Bridgetown is the capital and largest city of Barbados. The Town of Saint Michael, the Greater Bridgetown area is located within the parish of Saint Michael. Bridgetown is sometimes locally referred to as "The City", but the most common reference is "Town"; as of 2014, its metropolitan population stands at 110,000. The Bridgetown port, found along Carlisle Bay lies on the southwestern coast of the island. Parts of the Greater Bridgetown area, sit close to the borders of the neighbouring parishes Christ Church and St. James; the Grantley Adams International Airport for Barbados, is located 16 kilometres southeast of Bridgetown city centre, has daily flights to major cities in the United Kingdom, United States and the Caribbean. There is no longer a local municipal government, but it is a constituency of the national Parliament. During the short-lived 1950s-1960s Federation of the British West Indian Territories, Bridgetown was one of three capital cities within the region being considered to be the Federal capital of region.
The present-day location of the city was established by English settlers in 1628. Bridgetown is a major West Indies tourist destination, the city acts as an important financial, convention centre, cruise ship port of call in the Caribbean region. On 25 June 2011, "Historic Bridgetown and its Garrison" was added as a World Heritage Site of UNESCO. Although the island was abandoned or uninhabited when the British landed there, one of the few traces of indigenous pre-existence on the island was a primitive bridge constructed over the Careenage area's swamp at the centre of Bridgetown, it was thought that this bridge was created by a people indigenous to the Caribbean known as the Tainos. Upon finding the structure, the British settlers began to call what is now the Bridgetown area Indian Bridge. Scholars believe that the Tainos were driven from Barbados to the neighbouring island of Saint Lucia, during an invasion by the Kalinagos, another indigenous people of the region. After 1654 when a new bridge was constructed over the Careenage by the British, the area became known as The Town of Saint Michael and as Bridgetown, after Sir Tobias Bridge.
Bridgetown is the only city outside the present United States. Two of Washington's ancestors and Gerrard Hawtaine, were early planters on the island, their grandmother was Mary Washington of Sulgrave, England. In 2011, historic buildings in Bridgetown were designated as a protected area by UNESCO. English settlement of Bridgetown began on 5 July 1628 under Charles Wolverstone, who brought with him 64 settlers to these lands formally claimed by James Hay, the Earl of Carlisle. Wolverstone had been sent by a group of London merchants, headed by Sir Marmaduke Rawdon, they had been granted a lease to 10,000 acres of land by the Earl of Carlisle in settlement of debts. Wolverstone granted each of the settlers 100 acres of land on the northern side of the Careenage waterway for the purpose of general settlement; the southern shore on Needham's Point was claimed by Carlisle's agents in October 1628. In 1631, many acres of land directly facing Carlisle Bay were passed to Henry Hawley, the new Governor.
An investigation by a Commission in 1640 found that much of Hawley's land transactions were legitimate and properly showed these lands as being attributed to the Earl of Carlisle. Bridgetown was built with a street layout resembling early English medieval or market towns, with its narrow serpentine street and alley configuration. In 1824, Barbados became the seat of the Anglican Diocese of the Leeward Islands; the St Michael's Parish Church became a Cathedral. In 1842, Trinidad, Grenada, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia were split into separate dioceses by Royal Letters Patent which decreed that the Town of Bridgetown should be called the City of Bridgetown. From 1800 until 1885, Bridgetown was the main seat of Government for the former British colonies of the Windward Islands. During this period, the resident Governor of Barbados served as the Colonial head of the Windward Islands. After the Government of Barbados exited from the Windward Islands union in 1885, the seat was moved from Bridgetown to St. George's on the neighbouring island of Grenada.
In December 1925, a committee sought to petition the King for a Royal Charter of Incorporation to provide local government in the city, proposed to consist of a mayor, 8 aldermen, 12 common councillors, a town clerk, a head-borough or chief constable, such other officers as would be deemed necessary. It was proposed that the island's House of Assembly should seek to incorporate the city instead of using a Royal Charter; this proposal did not succeed. This provided a separate administration with a mayor. On 20 September 1960, the College of Arms in London granted arms to the City of Bridgetown; the armorial bearings were designed by the late Neville Connell, the director of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, H. W. Ince, the Honorary Secretary of the Society. Local
Tristan da Cunha, colloquially Tristan, is a remote group of volcanic islands in the south Atlantic Ocean which includes Gough Island. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world, lying 1,511 miles off the coast of Cape Town in South Africa, 1,343 miles from Saint Helena and 2,166 miles off the coast of the Falkland Islands; the territory consists of the inhabited island, Tristan da Cunha, which has a diameter of 11 kilometres and an area of 98 square kilometres, the wildlife reserves of Gough Island and Inaccessible Island and the smaller, uninhabited Nightingale Islands. As of October 2018, the main island has 250 permanent inhabitants who all carry British Overseas Territories citizenship; the other islands are uninhabited, except for the personnel of a weather station on Gough Island. Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory with its own constitution. There is no airstrip of any kind on the main island, meaning that the only way of travelling in and out of Tristan is by boat, a six-day trip from South Africa.
The islands were first recorded as sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, though rough seas prevented a landing. He named the main island after Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, it was anglicised from its earliest mention on British Admiralty charts to Tristan da Cunha Island. Some sources state that the Portuguese made the first landing in 1520, when the Lás Rafael captained by Ruy Vaz Pereira called at Tristan for water; the first undisputed landing was made on 7 February 1643 by the crew of the Dutch East India Company ship Heemstede, captained by Claes Gerritsz Bierenbroodspot. The Dutch stopped at the island four more times in the next 25 years, in 1656 created the first rough charts of the archipelago; the first full survey of the archipelago was made by crew of the French corvette Heure du Berger in 1767. The first scientific exploration was conducted by French naturalist Louis-Marie Aubert du Petit-Thouars, who stayed on the island for three days in January 1793, during a French mercantile expedition from Brest, France to Mauritius.
Thouars made botanical collections and reported traces of human habitation, including fireplaces and overgrown gardens left by Dutch explorers in the 17th century. On his voyage out from Europe to East Africa and India in command of the Imperial Asiatic Company of Trieste and Antwerp ship, Joseph et Therese, William Bolts sighted Tristan da Cunha, put a landing party ashore on 2 February 1777 and hoisted the Imperial flag, naming it and its neighboring islets the Isles de Brabant. In fact, no settlement or facilities were set up there by the company. After the British Government announced in September 1786 that it would proceed with the settlement of New South Wales, Alexander Dalrymple goaded by Bolts's actions, published a pamphlet under the title, A Serious Admonition to the Publick on the Intended Thief Colony at Botany Bay, with an alternative proposal of his own for settlements on Tristan da Cunha, St. Paul and Amsterdam islands in the Southern Ocean. Captain John Blankett, R. N. suggested independently to his superiors in August 1786 that convicts be used to establish an English settlement on Tristan.
In consequence, the Admiralty received orders from Government in October 1789 to examine the island as part of a general survey of the South Atlantic and the coasts of southern Africa. That did not happen, but an investigation of Tristan, Amsterdam and St. Paul was undertaken in December 1792 and January 1793 by George Macartney, Britain's first ambassador to China: during his voyage to China he established that none of the islands was suitable for settlement; the first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert of Salem, United States, who moved to the island in December 1810 with two other men, a third. Lambert publicly named them the Islands of Refreshment. Three of the four men died in 1812. On 14 August 1816, the United Kingdom annexed the islands, making them a dependency of the Cape Colony in South Africa; this was explained as a measure to prevent the islands' use as a base for any attempt to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. The occupation prevented the United States from using Tristan da Cunha as a base for naval cruisers, as it had during the War of 1812.
Possession was abandoned in November 1817, although some members of the garrison stayed and formed the nucleus of a permanent population. The islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, a civilian population grew. Berwick stopped there on 25 March 1824 and reported that it had a population of twenty-two men and three women; the barque "South Australia" stayed there from the 18th to the 20th February 1836 when a certain Glass was Governor, as reported in a chapter on the island in W. H. Leigh's "Travels and Adventures in South Australia". Whalers set up bases on the islands for operations in the Southern Atlantic. However, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual transition from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, increased the isolation of the islands, which were no longer needed as a stopping port for lengthy sail voyages, or for shelter for journeys from Europe to East Asia. A parson arrived in February 1851, the Bishop of Cape Town visited in March 1856 and the island was included within the diocese of Cape Town.
In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands. The main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. On 15 October 1873, the Royal Navy scientific survey ve
"I Only Have Eyes for You" is a romantic love song by composer Harry Warren and lyricist Al Dubin, written for the film Dames where it was introduced by Dick Powell and Ruby Keeler. The song is a jazz standard, has been covered by numerous musicians. Successful recordings of the song have been made by Ben Selvin, Peggy Lee, Frank Sinatra, The Lettermen, Art Garfunkel, Johnny Mathis, The Three Degrees, Rod Stewart, among others; the best known and most acclaimed version is the "otherworldly" 1959 recording by doo-wop artists The Flamingos, inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2003, listed as number 157 in Rolling Stone magazine's "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". The song was a number-2 hit for Ben Selvin in 1934; the orchestras of Eddie Duchin and Anson Weeks figured in the song's 1934 popularity. The vocal group The Lettermen released a version in 1966 that charted in the United States and Canada, reached number 4 on the US Billboard Easy Listening chart; this song was included on The Flamingos' debut album Flamingo Serenade.
The version by the Flamingos features a prominent reverb effect. This version peaked at number 11 on the US Billboard Hot 100 chart and number 3 on the Billboard Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart, it ranked as the 73rd biggest hit of 1959 by Billboard. Rolling Stone magazine ranked the Flamingos' version as number 157 on their list of the "500 Greatest Songs of All Time". In 1989, The Flamingos version of the song was used in the Season Two episode of the TV series Midnight Caller entitled "Watching Me, Watching You". A recording of the song by Art Garfunkel was a number-one hit on the UK Singles Chart in October 1975 for two weeks; the song was his first hit as a solo artist in the UK. In the US, the song reached number 18 on the U. S. Billboard Hot 100 and #1 on the Billboard Adult Contemporary chart; the B-side of the single release was "Looking for the Right One," a song written and recorded by Stephen Bishop. Garfunkel performed "I Only Have Eyes for You" on the second episode of Saturday Night Live.
Notes Sources The Billboard Book of Top 40 Hits, 6th Edition, 1996 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics