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Brighton and Hove

Brighton and Hove is a seaside city in East Sussex, in South East England. The towns of Brighton and Hove formed a unitary authority in 1997 and in 2001 were granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II. "Brighton" is referred to synonymously with the official "Brighton and Hove" although many locals still consider the two to be different towns. At the 2011 census, the city was England's most populous seaside resort, as well as the largest city in South East England, with a population of 273,400. Brighton and Hove is the result of a number of historic local government reorganisations: Brighton was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1854 becoming a county borough under the Local Government Act 1888. Both Brighton and Hove became non-metropolitan districts of East Sussex. On 15 October 2004, Hove was granted Fairtrade City status. In 2014 Brighton and Hove formed the Greater Brighton City Region with neighbouring local authorities. Elections are held every four years. Therefore, the last elections occurring on 2 May 2019 Brighton and Hove was the first council in the United Kingdom where the Green Party were both the largest group and led the council.

In February 2019 long-standing Labour councillor Anne Meadows defected to the Conservatives. She was deselected as a candidate for the 2019 elections by the Moulsecoomb and Bevendean ward Labour Party in 2018. Former Labour group leader Councillor Warren Morgan left the Labour Party in February 2019, he affiliated with The Independent Group along with fellow former Labour councillor Michael Inkpen-Leissner. This change in political structure saw the Conservatives become the largest party on the council, as one former Labour seat was vacant following a councillor’s resignation within six months of elections. In March 2019, an extraordinary council meeting was called by the Conservatives in a bid to take control of the authority in the final weeks before the May 2019 elections; this move was defeated as TIG councillors voted with Labour. In 2013 the council was obliged to finalise single status across its workforce, resulting in a strike of its refuse collectors and street cleaners, their council reformed their allowances to equalise them with other staff at the organisation conducting similar work.

The Leader of the Council and Labour minority administration since April 2018 is Councillor Daniel Yates. The mayor of Brighton and Hove for 2019–2020 is Councillor Alex Phillips. Geoff Raw is the current chief executive. In 2012 it was revealed that the Brighton and Hove unitary authority has been permanently banned from accessing information from the Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency; this information is made available to local authorities for purposes such as enforcing parking fines, but access can be withdrawn if they are found to be misusing the service. The Big Brother Watch organisation, which obtained the information about the ban under a Freedom of Information request, claimed that "the public are right to be worried that their privacy is at risk across a range of government services." The first census of Brighton was in 1801. The resident population of Brighton and Hove at the 2011 census was 273,369 persons, 50% male and 50% female; the 2011 census found the ethnic composition of Brighton and Hove to be 89.1% white, 4.1% Asian, 3.8% mixed race, 1.5% black and 0.8% Arab.

The 2011 census found the religious composition to be 42.90% Christian, 42.42% nonreligious, 2.23% Muslim, 1.00% Buddhist, 0.98% Jewish. 1.66 % were adherents of some other religion. In the 2001 census and Hove had the highest percentage of citizens indicating their religion as Jedi among all principal areas of England and Wales; the Letters Patent of 2001 that confers City status is worded thus: ELIZABETH the SECOND BY THE GRACE OF GOD OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND & OF OUR REALMS & TERRITORIES QUEEN HEAD OF THE COMMONWEALTH DEFENDER OF THE FAITH. To all whom these Presents shall come Greeting. Whereas We for divers good causes and considerations Us thereunto moving are graciously pleased to confer on the Towns of Brighton and Hove the status of a city. Now Therefore Know Ye that We of Our especial grace and favour and mere motion do by these Presents ordain declare and direct that the TOWNS OF BRIGHTON AND HOVE shall henceforth have the status of a CITY and shall have all such rank liberties privileges and immunities as are incident to a City.

In witness whereof We have caused Our Letters to be made Patent Witness Ourself at Westminster the thirty first day of January in the forty ninth year of our reign. By Warrant under The Queens Sign Manual; the economy of the city is service-based with a strong emphasis on creative and electronic technologies. Tourism and entertainment are important sectors for the City, which has many hotels and amusements, as well as Brighton Pier and Shoreham/Portslade Harbour; the United Kingdom Census 2011 showed a substantial fall in the proportion of the population claiming Jobseeker's Allowance or Income Support, from 10.1% of the resident population in 2001, to 4.5% of the reside

Ethnographic film

An ethnographic film is a non-fiction film similar to a documentary film dealing with non-Western people, sometimes associated with anthropology. Prospector and eventual filmmaker Robert J. Flaherty is considered to be the forefather of ethnographic film, he is most famous for his 1922 film Nanook of the North. Flaherty's attempts to realistically portray Inuit people were valuable pictures of a little-known way of life. Flaherty was not trained in anthropology; the contribution of Felix-Louis Regnault may have started the movement. He was filming a Wolof woman making pottery without the aid of a wheel at the Exposition Ethnographique de l'Afrique Occidentale, he published his findings in 1895. His films followed the same subject, described to capture the "cross cultural study of movement." He proposed the creation of an archive of anthropological research footage. The Cambridge Anthropological Expedition to the Torres Straits, initiated by Alfred Cort Haddon in 1898, covered all aspects of Torres Straits life.

Haddon wrote to his friend Baldwin Spencer recommending he use film for recording evidence. Spencer recorded the Australian Aborigines, a project that consisted of 7,000 feet of film housed in the National Museum at Victoria. In the 1930s, Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead discovered that using film frame-by-frame was an essential component of documenting complex rituals in Bali and New Guinea. John Marshall made what is the most-viewed ethnographic film in American colleges, his filming of the Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari that spans from 1951 to 2000, his ethnographic film N!ai, the Story of a! Kung Woman is not only ethnography but a biography of the central character, N!ai, incorporating footage from her childhood through adulthood. Marshall ended his career with a five-part series, A Kalahari Family, that critically examined his fifty-year involvement with the Ju/'hoansi. Napoleon Chagnon and Tim Asch's two famous films, The Ax Fight and The Feast, are intimately documented ethnographic accounts of an Amazonian rainforest people, the Yanomamo.

The genre flourished in France in the fifties due to the role of ethnographers as Marcel Griaule, Germaine Dieterlen, Jean Rouch. Light 16 mm cameras synchronized with light tape-recorders would re-evolutionise the methods of both cinema and anthropology. Rouch, who has developed the concept in theory and practice, went against the dogma that in research the camera person must stay out of the event or distance him/herself as an observer, he decided to make the camera interfere and became an actor and popularizing Cinéma vérité. This was of course earlier deemed the "observer effect" by Gregory Bateson, unaware of the dogma Rouch was attempting to violate. Bateson, as one of the earliest to write about using cameras in the studies of humans, was not only aware of the observer effect, but both he and his partner, Margaret Mead, wrote about many ways of dealing theoretically and with that effect. Robert Gardner, a film artist, collaborated with several anthropologists to produce Dead Birds, a study of ritual warfare among the Dani of New Guinea ).

David Maybury-Lewis was among the first to receive enough funding to send many video cameras into the field in a single field setting to gain multiple simultaneous points of view. In the 1970s, Judith and David MacDougall introduced subtitling their subjects' speech and went on to make films that involved more collaborative relationships with their subjects. Although ethnographic film can be seen as a way of presenting and understanding different cultures, not seen, there are some issues in the case of portrayal; as of late, ethnographic film has been influenced by ideas of observational cinema similar to the British Free Cinema movement. The arrival of lightweight sound cameras and their accessories opened up possibilities of being able to film everywhere; this led to revealing private and informal behaviours to discreet film-makers. The issue of presentation was noted by Flaherty, when he realized that when the audience is shown individuals dealing with problems, it helps them affirm the rationality of their own choices.

Despite new lightweight camera equipment, the status of the camera was still seen as an invisible presence. This only led to undermine the idea of film being a disembodied observer, it was realized that the procedure of filming could carry false interpretations of the behaviour recorded. Film-makers had new intentions for their films to be self-revelatory, making sure to film the primary encounter as evidence of their production. An example of this would be Chronique d'un éte, a film by Rouch and Morin where it touched on questions about how film deals with reality and changed the course of ethnographic film-making. Due to the difficulty of film being a direct representation of the subject, film-makers perceived their work as a venture of the complexities of the presented cultural, or their work as a continuing inquiry. However, the camera continues to see selectively; this means leaving the film-maker with the precaution of interpretation during the process of recording. While observing informal events, a technique of filming from different angles or shooting the scene more than once has been developed.

Many ethnographic films include recorded speech by people in the community being filmed. When this speech is in a language unfamiliar to the intended audience of the ethnographic film, the producers use voice over translation or subtitles. However, it has been shown that these translations of the film's subjects to the film's audience have not always been accurate

Rapid KL

Rapid KL is a public transportation system built by Prasarana Malaysia and operated by its subsidiaries, covering the Kuala Lumpur and Klang Valley areas. Rapid KL is one of the components of the Klang Valley Integrated Transit System; the acronym stands for Rangkaian Pengangkutan Intergrasi Deras Kuala Lumpur. The need for Kuala Lumpur's public transport system to be revamped became apparent once the city's LRT lines began commercial operations and it was determined that ridership had been much lower than anticipated; this caused correspondingly lower than expected revenue levels, the two LRT concessionaires, Sistem Transit Aliran Ringan Sdn Bhd and Projek Usahasama Transit Ringan Automatik Sdn Bhd, could not repay their commercial loans. The 1997 Asian financial crisis aggravated the situation, by November 2001, the two companies owed a combined total of RM5.7 billion. The Government of Malaysia's Corporate Debt Restructuring Committee stepped in to restructure the debts of the two LRT companies.

The bus service in Kuala Lumpur was facing problems with lower ridership due to an increase in private car usage and a lack of capital investments. The two new bus consortia formed in the mid 1990s to consolidate all bus services in Kuala Lumpur,'Intrakota Komposit and Cityliner, began facing financial problems. Intrakota had accumulated losses amounting to RM450 million from the 1997 financial crisis until Prasarana Malaysia took over in 2003. With decreased revenues, the bus operators could not maintain their fleets, much less invest in more buses. Frequencies and service deteriorated as buses began breaking down, ridership suffered as a result. Public transport usage in the Klang Valley area dropped to about 16% of all total trips. Since taking over the LRTs and bus network, Prasarana has taken steps to improve services. Price reduction: Most users of the LRT are students and elderly people. Students tend to choose the cheaper options and with a fare price increase in 2015 that doubled the original price, no wonder students chose other means of transportation than the Rapid KL.

Increased LRT capacity: Prasarana issued tenders for the purchase of new LRT rolling stock to increase carrying capacity, including 35 new train sets for the Kelana Jaya Line in October 2006 and October 2007. The trains were expected to be operational by September 2009. On 27 July 2009, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak announced that the 35 new four-car trains would be operational by end-2012. Expanded bus fleet: As most of the Rapid KL buses inherited were old and poorly maintained, the immediate concern was to get more buses on the road. In 2005, the government promised 200 new Rapid KL buses. Increased bus routes: Prasarana introduced several new routes to cover unserved areas. Scheduled bus services: Rapid Bus introduced scheduled services for 16 Rapid KL bus routes which were not utilised. For the first time in Malaysia, expected bus arrival times and timetables were posted at bus stops along routes. However, the bus stop timetables as well as the myrapid website has since been removed due to the inability of services to reliably adhere to these schedules.

This was caused by problems such as traffic congestion and an insufficient number of serviceable buses. Common monthly passes for both the LRT and bus networks: For the first time commuters were offered monthly passes which could be used on both LRTs and buses, helping to enhance the integration of the public transport system. Common signage for all LRT lines: The renaming of Putra-LRT and Star-LRT along with the changing of its signage helped to enhance integration of the unconnected systems. Common Ticketing Systems: Touch'n Go could be used in all Rapid KL buses and rail lines Revamp of the bus network: Prasarana scrapped the old Intrakota and Cityliner routes it inherited and introduced three types of bus services: City shuttles, trunk buses, local shuttles and express buses. City shuttles operate within Kuala Lumpur's central business district while trunk buses link hubs at the edge of the CBD with suburban transportation hubs. At these suburban hubs, local shuttles radiate out from rail-based public transport stations and fan out to residential areas.

Express buses provide non-stop point-to-point travel to specific destinations. The entire Rapid KL rail network, operated by Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd is 156.7 km long and has 114 stations. The network's trains can travel up to 80 km/h. In 2008, the rail network carried a total of over 350,000 passengers daily; the entire Rapid KL bus network is operated by Rapid Bus Sdn Bhd. Rapid Bus is one of the largest bus operators in the Klang Valley area, along with Transnasional. There are 98 stage bus routes and 39 feeder bus services which operate from LRT stations; the bus routes operated by Rapid Bus were operated by Intrakota Komposit Sdn Bhd, a subsidiary of DRB-Hicom Bhd. In 2008, Rapid Bus carried around 390,000 passengers daily. Official website Prasarana Malaysia Berhad

Redfern DH-2

The Redfern DH-2 is an American homebuilt aircraft, designed by Walter Redfern and produced by the Walter Redfern Company of Post Falls, based upon the 1915 Airco DH.2 fighter aircraft. When it was available the aircraft was supplied in the form of plans for amateur construction; the DH-2 features a biplane layout, a single-seat open cockpit, fixed conventional landing gear with and a single engine in pusher configuration. Unlike the original Geoffrey de Havilland designed DH.2, the replica replaces most of the structural wood with welded steel tubing, with its flying surfaces covered in doped aircraft fabric. Its 28.25 ft span wing, has a wing area of 265.0 sq ft and is supported by interplane struts, cabane struts and flying wires. The tail is an open lattice structure to fit around the rearwards-facing propeller and is cable-braced; the acceptable power range is 125 to 150 hp and the standard engine used is the 125 hp Kinner B-5 five cylinder radial engine. The DH-2 has a typical empty weight of 1,100 lb and a gross weight of 1,450 lb, giving a useful load of 350 lb.

With full fuel of 30 U. S. gallons the payload for the baggage is 170 lb. The standard day, sea level, no wind, take off with a 125 hp engine is 100 ft and the landing roll is 300 ft; the manufacturer estimated the construction time from the supplied plans as 2500 hours. By 1998 the company reported that ten aircraft were flying. Data from AeroCrafterGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 25.17 ft Wingspan: 28 ft 3 in Wing area: 265.0 sq ft Empty weight: 1,100 lb Gross weight: 1,450 lb Fuel capacity: 30 U. S. gallons Powerplant: 1 × Kinner B-5 five cylinder radial engine, 125 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Maximum speed: 95 mph Cruise speed: 75 mph Stall speed: 45 mph Range: 250 mi Service ceiling: 12,000 ft Rate of climb: 650 ft/min Wing loading: 5.5 lb/sq ft Armament Guns: one dummy Vickers machine gun Photo of a Redfern DH-2 in flight

CBS Laboratories

CBS Laboratories or CBS Labs was the technology research and development organization of the CBS television network. Innovations developed at the labs included many groundbreaking broadcast and consumer technologies. CBS Laboratories was established in 1936 in New York City to conduct technological research for CBS and outside clients; the CBS Laboratories Division moved from Madison Avenue in New York to a new facility in Stamford, Connecticut in 1958. Dr. Peter Goldmark joined CBS Laboratories in 1936. On September 4, 1940, while working at the lab, he demonstrated the Field-Sequential Color TV system, it utilized a mechanical color wheel on both the camera and on the television home receiver, but was not compatible with the existing post-war NTSC, 525-line, 60-field/second black and white TV sets as it was a 405-line, 144-field scanning system. It was the first color broadcasting system that received FCC approval in 1950, the CBS Television Network began broadcasting in color on November 20, 1950.

However, no other TV set manufacturers made the sets, CBS stopped broadcasting in field-sequential color on October 21, 1951. Goldmark’s interest in recorded music led to the development of the long-playing 33-1/3 rpm vinyl record, which became the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single audio disc for two generations; the LP was introduced to the market place by Columbia Records in 1948. In 1959 the CBS Audimax I Audio Gain Controller was introduced, it was the first of its kind in the broadcasting industry. In the 1960s the CBS Volumax Audio FM Peak Limiter was introduced the first of its kind in the broadcasting industry. Electronic Video Recording was announced in 1967. In 1966, the CBS Vidifont was invented, it was the first electronic graphics generator used in television production. Brought to the marketplace at the NAB in 1970, it revolutionized television production; the minicam was developed for use in national political conventions in 1968. In 1971, a backwards-compatible 4-channel encoding technique was developed for vinyl records, called SQ Quadraphonic, based on work by musician Peter Scheiber and Labs engineer Benjamin B.

Bauer. That same year, CBS Labs Staff Scientist Dennis Gabor received the Nobel Prize in Physics for earlier work on holography. Upon Peter Goldmark's retirement in 1971, Senior Vice President Renville H. McMann assumed the role of Labs President. CBS Laboratories was reorganized in 1975; the CLD Professional Products Department, which manufactured the products developed by the Labs for sale to the broadcast industry, was sold to Thomson-CSF. McMann and some of the research engineers involved in the existing products were transferred to support the effort, with McMann returning to the Labs sometime later; the core company R&D function was renamed CBS Technology Center, Bauer was promoted to Vice-President and General Manager of CTC. In 1978, the CBS Actiontrak system was spun off from a Digital Noise Reducer project. In 1986 Laurence Tisch closed CTC as part of company-wide streamlining; the two buildings at High Ridge Road were razed and the property sold. Over its nearly 30 years of operation in Stamford, various technologies were developed at the lab, including: Gemini spacecraft voice recorder CBS Loudness Meter and Loudness Control CBS NetALERT, broadcast radio network signaling system CBS DisComputer, record mastering system Gulbransen Equinox 380, microprocessor-controlled keyboard instrument Interactive download of musical-keyboard performance over Venture One shop-at-home trial, using pre-MIDI interface.

Half-speed Capacitance Electronic Disc mastering system for RCA "SelectaVision" CED system CX, LP noise reduction system FMX, FM noise reduction system Printed sound, a system for generating audible information from a sound track printed on paper 1970-1971: Color Corrector which can provide color uniformity between television picture segments and scenes shot and recorded under different conditions at different times and locations 1972-1973: CMX 600 Non-Linear Video Tape Editing System utilizing a computer to aid the decision-making process, store the editing decisions and implement them in the final assembly of takes 1974-1975: Electronic News Gathering System 1977-1978: Digital Noise Reducer 1980-1981: Digital Electronic Still Store System, which made the magnetic storage and electronic broadcasting of film slides and graphics easier to manage and more reliable with consistent high quality 1988-1989: Single Camera Editing System 1991-1992: Electronic Character Generation for Television Triax Cable Camera Technology 1993: Mini Rapid Deployment Earth Terminal 2001-2002: Alignment Color Bar Test Signal for Television Picture Monitors The CBS Audimax and Volumax The quest for home video: EVR

I Cover the War!

I Cover the War is a 1937 American drama action film directed by Arthur Lubin for Universal Pictures, starring John Wayne. It was one of a series of non-Westerns Wayne made for Universal. Two newsreel cameramen are sent to photograph a bandit sheik in the desert. John Wayne as Bob Adams Gwen Gaze as Pamela Armitage Don Barclay as Elmer Davis Charles Brokaw as El Kadar / Muffadi James Bush as Don Adams Pat Somerset as Captain Archie Culvert Richard Tucker Army Officer Sam Harris as Colonel Hugh Armitage Olaf Hytten as Sir Herbert Arthur Aylesworth as Logan Franklin Parker as Parker In February 1937 Trem Carr announced the film would start March 1; the New York Times called it an "ingeniously romantic fable". John Wayne filmography I Cover the War! on IMDb I Cover the War t BFI