Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food and labor. The term is used to refer solely to those raised for food. In recent years, some organizations have raised livestock to promote the survival of rare breeds, animal husbandry practices have varied widely across cultures and time periods. Originally, livestock were not confined by fences or enclosures, but these practices have largely shifted to intensive animal farming and these practices increase yield of the various commercial outputs, but have led to increased concerns about animal welfare and environmental impact. Livestock production continues to play an economic and cultural role in numerous rural communities. Livestock as a word was first used between 1650 and 1660, as a merger between the live and stock. Older English sources, such as the King James Version of the Bible, the word cattle is derived from Old North French catel, which meant all kinds of movable personal property, including livestock, which was differentiated from immovable real estate.
In English, sometimes smaller livestock such as chickens and pigs were referred to as small cattle, the modern meaning of cattle, without a modifier, usually refers to domesticated bovines, but sometimes livestock refers only to this subgroup. Legal definition United States federal legislation sometimes more narrowly defines the term to make specified agricultural commodities either eligible or ineligible for a program or activity, for example, the Livestock Mandatory Reporting Act of 1999 defines livestock only as cattle and sheep. Animal-rearing originated during the transition to settled farming communities from hunter-gatherer lifestyles. Animals are domesticated when their breeding and living conditions are controlled by humans, over time, the collective behaviour and physiology of livestock have changed radically. Many modern farm animals are unsuited to life in the wild, dogs were domesticated in East Asia about 15,000 years ago. Goats and sheep were domesticated around 8000 BC in Asia, swine or pigs were domesticated by 7000 BC in the Middle East and China.
The earliest evidence of horse domestication dates to around 4000 BC, the term livestock is nebulous and may be defined narrowly or broadly. Broadly, livestock refers to any breed or population of animal kept by humans for a useful and this can mean domestic animals, semidomestic animals, or captive wild animals. Semidomesticated refers to animals which are only lightly domesticated or of disputed status and these populations may be in the process of domestication. Some people may use the term livestock to refer to only used for red meat. Livestock are used by humans for a variety of purposes, many of which have an economic value, Livestock products include, Meat A useful form of dietary protein and energy, meat is the edible tissue of the animal carcass
Hyde Park, London
Hyde Park is one of the largest parks in London and one of its Royal Parks. The park is divided by the Serpentine and the Long Water, the park is contiguous with Kensington Gardens, which are often assumed to be part of Hyde Park, Kensington Gardens has been separate since 1728, when Queen Caroline divided them. To the southeast, outside the park, is Hyde Park Corner, during daylight, the two parks merge seamlessly into each other, but Kensington Gardens closes at dusk, and Hyde Park remains open throughout the year from 5 a. m. until midnight. The Great Exhibition of 1851 was held in the park, for which the Crystal Palace, the park became a traditional location for mass demonstrations. The Chartists, the Reform League, the suffragettes, and the Stop the War Coalition have all held protests there, many protesters on the Liberty and Livelihood March in 2002 started their march from Hyde Park. Hyde Park is a ward of the City of Westminster, the population of the ward at the 2011 Census was 12,462.
Hyde Park was created for hunting by Henry Vlll in 1536, Charles I created the Ring, and in 1637 he opened the park to the general public. In 1652, during the Interregnum, Parliament ordered the 620-acre park to be sold for ready money and it realised £17,000 with an additional £765 6s 2d for the resident deer. In 1689, when William III moved his residence to Kensington Palace on the far side of Hyde Park, public transport entering London from the west runs parallel to the Kings private road along Kensington Gore, just outside the park. In the late 1800s, the row was used by the wealthy for horseback rides, the first coherent landscaping was undertaken by Charles Bridgeman for Queen Caroline, under the supervision of Charles Withers, the Surveyor-General of Woods and Forests, who took some credit. It was completed in 1733 at a cost to the public purse of £20,000, the 2nd Viscount Weymouth was made Ranger of Hyde Park in 1739 and shortly after began digging the Serpentine lakes at Longleat.
The Serpentine is divided from the Long Water by a bridge designed by George Rennie, one of the most important events to take place in the park was the Great Exhibition of 1851. The Crystal Palace was constructed on the side of the park. The public did not want the building to remain after the closure of the exhibition and he had it moved to Sydenham Hill in South London. At the age of twenty-five, Decimus Burton was commissioned by the Office of Woods and he laid out the paths and driveways and designed a series of lodges, the Screen/Gate at Hyde Park Corner and the Wellington Arch. The Screen and the Arch originally formed a single composition, designed to provide a transition between Hyde Park and Green Park, although the arch was moved. An early description reports, It consists of a screen of handsome fluted Ionic columns, the extent of the whole frontage is about 107 ft. The two side gateways, in their elevations, present two insulated Ionic columns, flanked by antae, all these entrances are finished by a blocking, the sides of the central one being decorated with a beautiful frieze, representing a naval and military triumphal procession
Interstate Highway System
The Dwight D. Eisenhower National System of Interstate and Defense Highways is a network of controlled-access highways that forms a part of the National Highway System of the United States. The system is named for President Dwight D. Eisenhower, who championed its formation, construction was authorized by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, and the original portion was completed 35 years later, although some urban routes were cancelled and never built. The network has since been extended and, as of 2013, as of 2013, about one-quarter of all vehicle miles driven in the country use the Interstate system. In 2006, the cost of construction was estimated at about $425 billion, the nations revenue needs associated with World War I prevented any significant implementation of this policy, which expired in 1921. In the plan, Mehren proposed a 50, 000-mile system, the system would include two percent of all roads and would pass through every state at a cost of $25,000 per mile, providing commercial as well as military transport benefits.
As the landmark 1916 law expired, new legislation was passed—the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 and this new road construction initiative once again provided for federal matching funds for road construction and improvement, $75 million allocated annually. The Bureau of Public Roads asked the Army to provide a list of roads that it considered necessary for national defense. A boom in construction followed throughout the decade of the 1920s. As automobile traffic increased, planners saw a need for such a national system to supplement the existing, largely non-freeway. By the late 1930s, planning had expanded to a system of new superhighways, in 1938, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave Thomas MacDonald, chief at the Bureau of Public Roads, a hand-drawn map of the United States marked with eight superhighway corridors for study. He recognized that the system would provide key ground transport routes for military supplies. The publication in 1955 of the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways, informally known as the Yellow Book, assisting in the planning was Charles Erwin Wilson, who was still head of General Motors when President Eisenhower selected him as Secretary of Defense in January 1953.
The Interstate Highway System was authorized on June 29,1956 by the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, popularly known as the National Interstate, three states have claimed the title of first Interstate Highway. Missouri claims that the first three contracts under the new program were signed in Missouri on August 2,1956, the first contract signed was for upgrading a section of US Route 66 to what is now designated Interstate 44. On August 13,1956, Missouri awarded the first contract based on new Interstate Highway funding, kansas claims that it was the first to start paving after the act was signed. Preliminary construction had taken place before the act was signed, the state marked its portion of I-70 as the first project in the United States completed under the provisions of the new Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. The Pennsylvania Turnpike could be considered one of the first Interstate Highways, on October 1,1940,162 miles of the highway now designated I‑70 and I‑76 opened between Irwin and Carlisle.
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania refers to the turnpike as the Granddaddy of the Pikes, October 12,1979, The final section of the Canada to Mexico freeway Interstate 5 is dedicated near Stockton, California
A byway in the United Kingdom is a track, often rural, which is too minor to be called a road. These routes are often unsurfaced, typically having the appearance of green lanes, despite this, it is legal to drive any type of vehicle along certain byways, the same as any ordinary tarmac road. In 2000 the legal term restricted byway was introduced to cover rights of way along which it is legal to travel by any mode, byways account for less than 2% of Englands unsurfaced Rights of Way network, the remainder being footpaths and bridleways. A byway open to all traffic is sometimes waymarked using a red arrow on a metal or plastic disc or by red paint dots on posts, on 2 May 2006 the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000 reclassified all remaining Roads Used as Public Paths as restricted byways. The publics rights along a restricted byway are to travel, on foot on horseback or leading a horse by vehicle other than mechanically propelled vehicles, except in certain circumstances. By contrast, straight enclosure roads which were laid out between 1760 and 1840 run through the newly enclosed lands with straight walls or hedges.
The latter can often be seen to bend and change width at the parish boundary, if the roads did not meet up exactly, which was quite common, a sharp double bend would result. A merry road, a road, and such as we did tread The night we went to Birmingham by way of Beachy Head
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
Trail riding is riding outdoors on trails, bridle paths, and forest roads, but not on roads regularly used by motorised traffic. A trail ride can be of any length, including a long distance and it originated with horse riding, and in North America, the equestrian form is usually called trail riding, or, less often hacking. In the UK and Europe, the practice is usually called horse or pony trekking, the modern term encompasses mountain biking, mixed terrain cycle-touring, and the use of motorcycles and other motorized all-terrain vehicles. It may be informal activities of an individual or small group, some equestrian trail rides in the USA are directed by professional guides or outfitters, particularly at guest ranches. In some parts of the world, trail riding is limited by law to recognized, in other places, trails may be less maintained and more natural. Trail riding can include activities, such as camping, fishing and backpacking. Often, horses under saddle are subject to the regulations as pedestrians or hikers where those requirements differ from those for cyclists.
Rail trails, which are redeveloped disused railways converted into multi-use trails)) often provide invaluable trail riding areas in parts of the world. Such paths are either impassable for motorized vehicles, or vehicles are banned, the laws relating to allowable uses vary from country to country. In England and Wales a bridle path now refers to a route which can be used by horse riders in addition to walkers. There is some criticism of trail riding when excess or improper use of trails may lead to erosion, off-road or trail activity is usually not permitted, as such activity may raise the risk of soil erosion, spread weeds, and cause other damage. Many organizations sponsor educational events to teach newcomers about safety, responsible land stewardship, many long-distance trails throughout the world have sections suitable for horse riding, some suitable throughout their length, and some have been developed primarily for horse riding. Some trails managed by the U. S. Forest Service and other entities may restrict access of horses.
Access to trails and pathways on private land is left to the discretion of the landowner. The term pleasure riding may encompass trail riding and this refers to a form of equestrianism that encompasses many forms of recreational riding for personal enjoyment, without any element of competition. Pleasure riding is called hacking in United Kingdom, and in parts of the eastern United States, in other parts of the United States, particularly the American west, the term trail riding is used interchangeably with pleasure riding when on natural trails or public lands. Many horses are suitable for riding, including grade horses and other animals of ordinary quality. Such horses are called hacks, particularly in those areas where pleasure riding is known as hacking
Bicentennial National Trail
This trail runs the length of the rugged Great Dividing Range through national parks, private property and alongside of wilderness areas. The BNT trail follows old coach roads, stock routes, brumby tracks, rivers and it was originally intended for horses, but is these days promoted for cycling and walking. However it is not yet suited to these two activities. The trail was initiated and planned by the Australian Trail Horse Riders Association, the development of this image was left to a committee led by R. M. Williams. Dan Seymour was sponsored by R. M, Williams to find a route along the Great Dividing Range, and to promote enthusiasm for the proposal. Dan volunteered to ride the Trail and set off from Ferntree Gully, the Australian Trail Horse Riders Association provided Dan with encouragement during this lengthy journey. His amazing twenty-one month ride finished in Cooktown, Queensland in September 1973, dan’s journey, which was regularly reported, created increased interest in the formation of the Trail.
In 1978 the first mail was carried along the route, initially known as the National Horse Trail and these riders were acknowledged with a commemorative medallion. The Trail committee proposed that the concept be made a project to celebrate Australia’s Bicentenary in 1988, the suggestion was accepted, and funding of $300,000 was available to research, mark a route and print guidebooks. In November 1988, this had been accomplished and the Bicentennial National Trail was opened, since the opening of the trail people have travelled all or a part of the trail with camels and donkeys as well as with horses and mountain bikes. Bicentennial National Trail Riders From Cooktown to Healesville 5330 km & From Healesville to Cooktown 5330 km 1989 Ken Roberts,1991 Arlene Christopherson, The first horse rider South to North. Anthony Mair and Melissa Weeks,1994 Gabrielle Schenk 1995 Darryl Eckley and Robyn Surry Healesville to Cooktown 1997 Peter Spotswood 1999 Geoff Daniel Ed, the Bicentennial National Trail is suitable for self-reliant horse riders and mountain bike riders.
Parts of the Trail, such as some of the Jenolan Caves to Kosciuszko section, are suitable for horse-drawn vehicles, the BNT trail route is not open to motorised vehicles or trail bikes, and pets or dogs are not permitted. The trail is divided into 12 sections, of 400 to 500 kilometres, Cooktown to Gunnawarra, the trail passes through rain forest, gold fields and historical tin mining towns. Gunnawarra to Collinsville, through the country of far north Queensland. Blackbutt, Queensland to the New South Wales border at Cullendore, killarney to Ebor, this is a rugged remote section that follows the Guy Fawkes River through Guy Fawkes River National Park and across Waterfall Way. Ebor to Barrington Tops, is another rugged remote section that passes through Oxley Wild Rivers National Park, after passing Ebor the trail crosses the Point Lookout Road before it passes briefly through Cunnawarra National Park. It runs on the east of Georges River until it crosses the Armidale to Kempsey road, the track is mostly unmarked as it follows the Macleay River past the historic East Kunderang homestead in Oxley Wild Rivers National Park
Rotten Row is a broad track running for 1,384 metres along the south side of Hyde Park in London. It leads from Hyde Park Corner to Serpentine Road, during the 18th and 19th centuries, Rotten Row was a fashionable place for upper-class Londoners to be seen horse riding. Today it is maintained as a place to ride horses in the centre of London, Rotten Row was established by William III at the end of the 17th century. Having moved court to Kensington Palace, William wanted a way to travel to St. Jamess Palace. He created the broad avenue through Hyde Park, lit with 300 oil lamps in 1690– the first artificially lit highway in Britain, the lighting was a precaution against highwaymen, who lurked in Hyde Park at the time. The track was called Route du Roi, French for Kings Road, in the 18th century, Rotten Row became a popular meeting place for upper-class Londoners. Particularly on weekend evenings and at midday, people dressed in their finest clothes to ride along the row, the adjacent South Carriage Drive was used by society people in carriages for the same purpose.
In 1876, it was reconstructed as a horse-ride, with a base covered by sand. The sand-covered avenue of Rotten Row is maintained as a bridleway and it is convenient for the Household Cavalry, stabled nearby at Hyde Park Barracks in Knightsbridge, to exercise their horses. Members of the public may ride, although few people have stables close enough to use of it. Commercial stables nearby, the Hyde Park Stables and Ross Nye Stables, offer horse hire and riding lessons to the public. Michael Crichtons 1979 feature film, The First Great Train Robbery, a Royal plaque commemorating 300 years of Rotten Row was erected in 1990. ROTTEN ROW - The Kings Old Road, Completed 1690 This ride originally formed part of King William IIIs carriage drive from Whitehall to Kensington Palace. Its Construction was supervised by the Serveyor of their Majesties Roads, Captain Michael Studholme, designated as a public bridleway in the 1730s, Rotten Row is one of the most famous urban riding grounds in the world. Rotten Row is a location in at least 15 places in England and Scotland, such as in Lewes, East Sussex and Elie, Fife.
It describes a place there was once a row of tumbledown cottages infested with rats and dates to the 14th century or earlier. Other historians have speculated the name might be a corruption of rotteran, Ratten Row, the Fashionable Hour in Hyde Park—description of 18th century parading on Rotten Row. Poem by Frederick Lampson on Rotten Row. Hyde Park and Kensington Stables and Ross Nye Stables -possibly the only two remaining stables near Hyde Park
A footpath is a type of thoroughfare that is intended for use only by pedestrians and not other forms of traffic such as motorized vehicles and horses. They can be found in a variety of places, from the centre of cities, to farmland. Urban footpaths are usually paved, may have steps, and can be called alleys, steps, National parks, nature preserves, conservation areas and other protected wilderness areas may have footpaths that are restricted to pedestrians. The term footpath can describe a pavement/sidewalk in some English-speaking countries, public footpaths are rights of way originally created by people walking across the land to work, the next village and school, this includes Mass paths and Corpse roads. Some footpaths were created by those undertaking a pilgrimage, examples of the latter are The Pilgrims Way in England and Pilgrims Route in Norway. Some landowners allow access over their land without dedicating a right of way and these permissive paths are often indistinguishable from normal paths, but they are usually subject to restrictions.
Such paths are closed at least once a year, so that a permanent right of way cannot be established in law. A mass path is a track or road connecting destinations frequently used by rural communities. They were most common during the centuries that preceded motorised transportation in Western Europe, and in particular the British Isles and the Netherlands (where such a path is called kerkenpad. Mass paths typically included stretches crossing fields of neighboring farmers and were likely to contain stiles, some mass paths are still used today in the Republic of Ireland, but are usually subject to Irelands complicated rights of way law. Corpse roads provided a means for transporting corpses, often from remote communities, to cemeteries that had burial rights, such as parish churches. In Great Britain, such routes can be known by a number of names, bier road, burial road, coffin road, coffin line, lyke or lych way, funeral road, procession way, corpse way. Nowadays footpaths are mainly used for recreation and have been linked together, along with bridle paths and newly created footpaths.
Also organizations have formed in various countries to protect the right to use public footpaths. Footpaths are now found in botanic gardens, regional parks, conservation areas, wildlife gardens. There are educational trails, themed walks, sculpture trails, in England and Wales, public footpaths are rights of way on which pedestrians have a legally protected right to travel. Other public rights of way in England and Wales, such as bridleways, towpaths, in Scotland there is no legal distinction between a footpath and a bridleway and it is generally accepted that cyclists and horse riders may follow any right of way with a suitable surface. The law is different in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland and there are far fewer rights of way in Ireland as a whole and other rights of way in England and Wales are shown on definitive maps
Trespass is an area of criminal law or tort law broadly divided into three groups, trespass to the person, trespass to chattels and trespass to land. Trespass to the person historically involved six separate trespasses, assault, wounding and maiming. Trespass to chattels, known as trespass to goods or trespass to property, is defined as an intentional interference with the possession of personal property … proximately caus injury. Trespass to chattel does not require a showing of damages, simply the intermeddling with or use of … the personal property of another gives cause of action for trespass. Since CompuServe Inc. v. Cyber Promotions, various courts have applied the principles of trespass to chattel to resolve cases involving unsolicited bulk e-mail and unauthorized server usage. Trespass to land is today the tort most commonly associated with the term trespass, generally, it is not necessary to prove harm to a possessors legally protected interest, liability for unintentional trespass varies by jurisdiction.
Trespass has treated as a common law offense in some countries. There are three types of trespass, the first of which is trespass to the person, whether intent is a necessary element of trespass to the person varies by jurisdiction. Under English decision, Letang v Cooper, intent is required to sustain a trespass to the cause of action, in the absence of intent. In other jurisdictions, gross negligence is sufficient to sustain a trespass to the person, such as when a defendant negligently operates an automobile, intent is to be presumed from the act itself. Generally, trespass to the person consists of three torts, assault and false imprisonment, under the statutes of various common law jurisdictions, assault is both a crime and a tort. A person commits tortious assault when he engages in any act of such a nature as to excite an apprehension of battery, in some jurisdictions, there is no requirement that actual physical violence result—simply the threat of unwanted touching of the victim suffices to sustain an assault claim.
Consequently, in R v Constanza, the court found a stalkers threats could constitute assault, silence, given certain conditions, may constitute an assault as well. However, in other jurisdictions, simple threats are insufficient, they must be accompanied by an action or condition to trigger a cause of action, incongruity of a defendants language and action, or of a plaintiffs perception and reality may vitiate an assault claim. In Tuberville v Savage, the defendant reached for his sword and told the plaintiff that f it were not assize-time, in its American counterpart, Commonwealth v. Eyre, the defendant shouted f it were not for your gray hairs, I would tear your heart out. In both cases, the courts held that despite a threatening gesture, the plaintiffs were not in immediate danger, Battery is any intentional and unpermitted contact with the plaintiffs person or anything attached to it and practically identified with it. The elements of common law varies by jurisdiction. Battery torts under Commonwealth precedent are subjected to a four point test to determine liability, is the sequence of events connecting initial conduct and the harmful contact an unbroken series
London Borough of Hillingdon
The London Borough of Hillingdon is the westernmost borough in Greater London, England which had a population of 273,936 according to the 2011 Census. It was formed from the districts of Hayes and Harlington, Ruislip-Northwood, today, Hillingdon is home to Heathrow Airport and Brunel University, and is the second largest of the 32 London boroughs by area. Hillingdon Council governs the borough, with its headquarters in the Civic Centre in Uxbridge, for administrative purposes, the borough is split into North and South Hillingdon. The councils involved were unable to decide upon a name, with Keith Joseph suggesting Uxbridge in October 1963. The coat of arms for the London Borough of Hillingdon was granted on 22 March 1965, between 1973 and 1978, the boroughs civic centre was built in Uxbridge. The borough has been twinned with the French town of Mantes-la-Jolie, the twinning programme was reviewed in 2011 and it was suggested that the link with Schleswig be ended owing to a lack of contact between the towns.
In December 2011, the borough decided instead to end the link with a second German town, citing administrative problems. Population grew from 2001–2011 by 11. 5% -4. 4% above the England and Wales mean of 7. 1% - as part of the fastest population-growth area, by comparison Merton and Bromley had growth of 4. 5% and Tower Hamlets had growth of 26. 4%. Households increased from 2001–2011 by 3. 3%, and the number of people per household was 2.7. The borough is governed by a council, known interchangeably by the full name. It is split into wards represented by 65 Conservative and Labour councillors, a cabinet and leader are elected annually. The present leader of the council is Cllr, ray Puddifoot MBE of the Conservative Party. Elections for councillors are held four years. A Mayor is chosen yearly by councillors, the role is largely ceremonial, the present mayor is Councillor George Cooper, who was elected in May 2015. In the London assembly elections and Hillingdon Borough form a constituency with one member as there are eleven London-wide members.
At the same election in 2012 Conservative mayoral candidate Boris Johnson won the largest share of Hillingdons votes in becoming elected Mayor of London for a second term. The British Governments UK Visas and Immigration has two immigration removal centres, Colnbrook Immigration Removal Centre and Harmondsworth Immigration Removal Centre in Harmondsworth. The borough includes RAF Northolt and the sites of RAF Eastcote, RAF South Ruislip, RAF West Drayton, RAF Ruislip 4MU, RAF West Ruislip
Equestrianism, more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding, refers to the skill of riding, steeplechasing or vaulting with horses. This broad description includes the use of horses for practical working purposes, recreational activities, artistic or cultural exercises, Horses are trained and ridden for practical working purposes such as in police work or for controlling herd animals on a ranch. They are used in sports including, but not limited to, endurance riding, reining, show jumping, tent pegging, polo, horse racing, driving. Some popular forms of competition are grouped together at horse shows, Horses are used for non-competitive recreational riding such as fox hunting, trail riding or hacking. There is public access to trails in almost every part of the world, many parks, ranches. Horses are used for therapeutic purposes, both in specialized paraequestrian competition as well as non-competitive riding to improve health and emotional development. Horses are driven in harness racing, at shows and in other types of exhibition, historical reenactment or ceremony.
In some parts of the world, they are used for practical purposes such as farming. Horses continue to be used in service, in traditional ceremonies and volunteer mounted patrols. Riding halls enable the training of horse and rider in all weathers as well as indoor competition riding, though there is controversy over the exact date horses were domesticated and when they were first ridden, the best estimate is that horses first were ridden approximately 3500 BC. Indirect evidence suggests that horses were ridden long before they were driven, the most unequivocal early archaeological evidence of equines put to working use was of horses being driven. Chariot burials about 2500 BC present the most direct evidence of horses used as working animals. In ancient times chariot warfare was followed by the use of war horses as light, the horse played an important role throughout human history all over the world, both in warfare and in peaceful pursuits such as transportation and agriculture. Horses lived in North America, but died out at the end of the Ice Age, Horses were brought back to North America by European explorers, beginning with the second voyage of Columbus in 1493.
Humans appear to have expressed a desire to know which horse were the fastest. Gambling on horse races appears to go hand-in hand with racing and has a history as well. Thoroughbreds have the pre-eminent reputation as a breed, but other breeds race. Under saddle, Thoroughbred horse racing is the most popular form worldwide, in the UK, it is known as flat racing and is governed by the Jockey Club in the United Kingdom