Beverly Hills, California
Beverly Hills is a city located in Los Angeles County, United States. Beverly Hills is surrounded by the cities of West Hollywood. Sometimes referred to as "90210," one of its primary ZIP codes, it is home to many celebrities, several hotels, the Rodeo Drive shopping district. A Spanish ranch where lima beans were grown, Beverly Hills was incorporated in 1914 by a group of investors who had failed to find oil, but found water instead and decided to develop it into a town. By 2013, its population had grown to 34,658. Gaspar de Portolá arrived in the area that would become Beverly Hills on August 3, 1769, travelling along native trails which followed the present-day route of Wilshire Boulevard; the area was settled by Maria Rita Quinteros de Valdez and her husband in 1828. They called their 4,500 acres of property the Rancho Rodeo de las Aguas. In 1854, she sold the ranch to Benjamin Davis Henry Hancock. By the 1880s, the ranch had been subdivided into parcels of 75 acres and was being bought up by anglos from Los Angeles and the East coast.
Henry Hammel and Andrew H. Denker used it for farming lima beans. At this point, the area was known as the Denker Ranch. By 1888, Denker and Hammel were planning to build a town called Morocco on their holdings. In 1900, Burton E. Green, Charles A. Canfield, Max Whittier, Frank H. Buck, Henry E. Huntington, William G. Kerckhoff, William F. Herrin, W. S. Porter, Frank H. Balch, formed the Amalgamated Oil Company, bought the Hammel and Denker ranch, began looking for oil, they did not find enough to exploit commercially by the standards of the time, though. In 1906, they reorganized as the Rodeo Land and Water Company, renamed the property "Beverly Hills," subdivided it, began selling lots; the development was named "Beverly Hills" after Beverly Farms in Beverly and because of the hills in the area. The first house in the subdivision was built in 1907. Beverly Hills was one of many all-white planned communities started in the Los Angeles area around this time. Restrictive covenants prohibited non-whites from owning or renting property unless they were employed as servants by white residents.
It was forbidden to sell or rent property to Jews in Beverly Hills. Burton Green began construction on The Beverly Hills Hotel in 1911; the hotel was finished in 1912. The visitors drawn by the hotel were inclined to purchase land in Beverly Hills, by 1914 the subdivision had a high enough population to incorporate as an independent city; that same year, the Rodeo Land and Water Company decided to separate its water business from its real estate business. The Beverly Hills Utility Commission was split off from the land company and incorporated in September 1914, buying all of the utilities-related assets from the Rodeo Land and Water Company. In 1919, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford bought land on Summit Drive and built a mansion, finished in 1921 and nicknamed "Pickfair" by the press; the glamour associated with Fairbanks and Pickford as well as other movie stars who built mansions in the city contributed to its growing appeal. By the early 1920s the population of Beverly Hills had grown enough to make the water supply a political issue.
In 1923 the usual solution, annexation to the city of Los Angeles, was proposed. There was considerable opposition to annexation among such famous residents as Pickford, Will Rogers and Rudolph Valentino; the Beverly Hills Utility Commission, opposed to annexation as well, managed to force the city into a special election and the plan was defeated 337 to 507. In 1925, Beverly Hills approved a bond issue to buy 385 acres for a new campus for UCLA; the cities of Los Angeles, Santa Monica and Venice issued bonds to help pay for the new campus. In 1928, the Beverly Wilshire Apartment Hotel opened on Wilshire Boulevard between El Camino and Rodeo drives, part of the old Beverly Hills Speedway; that same year oilman Edward L. Doheny finished construction of Greystone Mansion, a 55-room mansion meant as a wedding present for his son Edward L. Doheny, Jr; the house is now owned by the city of Beverly Hills. In the early 1930s, Santa Monica Park was renamed Beverly Gardens and was extended to span the entire two-mile length of Santa Monica Boulevard through the city.
The Electric Fountain marks the corner of Santa Monica Blvd. and Wilshire Blvd. with a small sculpture at the top of a Tongva kneeling in prayer. In April 1931, the new Italian Renaissance-style Beverly Hills City Hall was opened. In the early 1940s, black actors and businessmen had begun to move into Beverly Hills, despite the covenants allowing only whites to live in the city. A neighborhood improvement association attempted to enforce the covenant in court; the defendants included such luminaries as Hattie McDaniel, Louise Beavers, Ethel Waters. Among the white residents supporting the lawsuit against blacks was silent film star Harold Lloyd; the NAACP participated in the defense, successful. In his decision, federal judge Thurmond Clarke said that it was time that "members of the Negro race are accorded, without reservations or evasions, the full rights guaranteed to them under the 14th amendment." The United States Supreme Court declared restrictive covenants unenforceable in 1948 in Shelley v. Kraemer.
A group of Jewish residents of Beverly Hills filed an amicus brief in this case. In 1956, Paul Trousdale purchased the grounds of the Doheny Ranch and developed it into the Trousdale Estates, convincing the city of Beverly Hills to annex it; the neighborhood has been home to Elvis Presley, Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Tony Curtis, Ray Charles
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
The Dream Team (1989 film)
The Dream Team is a 1989 comedy film directed by Howard Zieff and produced by Christopher W. Knight for Imagine Entertainment and Universal Pictures, it stars Michael Keaton, Christopher Lloyd, Peter Boyle and Stephen Furst as mental-hospital inpatients who are left unsupervised in New York City during a field trip gone awry. Jon Connolly and David Loucka wrote the screenplay. Dr. Jeff Weitzman is a psychologist working in a sanitarium in New Jersey, his primary patients are Billy, Henry and Albert. Billy is the most normal of the group and their unofficial leader, though he is a pathological liar with delusions of grandeur and violent tendencies. Henry is obsessive/compulsive and he has deluded himself into thinking he is one of the doctors at the hospital walking around with a clipboard, lab coat and stethoscope. Jack is a former advertising executive. Albert is a man-child who only says things he hears during baseball games from former ball player and commentator Phil Rizzuto. Convinced that his patients need some fresh air and some time away from the sanitarium, Dr. Weitzman persuades the administration to allow him to take them to a baseball game at Yankee Stadium.
He accidentally encounters two crooked cops just as they murder another officer. The doctor gets knocked unconscious trying to get away and is put in the hospital; the group is now stranded in New York City, forced to cope with a place, more bizarre than their sanitarium. One of the both comic and serious plot twists is that the inmates have to listen to Albert's baseball jargon in order to get clues as to what happened to Dr. Weitzman, because he is the only one who witnessed it. Two other running gags throughout the film are: Henry's threats to report psychologically disturbing behavior of the other patients. A lesser gag is Jack, in his persona as Jesus Christ, causing a rousing sermon at a black church, only for the parishioners to come to their senses and expel him, the other three patients get Jack new clothes from an army surplus store. After Dr. Weitzman's beating and coma, it is up to the patients to save their doctor from being murdered by the crooked cops, they end up having to both use and overcome their delusions and disorders in order to save the only man who tried to help them, with both the police and the killers looking for them.
Three revisit scenes from their pasts: Billy and Jack. As each patient does so individually, they each behave in a sane, clear manner, Henry genuinely missing his family, Billy wishing to pursue a stronger relationship, Jack appealing to his boss that he and his friends are in trouble. Throughout the film there are minor scenes showing the interaction between the two crooked police officers and what their plans are in framing the patients for the murder of Officer Alvarez earlier in the film. Michael Keaton as Billy Caufield Christopher Lloyd as Henry Sikorsky Peter Boyle as Jack McDermott Stephen Furst as Albert Ianuzzi Dennis Boutsikaris as Dr. Jeff Weitzman Lorraine Bracco as Riley Milo O'Shea as Dr. Newald Philip Bosco as O'Malley James Remar as Gianelli Michael Lembeck as Ed, Riley's ex-boyfriend Jack Duffy as Bernie Larry Pine as Canning Ted Simonett as a yuppie John Stocker as Murray Lizbeth MacKay as Henry's wife Ron James as Dwight Wayne Tippit as Captain Lewitt Freda Foh Shen as a TV newscaster Dennis Parlato as TV newscaster Donna Hanover as a field reporter Jihmi Kennedy as the tow truck driver The movie had a mixed reception, with Vincent Canby stating that "there's nothing dreadfully wrong with The Dream Team, Howard Zieff's new comedy, except that it's not funny too much of the time.
On those occasions when it is funny, the humor less prompts laughter than mute appreciation of the talents of the principal performers - Michael Keaton, Christopher Lloyd and Peter Boyle." Michael Wilmington noted that " is so derived from the movie "One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest" that you might begin to wonder when Jack Nicholson will show up. May suggest that "Dream Team" is a weak, somehow disreputable movie, somewhat true. If you compare it to its obvious source, it has a coy, flip attitude toward illness, skating over the surface of tragedy and pain without breaking the ice; the union of four oddballs--rebel-writer, obsessive noodge, religious fanatic and couch potato--is too schematic, as if the writers were somehow trying to define'80s dissidence. But though you can predict everything that happens from the first five minutes on, the director and actors manage to hook you in." It holds a 54% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. The Dream Team debuted at No. 2 at the American box office, where it made $5.7 million at 1,316 theaters, averaging US$4,335 per screen.
It opened only one number shy of Major League. It went down from that position in subsequent weeks; the Dream Team on IMDb The Dream Team at Rotten Tomatoes The Dream Team at AllMovie
Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. is an American film studio, production company and film distributor, a member of the Sony Pictures Motion Picture Group, a division of Sony Entertainment's Sony Pictures subsidiary of the Japanese multinational conglomerate Sony Corporation. What would become Columbia Pictures, CBC Film Sales Corporation, was founded on June 19, 1918 by Harry Cohn, his brother Jack Cohn, Joe Brandt, it went public two years later. In its early years, it was a minor player in Hollywood, but began to grow in the late 1920s, spurred by a successful association with director Frank Capra. With Capra and others, Columbia became one of the primary homes of the screwball comedy. In the 1930s, Columbia's major contract stars were Cary Grant. In the 1940s, Rita Hayworth became the studio's premier star and propelled their fortunes into the late 1950s. Rosalind Russell, Glenn Ford, William Holden became major stars at the studio, it is one of the leading film studios in the world and is a member of the "Big Five" major American film studios.
It was one of the so-called "Little Three" among the eight major film studios of Hollywood's Golden Age. Today, it has become the world's fifth largest major film studio; the studio was founded on June 19, 1918 as Cohn-Brandt-Cohn Film Sales by brothers Jack and Harry Cohn and Jack's best friend Joe Brandt, released its first feature film in August 1922. Brandt was president of CBC Film Sales, handling sales and distribution from New York along with Jack Cohn, while Harry Cohn ran production in Hollywood; the studio's early productions were low-budget short subjects: "Screen Snapshots", the "Hall Room Boys", the Chaplin imitator Billy West. The start-up CBC leased space in a Poverty Row studio on Hollywood's famously low-rent Gower Street. Among Hollywood's elite, the studio's small-time reputation led some to joke that "CBC" stood for "Corned Beef and Cabbage". Brandt tired of dealing with the Cohn brothers, in 1932 sold his one-third stake to Harry Cohn, who took over as president. In an effort to improve its image, the Cohn brothers renamed the company Columbia Pictures Corporation on January 10, 1924.
Cohn remained head of production as well. He would run one of the longest tenures of any studio chief. In an industry rife with nepotism, Columbia was notorious for having a number of Harry and Jack's relatives in high positions. Humorist Robert Benchley called it the Pine Tree Studio, "because it has so many Cohns". Columbia's product line consisted of moderately budgeted features and short subjects including comedies, sports films, various serials, cartoons. Columbia moved into the production of higher-budget fare joining the second tier of Hollywood studios along with United Artists and Universal. Like United Artists and Universal, Columbia was a horizontally integrated company, it controlled distribution. Helping Columbia's climb was the arrival of Frank Capra. Between 1927 and 1939, Capra pushed Cohn for better material and bigger budgets. A string of hits he directed in the early and mid 1930s solidified Columbia's status as a major studio. In particular, It Happened; until Columbia's existence had depended on theater owners willing to take its films, since as mentioned above it didn't have a theater network of its own.
Other Capra-directed hits followed, including the original version of Lost Horizon, with Ronald Colman, Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, which made James Stewart a major star. In 1933, Columbia hired Robert Kalloch to be women's costume designer, he was the first contract costume designer hired by the studio, he established the studio's wardrobe department. Kalloch's employment, in turn, convinced leading actresses that Columbia Pictures intended to invest in their careers. In 1938, the addition of B. B. Kahane as Vice President would produce Charles Vidor's Those High Gray Walls, The Lady in Question, the first joint film of Rita Hayworth and Glenn Ford. Kahane would become the President of Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences in 1959, until his death a year later. Columbia could not afford to keep a huge roster of contract stars, so Cohn borrowed them from other studios. At Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, the industry's most prestigious studio, Columbia was nicknamed "Siberia", as Louis B. Mayer would use the loan out to Columbia as a way to punish his less-obedient signings.
In the 1930s, Columbia signed Jean Arthur to a long-term contract, after The Whole Town's Talking, Arthur became a major comedy star. Ann Sothern's career was launched when Columbia signed her to a contract in 1936. Cary Grant signed a contract in 1937 and soon after it was altered to a non-exclusive contract shared with RKO. Many theaters relied on westerns to attract big weekend audiences, Columbia always recognized this market, its first cowboy star was Buck Jones, who signed with Columbia in 1930 for a fraction of his former big-studio salary. Over the next two decades Columbia released scores of outdoor adventures with Jones, Tim McCoy, Ken Maynard, Jack Luden, Bob Allen, Russell Hayden, Tex Ritter, Ken Curtis, Gene Autry. Columbia's most popular cowboy was Charles Starrett, who signed with Columbia in 193
Brian Thomas Grazer is an American film and television producer. He co-founded Imagine Entertainment in 1986, with Ron Howard; the films they produced have grossed over $13 billion. The movies include four for which Grazer was nominated for an Academy Award: Splash, Apollo 13, A Beautiful Mind, Frost/Nixon, his films and TV series have been nominated for 43 Academy Awards, 187 Emmys. In 2002, Grazer won an Oscar for Best Picture for A Beautiful Mind. In 2007, he was named one of Time's "100 Most Influential People in the World". Grazer was born in Los Angeles, California, to Arlene Becker Grazer and criminal defense attorney Thomas Grazer, he is the older brother of actor/director Gavin Grazer. He was raised in Los Angeles's San Fernando Valley. Grazer's father was Catholic and his mother is Jewish, he described himself in 2000 as "half-Jewish". Raised secular, today Grazer is a practicing Christian, his parents divorced. Grazer said "My best buddy, the most important person in my growing up, was my little 4-foot-10 Jewish grandmother, she'd say,'In order to get it, you got to do it.
No one's going to get it for you, Brian.'"His nephew is actor Jack Dylan Grazer. Grazer won a scholarship to the University of Southern California as a psychology major, he graduated from USC's School of Cinema-Television in 1974. He attended USC Law School for one year, but quit in 1975 to pursue a life in Hollywood. Grazer began his career as a producer developing television projects. While executive-producing TV pilots at Paramount Pictures in the early 1980s, he met current long-time friend and business partner Ron Howard, he produced Night Shift, in 1982, directed by Howard. Grazer and Howard teamed up again for Splash in 1984, which Grazer co-wrote. Splash earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Original Screenplay of 1984. In 1986, Grazer and Howard co-founded Imagine Entertainment, which became one of Hollywood's most prolific and successful production companies. Over the years, Grazer's films and TV shows have been nominated for a total of 43 Academy Awards, 195 Emmys. At the same time, his movies have generated more than $13.5 billion in worldwide theatrical and video grosses.
Grazer's early film successes include Backdraft. He produced Apollo 13, for which he won the Producers Guild of America’s Daryl F. Zanuck Motion Picture Producer of the Year Award, as well as an Oscar nomination for Best Picture of 1995. In 1998, he earned two major honors: he was given his own star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, made a cameo appearance on the animated series The Simpsons. In 2001, Grazer won an Academy Award for Best Picture for A Beautiful Mind, which took home Oscars for Best Supporting Actress, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay. In 2002, Grazer's 8 Mile was released, it proved not only to be a huge box office hit, but the first film with a rap song to win a Best Original Song Oscar, for Eminem's "Lose Yourself". Grazer produced the film adaptation of Peter Morgan's play Frost/Nixon. Frost/Nixon was nominated including Best Picture. Grazer's productions span over a quarter-of-a-century, the full spectrum of movie genres, his comedies include Boomerang, The Nutty Professor, How the Grinch Stole Christmas, Intolerable Cruelty and The Dilemma.
He has produced many dramatic thrillers including Inside Man, The Da Vinci Code, American Gangster, Angels & Demons, Robin Hood, Cowboys & Aliens. His released films include J. Edgar, the Clint Eastwood-directed biopic of J. Edgar Hoover, starring Leonardo DiCaprio, Tower Heist, starring Ben Stiller and Eddie Murphy, Restless, directed by Gus Van Sant. Grazer's Imagine Entertainment's television series include Sports Night, Arrested Development, 24 with Kiefer Sutherland, Friday Night Lights, Lie to Me, Empire. Grazer's recent productions included the 2017 Grammy awarding winning Best Music Film The Beatles: Eight Days a Week, American Made, directed by Ron Howard, starring Chris Hemsworth and Daniel Brühl, Made in America. Grazer produced Get on Up, a biopic of the legendary "Godfather of Soul" James Brown, In the Heart of the Sea, directed by Ron Howard and starring Chris Hemsworth, about the American whaleship the Essex. In 2015, Grazer published his book A Curious Mind: The Secret to a Bigger Life, in which he discusses conversations with interesting people, many of whom inspired his work.
Grazer has been married four times and divorced three times: to Theresa McKay, Corki Corman, novelist and screenwriter Gigi Levangie. In April 2014, Grazer became engaged to Veronica Smiley, chief marketing officer of SBE, a hotel management company, they married on February 20, 2016. Grazer resides in Santa Monica, California, he has a home in Hawaii on Sunset Beach, on the Banzai Pipeline on O'ahu's North Shore. 1998 – Emmy Award for Outstanding Miniseries for From the Earth to the Moon 2001 – Producers Guild of America's David O. Selznick Lifetime Achievement Award in Theatrical Motion Pictures 2003 – ShoWest Lifetime Achievement Award 2004 – Emmy Award for Outstanding Comedy Series for Arrested Development 2006 – Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series for 24 2007 – Named one of Time Maga
A Beautiful Mind (film)
A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 American biographical drama film based on the life of John Nash, a Nobel Laureate in Economics. The film was directed from a screenplay written by Akiva Goldsman, it was inspired by a bestselling, Pulitzer Prize-nominated 1998 book of the same name by Sylvia Nasar. The film stars Russell Crowe, along with Ed Harris, Jennifer Connelly, Paul Bettany, Adam Goldberg, Judd Hirsch, Josh Lucas, Anthony Rapp, Christopher Plummer in supporting roles; the story begins in Nash's days as a graduate student at Princeton University. Early in the film, Nash begins to develop paranoid schizophrenia and endures delusional episodes while watching the burden his condition brings on wife Alicia and friends; the film opened in the United States cinemas on December 21, 2001. It went on to gross over $313 million worldwide and won four Academy Awards, for Best Picture, Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actress, it was nominated for Best Actor, Best Film Editing, Best Makeup and Best Original Score.
It was well received by critics, but has been criticized for its inaccurate portrayal of some aspects of Nash's life his other family and a son born out of wedlock. However, the filmmakers have stated that the film was not meant to be a literal representation of Nash's life. In 1947, John Nash arrives at Princeton University, he is a co-recipient, with Martin Hansen, of the prestigious Carnegie Scholarship for mathematics. At a reception, he meets a group of other promising math and science graduate students, Richard Sol and Bender, he meets his roommate Charles Herman, a literature student. Nash is under extreme pressure to publish, his inspiration comes when he and his fellow graduate students discuss how to approach a group of women at a bar. Hansen quotes Adam Smith and advocates "every man for himself," but Nash argues that a cooperative approach would lead to better chances of success. Nash publishes an article on this. On the strength of this, he is offered an appointment at MIT where Bender join him.
Some years Nash is invited to the Pentagon to crack encrypted enemy telecommunications. Nash can decipher the code mentally, to the astonishment of other decrypters, he considers his regular duties at MIT uninteresting and beneath his talents, so he is pleased to be given a new assignment by his mysterious supervisor, William Parcher of the United States Department of Defense. He offers Nash a job, in which Nash would help him to decode the messages to detect a bomb the Soviets had been hiding; the code is said to be found in normal magazines and such. He is to look for patterns in newspapers in order to thwart a Soviet plot. Nash becomes obsessive about searching for these hidden patterns and believes he is followed when he delivers his results to a secret mailbox. Meanwhile, a student, Alicia Larde, asks him to dinner, the two fall in love. On a return visit to Princeton, Nash runs into his niece, Marcee. With Charles' encouragement, he proposes to Alicia and they marry. Nash begins to fear for his life after witnessing a shootout between Parcher and Soviet agents, but Parcher blackmails him into staying on his assignment.
While delivering a guest lecture at Harvard University, Nash tries to flee from people he thinks are foreign Soviet agents, led by Dr. Rosen. After punching Rosen in an attempt to flee, Nash is forcibly sedated and sent to a psychiatric facility he believes is run by the Soviets. Dr. Rosen tells Alicia that Nash has paranoid schizophrenia and that Charles and Parcher exist only in his imagination. Alicia investigates and confronts Nash with the unopened documents he had delivered to the secret mailbox. Nash is given a course of insulin shock therapy and released. Frustrated with the side effects of the antipsychotic medication he is taking, which makes him lethargic and unresponsive, he secretly stops taking it; this causes a relapse and he "meets" Parcher again. Shortly afterward, Alicia discovers Nash is once again working on his "assignment." Realizing he has relapsed, Alicia rushes into the house to find Nash had left their baby unsupervised and nearly submerged in the bathtub, filling with water.
Nash claims. Alicia calls Dr. Rosen, he rushes in to push Parcher away, accidentally knocks Alicia and the baby to the ground. As Alicia flees the house with their baby, Nash begs her to stay. Nash tells her that he realizes that he has never seen Marcee age though he has known her for three years, he accepts that Parcher and other figures are hallucinations. Against Dr. Rosen's advice, Nash decides not to restart his medication, believing that he can deal with his symptoms himself. Alicia decides to support him in this. Nash returns to Princeton and approaches his old rival, now head of the mathematics department. Hansen grants Nash permission to audit classes. Over the next two decades, Nash learns to ignore his hallucinations. By the late 1970s, he is allowed to teach again. In 1994, Nash wins the Nobel Award in Economics for his revolutionary work on game theory, is honored by his fellow professors; the movie ends as Nash and their son leave the auditorium in Stockholm. After producer Brian Grazer first read an excerpt of Sylvia Nasar's book A Beautiful Mind in Vanity Fair magazine, he purchased the rights to the film.
He brought the project to director Ron Howard, who had scheduling conflict
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe