British Academy

The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences. It received its royal charter in the same year, it is now a fellowship of more than 1,000 leading scholars spanning all disciplines across the humanities and social sciences and a funding body for research projects across the United Kingdom. The academy is a self-governing and independent registered charity, based at 10–11 Carlton House Terrace in London; the British Academy is funded with an annual grant from the Department for Business and Skills. In 2014/15 the British Academy's total income was £33,100,000, including £27,000,000 from BIS. £32,900,000 was distributed during the year in research grants and charitable activities. The academy states that it has five fundamental purposes: To speak up for the humanities and the social sciences To invest in the best researchers and research To inform and enrich debate around society's greatest questions To ensure sustained international engagement and collaboration To make the most of the Academy's assets to secure the Academy for the future.

The creation of a "British Academy for the Promotion of Historical and Philological Studies" was first proposed in 1899 in order that Britain could be represented at meetings of European and American academies. The organisation, which has since become "the British Academy", was initiated as an unincorporated society on 17 December 1901, received its Royal Charter from King Edward VII on 8 August 1902. Since many of Britain's most distinguished scholars in the humanities and social sciences have been involved in the life of the academy, including John Maynard Keynes, Isaiah Berlin, C. S. Lewis and Henry Moore; until 1927–28 the academy had no premises. It moved to some rooms in No. 6 Burlington Gardens. In 1968 it moved the short distance to Burlington House, it subsequently moved to headquarters near Regent's Park. In 1998 the Academy moved to its present headquarters in Carlton House Terrace. Overlooking St James's Park, the terrace was built in the 1820s and 1830s. Number 10 was the London residence of the Ridley family and number 11 was from 1856 to 1875 the home of Prime Minister William Gladstone.

In March 2010, the academy embarked on a £2.75m project to renovate and restore the public rooms in No. 11, following the departure of former tenant the Foreign Press Association, link the two buildings together. The work was completed in January 2011 and the new spaces include a new 150-seat Wolfson Auditorium are available for public hire. In addition to offices for its staff 10 - 11 Carlton House Terrace is used for academy conferences and events and parts of the building are available on a private hire basis for events The history and achievements of the academy have been recorded in works by two of its secretaries. Sir Frederic Kenyon's volume of 37 pages covers the years up to 1951. Election as a Fellow of the British Academy recognises high scholarly distinction in the humanities or social sciences, evidenced by published work. Fellows may use the letters FBA after their names. Fellows are elected into one of the following disciplinary sections: HumanitiesClassical Antiquity Theology and Religious Studies African and Oriental Studies Linguistics and Philology Early Modern Languages and Literatures Modern Languages and other Media Archaeology Medieval Studies Early Modern History to c1800 Modern History from c1800 History of Art and Music Philosophy Culture and PerformanceSocial SciencesLaw Economics and Economic History Anthropology and Geography Sociology and Social Statistics Political Studies: Political Theory and International Relations Psychology Management and Business StudiesThere is an Education'ginger group'.

The British Academy channels substantial public funding into support for individuals and organisations pursuing humanities and social sciences research and scholarship in the UK and overseas. These funding schemes are designed to aid scholars at different stages of their academic career and include postdoctoral fellowships, Wolfson Research Professorships, Leverhulme Senior Research Fellowships, small research grants and British Academy Research Projects. In addition to its main public funds supported by the Department for Business and Skills, the academy draws on private funds arising from gifts, contributions made by fellows and grants from research foundations to support a further range of research activities. In 2014/15, the academy received around £30m to support research and researchers across the humanities and social sciences. Funds available to the academy were invested in the following main areas: research career development; the demand and quality of applications submitted for academy funding remains high.

This year the academy received around 3,600 applications and made 588 awards to scholars based in around 100 different universities across the UK – a success rate of 16 per cent. In order to promote the interests of UK research and learning around the world, the Academy works to create frameworks to support international networking and collaboration and develop the role of humanities and social sciences research in tackling global challenges, it draws on expertise from a wide range of sources from within the fellowship and on specialist advice from its seven Area Panels for Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, Latin America/Caribbean. The Academy funds and coordinates a network of overseas institutes which provide local expertise, logistical support and a working base for UK scholars


The spermatophytes known as phanerogams or phaenogams, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants. They are a subset of the embryophytes or land plants; the term phanerogams or phanerogamae is derived from the Greek φανερός, phanerós meaning "visible", in contrast to the cryptogamae from Greek κρυπτός kryptós = "hidden" together with the suffix γαμέω, gameo, "to marry". These terms distinguished those plants with hidden sexual organs from those with visible sexual organs; the extant spermatophytes form five divisions, the first four of which are traditionally grouped as gymnosperms, plants that have unenclosed, "naked seeds": Cycadophyta, the cycads, a subtropical and tropical group of plants, which includes a single living species of tree in the genus Ginkgo, the conifers, which are cone-bearing trees and shrubs, Gnetophyta, the gnetophytes, various woody plants in the relict genera Ephedra and Welwitschia. The fifth extant division is the flowering plants known as angiosperms or magnoliophytes, the largest and most diverse group of spermatophytes.

Angiosperms possess seeds enclosed unlike gymnosperms. In addition to the taxa listed above, the fossil record contains evidence of many extinct taxa of seed plants; the so-called "seed ferns" were one of the earliest successful groups of land plants, forests dominated by seed ferns were prevalent in the late Paleozoic. Glossopteris was the most prominent tree genus in the ancient southern supercontinent of Gondwana during the Permian period. By the Triassic period, seed ferns had declined in ecological importance, representatives of modern gymnosperm groups were abundant and dominant through the end of the Cretaceous, when angiosperms radiated. A whole genome duplication event in the ancestor of seed plants occurred about 319 million years ago; this gave rise to a series of evolutionary changes. A middle Devonian precursor to seed plants from Belgium has been identified predating the earliest seed plants by about 20 million years. Runcaria and radially symmetrical, is an integumented megasporangium surrounded by a cupule.

The megasporangium bears an unopened distal extension protruding above the mutlilobed integument. It is suspected. Runcaria sheds new light on the sequence of character acquisition leading to the seed. Runcaria has all of the qualities of seed plants except for a solid seed coat and a system to guide the pollen to the seed. Seed-bearing plants were traditionally divided into angiosperms, or flowering plants, gymnosperms, which includes the gnetophytes, cycads and conifers. Older morphological studies believed in a close relationship between the gnetophytes and the angiosperms, in particular based on vessel elements. However, molecular studies have shown a clade of gymnosperms, with the gnetophytes in or near the conifers. For example, one common proposed set of relationships is known as the gne-pine hypothesis and looks like: However, the relationships between these groups should not be considered settled. Other classifications group all the seed plants in a single division, with classes for the five groups: Division Spermatophyta Cycadopsida, the cycads Ginkgoopsida, the ginkgo Pinopsida, the conifers, the gnetophytes Magnoliopsida, the flowering plants, or AngiospermopsidaA more modern classification ranks these groups as separate divisions: Cycadophyta, the cycads Ginkgophyta, the ginkgo Pinophyta, the conifers Gnetophyta, the gnetophytes Magnoliophyta, the flowering plantsAn alternative phylogeny of spermatophytes based on the work by Novíkov & Barabaš-Krasni 2015 with plant taxon authors from Anderson, Anderson & Cleal 2007 showing the relationship of extinct clades.

Unassigned spermatophytes: †Avatiaceae Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Axelrodiopsida Anderson & Anderson †Alexiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hamshawviales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Hexapterospermales Doweld 2001 †Hlatimbiales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Matatiellales Anderson & Anderson 2003 †Petriellales Taylor et al. 1994 †Arberiopsida Doweld 2001 †Czekanowskiales Taylor et al. 2008 †Iraniales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Vojnovskyales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Hermanophytales E. Taylor et al. 2008 †Dirhopalostachyaceae E. Taylor et al. 2008


KROI is a radio station serving the Greater Houston market. Licensed to Seabrook and owned by Urban One, the station broadcasts a Top 40/CHR format branded as 92.1 Radio Now. The station's studios are located in Greenway Plaza and the transmitter is based near Liverpool in unincorporated Brazoria County, it is one of three Radio One-owned stations serving Houston, alongside KBXX and KMJQ. The station began as a Top 40 station upon its launch on 1983, but shifted to classical and adult contemporary genres before its acquisition by Radio One, after which it became an urban gospel station. In October 2011, KROI flipped to an all-news format. Successful, the classic hip-hop format soon faced sagging ratings, leading Radio One to revert the station to its original top 40 format in January 2017; the 92.1 FM frequency signed on the air in September 1983 with a CHR format as KZRQ "Z92". The station, only a 1,400-watt at 300-foot Class A, took heavy shots against its CHR neighbor on the dial, KKBQ-FM "93FM" and had a song parody of hit, Ray Parker Jr's "Ghostbusters" called "Zoobusters" that poked fun of KKBQ-FM's Q-Zoo morning show.

The station claimed to be the first station to play CDs and the world's first all-digital station. By the fall of 1984, KZRQ was gone, as the station flipped to a beautiful music format with the KYND callsign. On April 2, 1986, KYND flipped to classical music, first as KLEF, later KRTS; the change occurred to fill the void when KLEF flipped from classical to adult contemporary as KJYY. Due to the station's transmitter being located further away from Houston, the station simulcasted on KRTK for a time. KRTS got upgrades in the 1980s to a C2 at the intersection of US 59 and Texas 288 and finally as a Class C1 in the 1990s, it is a C1 license on the 2,000-foot Liverpool tower, close to KGLK's tower. Radio One purchased KRTS in September 2004, changed its calls to KROI, flipped the station, first to a two-week long Hot AC format as "92.1 KROI" on September 15th, to Regional Mexican as "La Mera Mera" on September 29th. When, unsuccessful, its owners, which specialize in Urban radio formatted station ownership, flipped it one more time to an urban gospel format branded as "Praise 92.1" at 6:45 p.m. on July 17, 2006.

The first song on "Praise" was Why We Sing by Kirk The Family. KROI was the flagship of the nationally syndicated Yolanda Adams Morning Show, which debuted March 2007. Outside of that, it was jockless throughout the day except for several specialized programs on the weekends. On October 28, 2011, Radio One announced that KROI would flip to an all-news format, starting November 17; this is the first time Radio One has programmed an all-news station geared towards a mainstream audience. Houston, the 6th largest radio market in the United States, according to Arbitron, has been underserved in regards to radio news, as KTRH and KPRC, well known for news coverage in past decades, have become predominantly talk radio oriented in recent years; the Praise 92 gospel format, as well as the station's status as the flagship of the Yolanda Adams Morning Show, moved over to the HD2 subchannel of KMJQ and to its online website. On November 18, 2011, at 9 a.m. following the Yolanda Adams Morning Show, KROI began stunting with construction sounds in preparation of its switch to all-news, with slogans such as "100% News, 0% Spin", "Reporting Houston 24/7", "Just give us 20 minutes each day for the next 20 days".

There were liners promoting that News 92 would launch soon during the stunt. The new format launched on November 21, 2011 at 5 AM. On-air talent included former radio and TV personalities from KTRH, KSEV, KPRC-TV, KLOL, KRBE, KIAH and KRIV, most fairly well-known to the Houston audience; the new format operated as an affiliate of ABC News Radio and featured ABC News reports at the top and bottom of each hour. It aired syndicated programs, such as The Jim Bohannon Show on weeknights and The John Batchelor Show on weekend evenings. On Sundays, simulcasts of ABC's This Week with George Stephanopoulos and NBC's Meet the Press were featured. During the three years of the news format, the station had low ratings. On October 8, 2014, at 9 a.m. KROI ended its all-news format and laid off 47 employees. Following the sign-off of News 92, the station returned to a music-based format, stunting as "B92" by playing music by Houston native Beyoncé. On October 13, 2014, at 5 p.m. KROI flipped to a classic hip hop format branded as Boom 92.

The format focused on hip-hop acts from the 1980s and the 1990s, was aimed toward