The M777 howitzer is a towed 155 mm artillery piece. It succeeded the M198 howitzer in the United States Marine Corps and United States Army in 2005; the M777 is used by the ground forces of Australia, Canada and Saudi Arabia. It made its combat debut in the War in Afghanistan; the M777 is manufactured by BAE Systems' Global Combat Systems division. Prime contract management is based in Barrow-in-Furness in the United Kingdom as well as manufacture and assembly of the titanium structures and associated recoil components. Final integration and testing of the weapon is undertaken at BAE's facility in Hattiesburg, Mississippi; the M777 began as the Ultralight-weight Field Howitzer, developed by Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering's armaments division in Barrow-in-Furness, United Kingdom. This company was bought by BAE Systems which ended up responsible for design and assembly through its US-based BAE Systems Land and Armaments group; the M777 uses about 70% US-built parts including the gun barrel manufactured at the Watervliet Arsenal.
With a weight of 4,200 kg, the M777 is 41 % lighter than the 7,154 kg M198 howitzer. Much of the weight reduction is due to the extensive use of titanium; the M777 can be transported by helicopter sling-load, transporter aircraft such as the C-130, or towed by air-braked vehicles weighing over 2.5 tonnes, such as the FMTV and MTVR. The minimal gun crew required is five, compared to a previous nine; the M777 uses a digital fire-control system similar to that found on self-propelled howitzers such as the M109A6 Paladin to provide navigation and self-location, allowing it to be put into action quickly. The Canadian M777 in conjunction with the traditional "glass and iron sights/mounts" uses a digital fire control system called the Digital Gun Management System produced by Leonardo MW with components of the Indirect Fire Control Software Suite built by the Firepower team in the Canadian Army Land Software Engineering Centre; the Leonardo MW portion of the system, known as LINAPS, had been proven through earlier fielding on the British Army Royal Artillery's L118 Light Gun.
The Digital Fire Control System will be powered by a unique new design of rotary hybrid-electric engine designed and manufactured by Liquid Piston. The M777 may be combined with the M982 Excalibur GPS-guided munition, which allows accurate fire at a range of up to 40 km; this doubles the area covered by a single battery to about 1,250 km2. Testing at the Yuma Proving Ground by the US Army placed 13 of 14 Excalibur rounds, fired from up to 24 kilometres, within 10 m of their target, suggesting a circular error probable of 5 m. In June 2012, Golf Battery, 2nd Battalion, 11th Marines, out of Camp Pendleton, dropped the M982 Excalibur round on insurgents at a range of 36 km in Helmand Province, Afghanistan; this marked the longest operational shot in the history of the M777 howitzer, the longest operational tube artillery shot in history for the Marine Corps. In 2014 the US military began fielding several upgrades to its M777 howitzers including new liquid crystal display units, software updates, improved power systems, muzzle sensors for onboard ballistic computing.
Future upgrades include a touchscreen Chief Section Display, a new Mission System Computer, a digital radio. In May 2017, the U. S. Army revealed it was buying the Swedish BONUS round as an interim system as a result of the required phasing out of cluster munitions from artillery shells, complying with policy to achieve less than 1% unexploded ordnance from non-unitary explosives; the system has been tested from the M777 howitzer. M777 – gun with optical fire control M777A1 – digitization upgrades with the addition of an on-board power source, satellite global positioning, inertial navigation, Gun Display Unit and Section Chief Assembly. M777A2 – Block 1A software upgrade. Addition of an Enhanced Portable Inductive Artillery Fuze Setter to enable Excalibur and precision munition compatibility. M777ER – Experimental upgrade created by the Extended Range Cannon Artillery project modified with a 52-caliber barrel, adding 1.8 m to the cannon and less than 450 kilograms to the overall system, extending range from 30 to 70 km.
The 18th Field Artillery Brigade at Fort Bragg, North Carolina was the initial Army test bed unit for the XM777 which included the 1st and 3rd Battalions of the 321st Field Artillery Regiment. The initial prototypes were test by 1st Battations 377th Air Assault Regiment in 1998 a unit of the 18th Field Artillery Brigade. 2nd Platoon, Bravo Battery, 2nd Battalion, 11th Field Artillery Regiment was the first US Army unit to fire the M777A in combat on 2 January 2008 in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. In June 2007, the M777 in its A2 configuration was assigned to the U. S. Army's 3-321 FA, it deployed to Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in December 2007 in January 2008 making the unit the first U. S. Army unit to utilise the M777 in combat in support of Operation Enduring Freedom. In April 2008, the M777 was deployed for testing with 2-8 FA at Fort Wainwright in Fairbanks, Alaska. On 20 July 2008, at Camp Shelby, Mississippi, 1-108 FA, 28th Infantry Division, Pennsylvania National Guard, became the first field artillery unit of the National Guard to field and fire the M777.
Two soldiers from 2-319 FA were killed from a breech explosion and other members of their gun crew were injured while attempting to fire a M777 at an ISIS mor
In military operations, reconnaissance or scouting is the exploration outside an area occupied by friendly forces to gain information about natural features and other activities in the area. Examples of reconnaissance include patrolling by troops, ships or submarines, manned/unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, satellites, or by setting up covert observation posts. Espionage is not reconnaissance, because reconnaissance is a military's special forces operating ahead of its main forces. Called "recce" or "recon", the associated verb is reconnoitre. Traditionally, reconnaissance was a role, adopted by the cavalry. Speed was key in these maneuvers, thus infantry was ill-suited to the task. From horses to vehicles, for warriors throughout history, commanders procured their ability to have speed and mobility, to mount and dismount, during maneuver warfare. Military commanders favored specialized small units for speed and mobility, to gain valuable information about the terrain and enemy before sending the main troops into the area, covering force and exploitation roles.
Skirmishing is a traditional skill of reconnaissance, as well as harassment of the enemy. Reconnaissance conducted by ground forces includes special reconnaissance, armored reconnaissance, amphibious reconnaissance and civil reconnaissance. Aerial reconnaissance is reconnaissance carried out by aircraft; the purpose is to survey weather conditions, map terrain, may include military purposes such as observing tangible structures, particular areas, movement of enemy forces. Naval forces use aerial and satellite reconnaissance to observe enemy forces. Navies undertake hydrographic surveys and intelligence gathering. Reconnaissance satellites provide military commanders with photographs of enemy forces and other intelligence. Military forces use geographical and meteorological information from Earth observation satellites. A tracker needs to pay close attention to the psychology of his enemy. Knowledge of human psychology and cultural backgrounds is necessary to know the actions of the enemy and where the enemy is heading.
The celebrated Chief of Scouts Frederick Russell Burnham had this to say: It is imperative that a scout should know the history, religion, social customs, superstitions of whatever country or people he is called on to work in or among. This is as necessary as to know the physical character of the country, its climate and products. Certain people will do certain things without fail. Certain other things feasible, they will not do. There is no danger of knowing too much of the mental habits of an enemy. One should neither underestimate the credit him with superhuman powers. Fear and courage are latent in every human being, though roused into activity by diverse means. Types of reconnaissance: Terrain-oriented reconnaissance is a survey of the terrain. Force-oriented reconnaissance may include target acquisition. Civil-oriented reconnaissance focuses on the civil dimension of the battlespace; the techniques and objectives are not mutually exclusive. Units tasked with reconnaissance are armed only for self-defense, rely on stealth to gather information.
Others are well-enough armed to deny information to the enemy by destroying their reconnaissance elements. Reconnaissance-in-force is a type of military operation or military tactics used to probe an enemy's disposition. By mounting an offensive with considerable force, the commander hopes to elicit a strong reaction by the enemy that reveals its own strength and other tactical data; the RIF commander retains the option to fall back with the data or expand the conflict into a full engagement. Other methods consist of hit-and-run tactics using rapid mobility, in some cases light-armored vehicles for added fire superiority, as the need arises. Nazi Germany's reconnaissance during world war II is described in the following way: The purpose of reconnaissance and the types of units employed to obtain information are similar in the U. S. and the German Armies. German tactical principles of reconnaissance, diverge somewhat from those of the U. S; the Germans stress aggressiveness, attempt to obtain superiority in the area to be reconnoitered, strive for continuous observation of the enemy.
They believe in employing reconnaissance units in force as a rule. They are prepared to fight to obtain the desired information, they assign supplementary tasks to their reconnaissance units, such as sabotage behind enemy lines, harassment, or counter-reconnaissance. Only enough reconnaissance troops are sent on a mission to assure superiority in the area to be reconnoitred. Reserves are kept on hand to be committed when the reconnaissance must be intensified, when the original force meets strong enemy opposition, or when the direction and area to be reconnoitred are changed; the Germans encourage aggressive action against enemy security forces. When their reconnaissance units meet superior enemy forces, they fight a delaying action while other units attempt to flank the enemy. Reconnaissance by fire is the act of firing
Air assault is the movement of ground-based military forces by vertical take-off and landing aircraft—such as the helicopter—to seize and hold key terrain which has not been secured, to directly engage enemy forces behind enemy lines. In addition to regular infantry training, air-assault units receive training in rappelling and air transportation, their equipment is sometimes designed or field-modified to allow better transportation within aircraft; the US Army field manual FM 1-02 describes an "air assault operation" as an operation in which assault forces, using the firepower and total integration of helicopter assets, maneuver on the battlefield under the control of the ground or air maneuver commander to engage and destroy enemy forces or to seize and hold key terrain behind enemy lines. Due to the transport load restrictions of helicopters, air assault forces are light infantry, though some armored fighting vehicles, like the Russian BMD-1 are designed to fit most heavy lift helicopters, which enable assaulting forces to combine air mobility with a certain degree of ground mechanization.
Invariably the assaulting troops are dependent on aerial fire support provided by the armed helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft escorting them. Air assault should not be confused with air attack, air strike, or air raid, which all refer to attack using aircraft. Moreover, air assault should not be confused with an airborne assault, which occurs when paratroopers, their weapons and supplies, are dropped by parachute from transport aircraft as part of a strategic offensive operation. Air assault and air mobility are related concepts. However, air assault is distinctly a combat insertion rather than transportation to an area in the vicinity of combat. Air assault units can vary in organization. Airmobile artillery is assigned to air assault deployments. Units vary in size, but are company- or brigade-sized units. Airmobile units are designed and trained for air insertion and vertical envelopment ("a maneuver in which troops, either air-dropped or air-landed, attack the rear and flanks of a force, in effect cutting off or encircling the force".
Air resupply, if necessary air extraction. One specific type of air assault unit is the US Army air cavalry, it differs from regular air assault units only in fulfilling a traditional cavalry reconnaissance and short raids role. Britain's 16 Air Assault Brigade was formed in 1999 following an amalgamation of elements of 5th Infantry Brigade and 24 Airmobile Brigade, bringing together the agility and reach of airborne forces with the potency of the attack helicopter; the US 101st Airborne Division was classed as airborne airmobile and now air assault. Air mobility has been a key concept in offensive operations since the 1930s. Initial approaches to air mobility focused on glider-borne troops. During World War II many assaults were done by military gliders; the World War Two era German Fallschirmjäger and the 22nd Air Landing Division glider borne paras laid the foundation for modern day air assault operations. In 1941 the U. S. Army adopted this concept of offensive operations utilizing wooden gliders before the development of helicopters.
Following the war faster aircraft led to the abandonment of the flimsy wooden gliders with the new helicopters taking their place. Four YR-4B helicopters saw limited service in the China Burma India theatre with the 1st Air Commando GroupIn 1943 the Germans conducted the Gran Sasso raid which implemented many aspects of the air assault concept. Another example was the German Brandenburgers' glider borne operation at Ypenburg during World War Two. In 1946, U. S. Marine General Roy S. Geiger observed the atomic bomb tests at Bikini Atoll and recognized that atomic bombs could render amphibious landings difficult because of the dense concentrations of troops and material at beachheads. During this time, The Commandant of the Marine Corps, Alexander Vandegrift, convened a special board known as the Hogaboom Board; this board recommended that the USMC develop transport helicopters in order to allow a diffused attack on enemy shores. It recommended that the USMC form an experimental helicopter squadron.
HMX-1 was commissioned in 1947 with Sikorsky HO3S-1s. In 1948 the Marine Corps Schools came out with Amphibious Operations—Employment of Helicopters, or Phib-31, the first manual for helicopter airmobile operations; the Marines used the term vertical envelopment instead of air assault. HMX-1 performed its first vertical envelopment from the deck of an aircraft carrier in an exercise in 1949. American forces used helicopters for support and transport to great effect during the Korean War showing that the helicopter could be a versatile and powerful military tool; the first helicopter airlift and helicopter sling load mission was conducted on September 13, 1951, during the Korean War. "Operation Windmill I" was conducted by the United States Marine Corps in support of a battalion clearing the enemy from a series of ridges around an extinct volcano called "The Punchbowl." In total seven HRS-1 Marine helicopters made 28 flights that delivered 8,550 kg of supplies and evacuated 74 wounded men. On November 5, 1956, the Royal Marines' 45 Commando performed the world's first combat helicopter insertion with air assault during an amphibious landing as part of Operation Musketeer, in Suez, Egypt.
650 marines and 23 tons of equipm
Cohort (military unit)
A cohort was a standard tactical military unit of a Roman legion, though the standard changed with time and situation, was composed of between 360-800 soldiers. A cohort is considered to be the equivalent of a modern military battalion; the cohort replaced the maniple following the reforms attributed to Gaius Marius in 107 BC. Shortly after the military reforms of Marius, each legion formed 10 cohorts; the cohorts were named "first cohort," "second cohort" etc. The first cohort gathered the most experienced legionaries, while the legionaries in the tenth cohort were the least experienced; until the middle of the third century AD, 10 cohorts made up a Roman legion. A cohort consisted of six centuriae, each commanded by a centurion assisted by junior officers. At various times prior to the reforms, a century might have 100 men; the cohort had no permanent commander. In order of seniority, the six centurions were titled hastatus posterior, hastatus prior, princeps posterior, princeps prior, pilus posterior and pilus prior.
The first centurion of the first cohort was called primus pilus. During the reforms in the 1st century AD, the command structure and make-up of the legions was formally laid down, in a form that would endure for centuries. Standard centuriae consisted of 80 men each; the first cohort was made up of five double-strength centuries. The centurion of its first century automatically was the most senior in the legion was known as the primus pilus; the primus pilus could be promoted to praefectus castrorum. The praefectus castrorum was in charge of the daily running of a legion; these ranks followed the order of seniority in the earlier manipular legions, where the youngest and least experienced units were termed hastati, next principes, the oldest and most experienced triarii. The reformed legion numbered about 5,000 men, including officers, engineers and a small unit of cavalry. Cohors alaria: allied or auxiliary unit Cohors quinquagenaria: auxiliary, nominally 500 strong Cohors milliaria: auxiliary, nominally 1000 strong Cohors classica: auxiliary unit formed of sailors and marines Cohors equitata: unit of auxiliary infantry with attached mounted squadrons Cohors peditata: infantry unit Cohors sagittaria: infantry auxiliary unit of bowmen Cohors speculatorum: guard unit of Mark Antony composed of scouts Cohors torquata: auxiliary unit granted a torques Cohors tumultuaria: irregular auxiliary unit Some paramilitary corps in Rome consisted of one or more cohorts, though none were part of a legion: The nine cohortes praetoriae, never grouped to a legion, the infamous Praetorians.
The term was first used to refer to the bodyguard of a general during the republic. Cohors togata was a unit of the Praetorian guard in civilian dress tasked with duties within the pomerium. Cohortes urbanae, "urban cohort": military police unit patrolling in the capital. Cohortes vigilum, "watchmen": unit of the police force, the fire brigade in the capital. Cohors Germanorum: the unit of Germani custodes corporis. Furthermore, the Latin word cohors was used in a looser way to describe a rather large "company" of people. Auxiliaries List of Roman auxiliary regiments
A squadron was a cavalry subunit, a company-sized military formation. The term is still used to refer to modern cavalry units but can be used as a designation for other arms and services. In some countries, like Italy, the battalion-level cavalry unit is called "Squadron Group". In the modern United States Army, a squadron is an armored cavalry, air cavalry, or other reconnaissance unit whose organizational role parallels that of a battalion and is commanded by a lieutenant colonel. Prior to the revisions in the US Army structure in the 1880s, US Cavalry regiments were divided into companies, the battalion was an administrative designation used only in garrison; the reorganizations converted companies to troops and battalions to squadrons, made squadrons tactical formations as well as administrative ones. In the British Army and many other Commonwealth armies, a squadron is the Royal Armoured Corps counterpart of an infantry company or artillery battery. A squadron is a sub-unit of a battalion-sized formation, is made up of two or more troops.
The designation is used for company-sized units in the Special Air Service, Special Reconnaissance Regiment, Honourable Artillery Company, Royal Engineers, Royal Corps of Signals, Royal Army Medical Corps, Royal Marine Commandos and Royal Logistic Corps and in the defunct Royal Corps of Transport. Squadrons are designated using letters or numbers. In some British Army units it is a tradition for squadrons to be named after an important historical battle in which the regiment has taken part. For example, the Royal Armoured Corps Training Regiment assigns trainees to "Waterloo" Squadron, named in honour of the significance the cavalry played in the Allied forces' victory over Napoleon. In some special cases, squadrons can be named after a unique honour, bestowed on the unit; the modern French Army is composed of troupes à cheval. Nowadays, the term escadron is used to describe a company of mounted soldiers but, for a long time, a cavalry escadron corresponded to an infantry battalion, both units grouping several companies.
The term compagnie has been discontinued and replaced by escadron in cavalry units since 1815 and in transportation units since 1968. In the "mounted arms" a captain in charge of an escadron is thus called a chef d'escadron. However, his superior in the hierarchy has the rank of chef d'escadrons. After 1815, the army began to write chef d'escadrons with an s in cavalry units to reflect the fact that this officer who used to be in charge of one squadron was now in charge of several squadrons. In other mounted branches, chef d'escadron is still spelled without s; the Norwegian army operates with units called eskadroner a company-equivalent unit in armoured cavalry units although not always. The 2nd Battalion, Brigade Nord, has a company-equivalent unit called kavalerieskadronen, or "the cavalry squadron", it serves as the main reconnaissance unit in the battalion. Like the mechanized infantry units, it wears the distinct khaki-coloured beret of the battalion instead of the normal black for cavalry units.
The Armoured Battalion has the majority of its constituents labeled eskadroner. Including the Cavalry Squadron, the Armoured Squadron and the Assault Squadrons, it includes the battalion's Support element, the Combat Support Squadron. Its members are referred to as dragoons, reflecting the nature of the unit; the Telemark Battalion has a number of units labelled eskadroner. This includes the Cavalry Squadron and the Combat Support Squadron. Kampeskadronen, a Squadron consisting of two Mechanized Infantry Platoons, mounted on CV90's, one Armoured Platoon with Leopard 2's and a Combat Service Support Unit, its soldiers were referred to as dragoons and consisted of conscripted troops. Used as OPFOR in exercise operations with other parts of the Norwegian Army. Squadron was used for companies of cavalry and armoured cavalry before 1948. After 1948, the name has been used for the armored formations of varying sizes. In Russian cavalry a squadron was a company-size unit, with 120-150 horses. In the Swedish cavalry a skvadron means a unit with the same size as a kompani in the rest of the army.
Jäger and military police units may have squadrons
Aircrew called flight crew, are personnel who operate an aircraft while in flight. The composition of a flight's crew depends on the type of aircraft, plus the flight's duration and purpose. In commercial aviation, the aircrew are called flight crew; some flight crew position names are derived from nautical terms and indicate a rank or command structure similar to that on ocean-going vessels, allowing for quick executive decision making during normal operations or emergency situations. Historical flightdeck positions include: Captain, the pilot designated as the Pilot-In-Command, the highest-ranking member or members of a flight crew. First Officer, another pilot, not the pilot-in-command, is seated to the right of the captain.. Second Officer, a person lower in rank to the First Officer, who performs selected duties and acts as a relief pilot; the rank of Second Officer was traditionally a Flight Engineer, the person who handled the engine controls. In the 21st century, second officers on some airlines are pilots who act as "cruise relief" on long haul flights.
Third Officer, a person lower in rank to a Second Officer, who performs selected duties and can act as a relief pilot. Redundant in the present day.'Relief Crew' members in the present day are licensed and trained Captains and First Officers who accompany long-haul airline flights, who relieve the primary pilots during designated portions of the flight to provide them with rest or sleep breaks. The number of relief crew members assigned to a flight depends in part on the length of the flight and the official air regulations the airline operates under. Flight Engineer, a position called an'Air Mechanic'. On older aircraft between the late-1920s and the 1970s, the Flight Engineer was the crew member responsible for engines and fuel management; as aircraft became sophisticated and automated, this function has been assumed by the primary pilots, resulting in a continued downsizing in the number of aircrew positions on commercial flights. The Flight Engineer's position is staffed as a Second Officer.
Flight engineers can still be found in the present day, used on airline or air freight operations still flying such older aircraft. The position is crewed by a dual-licensed Pilot-Flight Engineer in the present day. Airborne Sensor Operator, An airborne sensor operator is the functional profession of gathering information from an airborne platform and/or oversee mission management systems for academic, public safety or military remote sensing purposes; the airborne sensor operator is considered a principal flight aircrew member. Navigator called'Air Navigators' or'Flight Navigators'. A position on older aircraft between the late-1910s and the 1970s, where separate crew members were responsible for the flight navigation, including its dead reckoning and celestial navigation when flown over oceans or other featureless areas where radio navigation aids were not available; as sophisticated electronic air navigation aids and universal space-based GPS navigation systems came online, the dedicated Navigator's position was discontinued and its function was assumed by dual-licensed Pilot-Navigators, still by the aircraft's primary pilots, resulting in a continued downsizing in the number of aircrew positions on commercial flights.
Modern electronic navigation systems made the navigator redundant by the early 1980s. Radio Operator. A position on much older aircraft between the mid-1910s and the 1940s, where a separate crew member was responsible for handling telegraphic and voice radio communications between the aircraft and ground stations; as radio sets became sophisticated and easier to operate, the function was taken over directly by a FO or SO, still by the pilot-in-command and co-pilot, making the radio operator's position redundant. Aircraft cabin crew members can consist of: Purser or In-flight Service Manager or Cabin Services Director, is responsible for the cabin crew as a team leader. Flight attendant or Cabin Crew, is the crew member responsible for the safety of passengers. During the early era of commercial aviation, the position was staffed by young'cabin boys' who assisted passengers. Cabin boys were replaced by female nurses called'stewardesses'; the medical background requirement for the flight attendant position was dropped.
Flight medic, is a specialized paramedic employed on flights. Loadmaster, is a crew member on a cargo aircraft responsible for loading freight and personnel, for calculating the aircraft's weight and balance prior to flight, which must be within the aircraft manufacturer's prescribed limits, for safe flight. On non-cargo aircraft and balance tasks are performed by the flight crew. From the start of military aviation, additional crew members have flown on military aircraft. Over time these duties have expanded: Pilot Co-pilot Air gunner, crew member responsible for the operation of defensive weapons, fo
Airborne forces are military units set up to be moved by aircraft and "dropped" into battle by parachute. Thus, they can be placed behind enemy lines, have the capability to deploy anywhere with little warning; the formations are limited only by the number and size of their aircraft, so given enough capacity a huge force can appear "out of nowhere" in minutes, an action referred to as vertical envelopment. On the other hand, airborne forces lack the supplies and equipment for prolonged combat operations, are therefore more suited for airhead operations than for long-term occupation. Advances in helicopter technology since World War II have brought increased flexibility to the scope of airborne operations, air assaults have replaced large-scale parachute operations, replaced combat glider operations. Benjamin Franklin envisioned the danger of airborne attack in 1784, only a few months after the first manned flight in a hot air balloon: "Five Thousand Balloons capable of raising two Men each, would not cost more than Five Ships of the Line: And where is the Prince who can afford so to cover his Country with Troops for its Defense, as that Ten Thousand Men descending from the Clouds, might not in many Places do an infinite deal of Mischief, before a Force could be brought together to repel them?"
Although Winston Churchill had proposed the creation of an airborne force to assault behind the German lines in 1917 during the First World War, the first modern operation dates to late 1918. Major Lewis H. Brereton and his superior Brigadier General Billy Mitchell suggested dropping elements of the U. S. 1st Division behind German lines near Metz. The operation was planned for February 1919 but the war ended before such an attack could be planned. Mitchell conceived that US troops could be trained to utilize parachutes and drop from converted bombers to land behind Metz in sychronisation with a planned infantry offensive. Following the war, the United States Army Air Service experimented with the concept of having troops carried on the wings of aircraft pulled off by the opening of their parachutes; the first true paratroop drop was by Italy in November 1927. Within a few years several battalions had been raised and were formed into two Folgore and Nembo divisions. Although these would fight with distinction in World War II, the divisions were never used in a parachute drop.
Men drawn from the Italian parachute forces were dropped in a special forces operation in North Africa in 1943 in an attempt to destroy parked aircraft of the United States Army Air Forces. In Peru, on March 27, 1927, Enrique Tavernie Entelador while in an AVRO aircraft piloted by Captain Clifford, from a height of 2,000 meters made a leap in Las Palmas, becoming the first Peruvian paratrooper. Subsequently, on May 10, 1928, Second Lieutenant César Álvarez War Palmas Las voluntarily jumped from a height of 3,000 meters, becoming the first military parachutist. On May 16, 1928, Major Fernando Melgar Conde and Sergeant 1st. Jose Pineda Castro, jumped from the famous Las Palmas at altitudes of 2,000 and 4,300 meters, respectively. On 24 May of that year, Ensign Peter Griva, the seaplane service from Ancon, jumped from a height of 2,000 meters; as part of events to celebrate the Day of the Air Force, Air Force Base in Chiclayo, after being summoned by Colonel Cesar Alvarez Guerra CAP and have completed rigorous training, on 23 September 1940, jumped massively from Caproni Ca.111 Panchos, the following: Captain David Rock, Ensign José Luis Quiñones and NCOs Alferano, Oscar Alamo, Antonio Brandariz, Ricardo Colmenares and Carlos Raffo Madalengoitia.
At about the same time, the Soviet Union was experimenting with the idea, planning to drop entire units complete with vehicles and light tanks. To help train enough experienced jumpers, parachute clubs were organized with the aim of transferring into the armed forces if needed. Planning progressed to the point that Corps-size drops were demonstrated to foreign observers, including the British Military Attaché Archibald Wavell, in the Kiev military district maneuvers of 1935. One of the observing parties, was interested. In 1936, Major F. W. Immans was ordered to set up a parachute school at Stendal, was allocated a number of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft to train on; the military had purchased large numbers of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft which were modified for use as paratroop transports in addition to their other duties. The first training class was known as Ausbildungskommando Immans, they commenced the first course on May 3, 1936. Other nations, including Argentina, Japan and Poland organized airborne units around this time.
France became the first nation to organize women in an airborne unit. Recruiting 200 nurses who during peacetime would parachute into natural disasters but reservists who would be a uniformed medical unit during wartime. Several groups within the German armed forces attempted to raise their own paratroop formations, resulting in confusion; as a result, Luftwaffe General Kurt Student was put in overall command of developing a paratrooper force to be known as the Fallschirmjäger. During the invasions of Norway and Denmark in Operation Weserübung, the Luftwaffe dropped paratroopers on several locations. In Denmark, a small unit dropped on the Masnedøfort on the small island of Masnedø to seize the Storstrøm Bridge linking the islands of Falster and Zealand. A paratroop detachment dropped at the airfield of Aalborg, crucial for the Luftwaffe for operations over Norway. In Norway, a company of paratroopers dropped at Oslo's undefended airstrip. Over the course of the morn