Britannia has been used in several different senses, but is best known as a national personification of the United Kingdom. The name is a Latinisation of the native Brittonic word for the island, Pretanī, which produced the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which in the fourth to the first centuries BC, designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Britain. In Modern Welsh the name remains Prydain. By the 1st century BC, Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. After the Roman conquest in 43 AD, Britannia meant Roman Britain, a province covering the island south of Caledonia; when Roman Britain was divided into four provinces in 197 AD, two were called Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. Britannia is the name given to the female personification of the island, it is a term still used to refer to the whole island. In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet.
The name Britannia long survived the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain. In the 9th century the associated terms Bretwalda and Brytenwealda were applied to some Anglo-Saxon kings to assert a wider hegemony in Britain and hyperbolic inscriptions on coins and titles in charters included the equivalent title rex Britanniae; however when England was unified the title used was rex Angulsaxonum. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British maritime power and unity, most notably in "Rule, Britannia!". A British cultural icon, she was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, still appears annually on the gold and silver "Britannia" bullion coin series.
In 2015 a new definitive £2 coin was issued, with a new image of Britannia. She is depicted in the Brit Awards statuette, the British Phonographic Industry's annual music awards; the first writer to use a form of the name was the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas in the 4th century BC. Pytheas referred to Prettanike or Brettaniai, a group of islands off the coast of North-Western Europe. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus referred to Pretannia, a rendering of the indigenous name for the Pretani people whom the Greeks believed to inhabit the British Isles. Following the Greek usage, the Romans referred to the Insulae Britannicae in the plural, consisting of Albion, Hibernia and many smaller islands. Over time, Albion came to be known as Britannia, the name for the group was subsequently dropped. Although emperor Claudius is attributed with the creation and unification of the province of Britannia in 43 AD, Julius Caesar had established Roman authority over the Southern and Eastern Britain dynasties during his two expeditions to the island in 55 and 54 BC.
Just as Caesar himself had been an obside in Bithynia as a youth, he had taken the King's sons as obsides or hostages, back to Rome to be educated. The Roman conquest of the island began in AD 43, leading to the establishment of the Roman province known in Latin as Britannia; the Romans never conquered the whole island, building Hadrian's Wall as a boundary with Caledonia, which covered the territory of modern Scotland, although the whole of the boundary marked by Hadrian's Wall lies within modern-day Northern England. A southern part of what is now Scotland was occupied by the Romans for about 20 years in the mid-2nd century AD, keeping in place the Picts to the north of the Antonine Wall. People living in the Roman province of Britannia were called Britons. Ireland, inhabited by the Scoti, was called Hibernia. Thule, an island "six days' sail north of Britain, near the frozen sea" Iceland, was never invaded by the Romans; the Emperor Claudius paid a visit while Britain was being conquered and was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror.
She appeared as a more regal-looking female figure. Britannia was soon personified as a goddess, looking similar to the goddess Minerva. Early portraits of the goddess depict Britannia as a beautiful young woman, wearing a Corinthian helmet, wrapped in a white garment with her right breast exposed, she is shown seated on a rock, holding a trident, with a spiked shield propped beside her. Sometimes she leans on the shield. On another range of coinage, she is seated on a globe above waves: Britain at the edge of the world. Similar coin types were issued under Antoninus Pius. After the Roman withdrawal, the term "Britannia" remained in use in Britain and abroad. Latin was ubiquitous amongst native Brythonic writers and the term continued in the Welsh tradition that developed from it. Writing with variations on the term Britannia appeared in many Welsh works such as the Historia Britonum, Armes Prydein and the 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae, which gained unprecedented popularity throughout western Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Following the migration of Brythonic Celts, the term Britannia came t
Reconciler. Refiner. Igniter. is the first studio album from Fallstar. Come&Live! Records released the album on March 29, 2011. Awarding the album four and a half stars from HM Magazine, Brittany McNeal states, "Fallstar has etched itself a niche in hardcore music." Graeme Crawford, rating the album a nine out of ten at Cross Rhythms, says, "It may be gloriously chaotic but'Reconciler, Igniter' packs a powerful spiritual punch." Giving the album four stars for Jesus Freak Hideout, Scott Fryberger writes, "Reconciler. Refiner. Igniter. is a good source of Spirit-filled hardcore." Eric Pettersson, awarding the album four stars at Indie Vision Music, writes, "With a bass-heavy brand of metalcore, these guys deliver a message of God’s love overcoming the darkness and consuming this world with God’s power."Rating the album three and a half stars from Christ Core, Bryce Cooley states, "What kept me listening to'Reconciler. Refiner. Igniter' was the constant surprises speckled throughout." Jono Davies, giving the album three and a half stars for Louder Than the Music, says, "If you want distorted screaming vocals singing about hope, revival and love look no further than Fallstar!"
Awarding the album two and a half stars by The New Review, Anthony Gannaio writes, "Despite the album’s remarkable shortcomings, do not count Fallstar out." All tracks are written by Fallstar
Emily Margarethe Haber is a German diplomat. She served as State Secretary from 2011 to 2018: from 2011 to 2013, at the Federal Foreign Office and from 2014 to 2018, at the Federal Ministry of the Interior, she is serving as German Ambassador to the United States. Emily Haber is the daughter of the German diplomat Dirk Oncken. From 1975 to 1980, she studied history and ethnology in Cologne, earning her PhD with a dissertation on German foreign policy during the Agadir Crisis, she is married to the German diplomat Hansjörg Haber. After joining the German Foreign Service, Haber worked as a desk officer in the Federal Foreign Office division covering relations to the Soviet Union, as a political affairs officer at the German Embassy in Moscow, as cultural affairs officer at the German Embassy in Ankara, as Deputy Head of the Cabinet and Parliamentary Liaison Division of the Federal Foreign Office in Bonn. In 1999, she returned to the German Embassy in Moscow, serving first as Head of the Economic Affairs Section as Head of the Political Affairs Department, until 2002.
From 2002 to 2006, she served as Director of the OSCE Division and Commissioner for Conflict Prevention and Crisis Management in the Euro-Atlantic Framework at the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin. Thereafter, she assumed the function of Commissioner for Southeastern Europe and Turkey, serving from 2006 to 2009. From 2009 to 2011, Haber served as Director-General for Political Affairs of the Federal Foreign Office in Berlin, becoming the first woman to hold this post, she was appointed to the position of State Secretary of the Federal Foreign Office by Minister Guido Westerwelle in 2011, again becoming the first woman to assume this role. From 2014 to 2018, she served as State Secretary of the Federal Ministry of the Interior under the leadership of Minister Thomas de Maizière, where she was responsible for security and integration. Haber became the German Ambassador to the United States on June 22, 2018. International Journalists’ Programmes, Arthur F. Burns Fellowship Program, Member of the Board of Trustees German Institute for International and Security Affairs, Member of the Council