture. Hawaii has over a million permanent residents, along with many visitors and U. S. military personnel. Its capital is Honolulu on the island of Oʻahu. Hawaii is the 8th-smallest and the 11th-least populous, but the 13th-most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is the only state with an Asian plurality; the state's oceanic coastline is about 750 miles long, the fourth longest in the U. S. after the coastlines of Alaska and California. The state of Hawaii derives its name from the name of Hawaiʻi. A common Hawaiian explanation of the name of Hawaiʻi is that it was named for Hawaiʻiloa, a legendary figure from Hawaiian myth, he is said to have discovered the islands. The Hawaiian language word Hawaiʻi is similar to Proto-Polynesian *Sawaiki, with the reconstructed meaning "homeland". Cognates of Hawaiʻi are found in other Polynesian languages, including Māori and Samoan.
According to linguists Pukui and Elbert, "lsewhere in Polynesia, Hawaiʻi or a cognate is the name of the underworld or of the ancestral home, but in Hawaii, the name has no meaning". A somewhat divisive political issue arose in 1978 when the Constitution of the State of Hawaii added Hawaiian as a second official state language; the title of the state constitution is The Constitution of the State of Hawaii. Article XV, Section 1 of the Constitution uses The State of Hawaii. Diacritics were not used because the document, drafted in 1949, predates the use of the ʻokina and the kahakō in modern Hawaiian orthography; the exact spelling of the state's name in the Hawaiian language is Hawaiʻi. In the Hawaii Admission Act that granted Hawaiian statehood, the federal government recognized Hawaii as the official state name. Official government publications and office titles, the Seal of Hawaii use the traditional spelling with no symbols for glottal stops or vowel length. In contrast, the National and State Parks Services, the University of Hawaiʻi and some private enterprises implement these symbols.
No precedent for changes to U. S. state names exists since the adoption of the United States Constitution in 1789. However, the Constitution of Massachusetts formally changed the Province of Massachusetts Bay to the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1780, in 1819, the Territory of Arkansaw was created but was admitted to statehood as the State of Arkansas. There are eight main Hawaiian islands; the island of Niʻihau is managed by brothers Bruce and Keith Robinson. Access to uninhabited Kahoʻolawe island is restricted; the Hawaiian archipelago is located 2,000 mi southwest of the contiguous United States. Hawaii is the southernmost U. S. the second westernmost after Alaska. Hawaii, like Alaska, does not border any other U. S. state. It is the only U. S. state, not geographically located in North America, the only state surrounded by water and, an archipelago, the only state in which coffee is commercially cultivable. In addition to the eight main islands, the state has many smaller islets. Kaʻula is a small island near Niʻihau.
The Northwest Hawaiian Islands is a group of nine small, older islands to the northwest of Kauaʻi that extend from Nihoa to Kure Atoll. Across the archipelago are around 130 small rocks and islets, such as Molokini, which are either volcanic, marine sedimentary or erosional in origin. Hawaii's tallest mountain Mauna Kea is 13,796 ft above mean sea level; the Hawaiian islands were formed by volcanic activity initiated at an undersea magma source called the Hawaii hotspot. The process is continuing to build islands; because of the hotspot's location, all active land volcanoes are located on the southern half of Hawaii Island. The newest volcano, Lōʻihi Seamount, is located south of the coast of Hawaii Island; the last volcanic eruption outside Hawaii Island occurred