British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, with a population of more than four million people located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. British Columbia is a component of the Pacific Northwest and the Cascadia bioregion, along with the U. S. states of Idaho, Oregon and Alaska. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Port Moody is named after him, in 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, and Victoria became the united colonys capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the province of Canada. Its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu, the capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for the Queen who created the original European colonies. The largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, in October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371.
British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871, First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties and the question of Aboriginal Title, the Tsilhqotin Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the recent Supreme Court of Canada decision. BCs economy is diverse, with service producing industries accounting for the largest portion of the provinces GDP and it is the endpoint of transcontinental railways, and the site of major Pacific ports that enable international trade. Though less than 5% of its vast 944,735 km2 land is arable and its climate encourages outdoor recreation and tourism, though its economic mainstay has long been resource extraction, principally logging and mining. Vancouver, the provinces largest city and metropolitan area, serves as the headquarters of many western-based natural resource companies and it benefits from a strong housing market and a per capita income well above the national average.
The Northern Interior region has a climate with very cold winters. The climate of Vancouver is by far the mildest winter climate of the major Canadian cities, the provinces name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i. e. the Mainland, became a British colony in 1858. The current southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, British Columbias land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbias rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres and it is the only province in Canada that borders the Pacific Ocean. British Columbias capital is Victoria, located at the tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of the Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is significantly populated, much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by thick and sometimes impenetrable temperate rainforest
Ashcroft, British Columbia
Ashcroft is a village in the Thompson Country of the Interior of British Columbia, Canada. It is 30 kilometres downstream from the west end of Kamloops Lake, at the confluence of the Bonaparte and Thompson Rivers, and is in the Thompson-Nicola Regional District. Ashcrofts downtown is on the east side of the Thompson River, although the municipal boundaries straddle the river, with housing and it is something of a twin to nearby Cache Creek, which unlike Ashcroft is on the major highway. The brothers had come in search of gold, however. They sold flour to packers and miners, helping to make the community, in 2011, the British Columbia government denied an environmental assessment certificate for the landfill, and Metro Vancouver expressed a desire to divest itself of the property. The geography in and around Ashcroft resembles that of desert terrain, Ashcroft is the driest place in Canada outside of the high arctic at 208 mm of precipitation per year. As a flag stop Via Rails The Canadian calls at the Ashcroft railway station three times per week in each direction, Ashcroft is served by a community television station, CH4472 on VHF channel 4, with a repeater in the neighbouring town of Cache Creek.
Ashcroft was home to the Nlakapxm Eagle Motorplex, a ¼-mile IHRA-sanctioned dragstrip, Ashcroft had its first annual Wellness Festival in July 2013. The towns Japanese sister city is Bifuka, Hokkaido
The mountain ranges name derives from its proximity to the sea coast, and is often referred to as the Coast Range. The range includes volcanic and non-volcanic mountains and the ice fields of the Pacific and Boundary Ranges. The Coast Mountains are approximately 1,600 kilometres long and average 300 kilometres in width, covered in dense temperate rainforest on its western exposures, the range rises to heavily glaciated peaks, including the largest temperate-latitude ice fields in the world. On its eastern flanks, the tapers to the dry Interior Plateau. The Coast Mountains are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire—the ring of volcanoes, the Coast Mountains consists of three subdivisions known as the Pacific Ranges, the Kitimat Ranges, and the Boundary Ranges. The Pacific Ranges are the southernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains, included in this subdivision is four of the five major coastal icecaps in the southern Coast Mountains. These are the largest temperate-latitude icecaps in the world and fuel a number of major rivers, other than logging and a large ski resort at the resort town of Whistler, most of the land in the range is completely undeveloped.
Mount Waddington, the highest mountain of the Coast Mountains, lies in the Waddington Range of the Pacific Ranges, just north of the Pacific Ranges lies the central subdivision known as the Kitimat Ranges. This subdivision extends from the Bella Coola River and Burke Channel in the south to the Nass River in the north, the third and northernmost subdivision of the Coast Mountains is the Boundary Ranges, extending from the Nass River in the south to the Kelsall River in the north. This precipitation is among the heaviest in North America, the eastern slopes are relatively dry and less steep and protect the British Columbia Interior from the Pacific weather systems, resulting in dry warm summers and dry cold winters. Beyond the eastern slopes is a 154,635 km2 plateau occupying the southern, included within the Interior Plateau is a coalescing series of layered flood basalt lava flows. These sequences of fluid volcanic rock cover about 25,000 km2 of the Interior Plateau and have a volume of about 1,800 km3, the Coast Mountains consists of deformed igneous and metamorphosed structurally complex pre-Tertiary rocks.
These originated in locations around the globe, the area is built of several different terranes of different ages with a broad range of tectonic origins. Further north the northwesterly structural trend of the Coast Mountains lies partly in a continental rift responsible for the creation of several volcanoes. These volcanoes form part of the Northern Cordilleran Volcanic Province, the most volcanically active area in Canada, the first event began 130 million years ago when a group of active volcanic islands approached a pre-existing continental margin and coastline of North America. This subduction zone eventually jammed and shut down completely 115 million years ago, ending the Omineca Arc, compression resulting from this collision crushed and folded rocks along the old continental margin. The Insular Belt welded onto the continental margin by magma that eventually cooled to create a large mass of igneous rock. This large mass of rock is the largest granite outcropping in North America
This page is for the fur district of the Hudsons Bay Company in the Pacific Northwest. For the United States capital district, see District of Columbia, the Columbia District was a fur trading district in the Pacific Northwest region of British North America in the 19th century. Much of its territory overlapped with the disputed Oregon Country and it was explored by the North West Company between 1793 and 1811, and established as an operating fur district around 1810. The North West Company was absorbed into the Hudsons Bay Company in 1821, the Oregon Treaty of 1846 marked the effective end of the Hudsons Bay Companys Columbia Department. Beginning in 1807, David Thompson, working for the North West Company, in 1811 he located Athabasca Pass, which became the key overland connection to the emerging fur district. The American Pacific Fur Company founded Fort Astoria near the entrance of the Columbia River, funded largely by German-American merchant John Jacob Astor, the company men had previously sailed around Cape Horn on board the Tonquin.
During the War of 1812, the Pacific Northwest was a distant region of the conflict, prior to the war, both companies operated in the region peaceably with each other. News of a coming British warship put the American company into a difficult position, in October 1813, management met at Fort Astoria and agreed to liquidate its assets to the NWC. The HMS Racoon arrived the following month and in honor of George III of the United Kingdom, in 1815 the New Caledonia district began receiving the bulk of its annual supplies by sea from the lower Columbia River rather than overland from Fort William and Montreal. Under the North West Company the Columbia District was bounded, roughly, by the edge of the Thompson River on the north. North and west of the Thompson was the New Caledonia fur district, the Thompson River region was its own fur district, centered on a fur trading post that became the city of Kamloops. The Thompson River District was the link between the Columbia and New Caledonia Districts, in the Treaty of 1818 between the U. S.
and Britain, the two powers agreed that each had free and open access the Oregon Country. This joint occupation continued until the Oregon Treaty of 1846, yet American attempts to conduct operations in the region failed in the face of competition by the Hudsons Bay Company. The only sphere in which the Americans temporarily dominated was the fur trade along the coast. But the HBC successfully took over the maritime trade during the 1830s by for example constructing trading forts. The North West Company found the Native Americans of the Columbia region generally unwilling to work as fur trappers and hunters, the company depended upon native labor east of the Rocky Mountains and found it difficult to operate without assistance in the west. For this reason the company began, in 1815, to bring groups of Iroquois, skilled at hunting and trapping, from the Montreal region to the Pacific Northwest. The Iroquois were intended not only to support company personnel but, it was hoped, teach local natives the skills of hunting and trapping, instead of cooperation there were altercations between the Iroquois and local natives
Rocky Mountain Trench
The Rocky Mountain Trench, known as The Valley of a Thousand Peaks or simply the Trench, is a large valley in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains. The trench bottom is 3-16 km wide and ranges from 600-900 metres above sea level, the general orientation of the Trench is an almost uniform 150/330 degree geographic north vector and has become convenient for north/south aviators. Although some of its topography has been carved into glacial valleys, the Trench separates the Rocky Mountains on its east from the Columbia Mountains and the Cassiar Mountains on its west. It skirts part of the McGregor Plateau area of the Nechako Plateau sub-area of the Interior Plateau of British Columbia, the Trench is drained by four major river basins, the Columbia, Fraser and Liard. Two reservoirs of the Columbia River Treaty fill much of its length today - Lake Koocanusa, a further British Columbia power initiative created Lake Williston. The North Fork of the Flathead River, flowing into Flathead Lake with the branches of the Flathead River, is part of the Columbia River system.
The Kechika is part of the Liard River system, and the Fox and Finlay Rivers, the Canoe River is a short tributary of the Columbia system, draining into Kinbasket Lake, a reservoir on the Columbia River. The Kootenai River, does not fully follow the Trench, the Kootenay River is a tributary of the Columbia, joining the Columbia at Castlegar, BC after a meander through the USA as the Kootenai River. For convenience the Rocky Mountain Trench may be divided into two sections, the Northern Rocky Mountain Trench and Southern Rocky Mountain Trench, the dividing point reflects the separation of north and easterly flows to the Arctic Ocean versus south and westerly flows to the Pacific Ocean. A break in the system at ~54°N near Prince George. The northern portion of the Trench is dominated by strike-slip faulting, the Tintina Trench extends further north-westward through the Yukon into Alaska. The visible expression of the two trenches is lost where they plunge under the boreal forests of the Liard Plain proximate to the communities of Watson Lake and Lower Post.
The highest point in the northern Trench is Sifton Pass at an elevation of about 1010 metres near the bend of Scarcity Creek, right-lateral strike-slip movement of the Tintina Fault on the Tintina-Northern Rocky Mountain Trench may have begun during the middle Jurassic. The fastest rates of slip probably occurred during two pulses in the middle Cretaceous and early Cenozoic, with the latter probably occurring during the Eocene. Between 750 km to >900 km of total right-lateral movement has occurred, the end result is that terrains to the west of the fault system have moved toward the north. First Nations have traditionally always travelled the northern Trench, There are several epic post-European contact travels up the northern Trench - often of legendary proportion. But the Trench here remains wild, and the northern 300 km is essentially unroaded despite a few cat trails for fire, outfitters. This wildland is a credit to several turns of fate and arguably strategic administrative decisions since 1824, the most natural of all land transportation corridors in northern British Columbia has been left in a wild state
The continuation of the plateau into the United States is known there as the Columbia Plateau. Physiographically, the Interior Plateau is a section of the larger Northern Plateaus province, several mountain ranges and hill-systems are included in the definition of this region. Also, the Cariboo Mountains are sometimes included as part of the Interior Plateau, three areas liminal to the plateau, i. e. sometimes considered part of it rather than the adjoining mountain ranges, are the Shuswap Highland, Okanagan Highland and Quesnel Highland. The location of the Interior Plateau in North America is between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific Coast Ranges and it is cut by the basins and tributaries of two rivers, the Columbia and the Fraser. The northern region is largely wooded, except in lowland and more areas which resemble the sagebrush grasslands which typify the southern part of the plateau in the Columbia drainage. The first documented human presence was in 8500 BC, bison remains and other fluted points date back to this time frame.
An important sites in the area is at Wenatchee site, the Windust phase is dated between 10600 BC and 7100 BC. At the Lind Coulee Archaeological Site in east-central Washington, leaf-shaped projectile points, based on archaeological evidence, it is suggested that these people were hunters, subsisting from fishing and plant gathering. The presence of sea shells gives an indication that trading took place, a small oval shaped dwelling was found at the Paulina Lake site in Oregon, dating to 7100 BC. The Cascade phase took place from 7100-4300 BC, and was marked by a change in toolkit technology from the Windust peoples. A residential structure was found for this group, dating between 5500-4300 BC, other pithouses followed between 4000-2000 BC. Most residential structures are located on rivers, during the historic era and salmon were the staple foods, which give us an indication that Cascade groups harvested salmon runs in the summer and fall. The Late Period, dated to about 2500 BC, the pithouse came into existence, other markers of this period include the increasing number of pithouses and settlements.
Fishing continued to increase, and technology advanced, introducing more specialized barb fish spears, other technology was used as well, including nets and weirs. Trade networks flourished during this time, using sea shells, fish grease, Columbia River Plateau Chilcotin Group Fagan, Brian M. Ancient North America. London and Hudson, Ltd.2005
Pemberton, British Columbia
Pemberton is a village municipality north of Whistler in the Pemberton Valley of British Columbia in Canada, with a population of 2,192. Until the 1960s the village could be reached only by train, British Columbia, Canada, is a small village located in the Coast Mountains,100 miles north of Vancouver. Pemberton has a population of approximately 2,500 people, until the early 1960s, when Highway 99 was built, Pemberton was accessible only by train and the population was under 200 people. Pemberton is known as the Seed Potato Capital of the World due to its production of seed potatoes. The local economy is dependent on logging and tourism. Mt. Currie rises to the south, at 8,500 ft, Forest service roads brought forest service campsites, trail heads, view points and access to many of the lakes and hot springs in the area. Meager Creek Hot Springs accessible, but not formally reopened on Meager Creek west on South Creek Forest Service Road and 9.5 km trail on foot. Pebble Creek Hot Springs or Keyhole Hot Springs was formerly known as Boulder Creek Hot Springs west on Upper Lilloeet Forest Service Road 1.5 km trail on foot.
Skookumchuck Hot Springs/ Saint Agnes Well former names - reverted / renamed Tsek Hot Spring - east on In-SHUCK-ch Forest Service Road, sloquet Hot Springs farther east on In-SHUCK-ch Forest Service Road. The climate of Pemberton is very warm and dry in the summer and mild, Pemberton is an ecologically complex and diverse zone which is referred to as the Coast-Interior Transition zone. High summer temperatures and the pronounced water deficits during the season are the norm. Frances Ermantinger arrived by way of Seton lake and Anderson Lake, in all likelihood both men were searching for a safe route for fur brigades from Kamloops and Fort Langley, for a route to bypass the lower Fraser River canyons. By then, as of the Oregon Treaty, the lower Columbia River, the link with the Interior, was American. The men traveled on foot and by canoe from Kamloops to the end of the lake named for the leader. The exploration party continued by what Anderson described as a “very good trail”, the next day, following the Birkenhead River, they reached the Mount Currie area by late afternoon.
In 1858 the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush began and some 30,000 miners began the trek through traditional Lilwat and upper Statimc territory to the goldfields at Lillooet, known as Cayoosh Flat. Many miners who reached the goldfields in the summer of 1858 intended to stay the winter, the miners needed food and that food had to be transported to regions above the lower canyons of the Fraser, where there were no roads. Because he knew that twelve years earlier A. C, the total length of trail would be just over sixty-eight miles, the total length of all lakes nearly fifty-six miles
The Thompson River is the largest tributary of the Fraser River, flowing through the south-central portion of British Columbia, Canada. The Thompson River has two branches, the South Thompson River and the North Thompson River. The river is home to varieties of Pacific salmon and trout. The areas geological history was influenced by glaciation, and the several large glacial lakes have filled the river valley over the last 12,000 years. Archaeological evidence shows habitation in the watershed dating back to at least 8300 years. The Thompson was named by Fraser River explorer, Simon Fraser, in honour of his friend, recreational use of the river includes whitewater rafting and angling. Highway 1, the Trans-Canada Highway and the mainline of the Canadian Pacific Railway parallel the river, Little Shuswap Lake is fed by the Little River, which drains Shuswap Lake, which is fed by several rivers & creeks. For most of its length, the river is paralleled by Highway 5, the North Thompson passes by several small communities, the most notable being Blue River, Clearwater & Barriere.
The North Thompson picks up the Clearwater River at the town of Clearwater, the Clearwater, the North Thompsons largest tributary, drains much of Wells Gray Provincial Park. A notable feature along the North Thompson is Little Hells Gate, about 17.4 kilometres upstream from the small town of Avola, the river is forced through a narrow chute only about 30 feet wide creating a rapid that resembles the Frasers famous rapid. From there it flows in a meandering course westwards through a valley area. At Ashcroft, the Thompson Canyon begins and the river turns southwestward to its confluence with the Fraser, the river is paralleled by the Trans-Canada Highway, the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway. From Ashcroft to Lytton, the river is confined within Thompson Canyon. The Thompson River joins the Fraser River in Lytton, there is a striking stretch of dark black cliffside just downstream from Ashcroft and visible from the Logan Lake-Ashcroft highway is officially-named the Black Canyon.
Just below the town of Spences Bridge was the site of a rail disaster in the early 20th Century. Communities along this section are Bighorn, Shaw Springs, and Goldpan. The Thompson River valley has existed in form for at least 50 million years, for much of its history. Geologists believe water from the river flowed northward, through the Cariboo region, eventually entering what is the modern-day Peace River drainage basin and this flow direction is estimated to have ended approximately 2 million years ago, as the Pleistocene era of heavy glaciation began
Whistler, British Columbia
Over two million people visit Whistler annually, primarily for alpine skiing and snowboarding and, in summer, mountain biking at Whistler Blackcomb. Its pedestrian village has won design awards and Whistler has been voted among the top destinations in North America by major ski magazines since the mid-1990s. The Whistler Valley is located around the pass between the headwaters of the Green River and the reaches of the Cheakamus. One Lilwat legend of the Great Flood says that before the deluge, the first British survey by the Royal Navy took place in the 1860s. In the late 19th century, a trail was cut through the valley, the trail was completed in 1877, but because of the difficult and unforgiving terrain, it was only used once for its intended purpose, which was to drive cattle. The area began to attract trappers and prospectors who established small camps in the area in the early 20th century. The area began to gain recognition with the arrival of Myrtle and Alex Philip, the Philips had relocated from Maine to Vancouver in 1910, and had heard rumors of the natural beauty of the area from Pemberton pioneer John Millar.
After an exploratory journey, the couple was convinced, Rainbow Lodge and other railway-dependent tourist resorts were collectively known as Alta Lake. Along with the rest of the valley bridging the Cheakamus and Green River basins, appreciation of the outdoors was not the only activity in the valley, however. During the first half of the 20th century, most of the slopes of the surrounding mountains were cleared of old growth. At its peak, four mills were in operation, most located around Green Lake and trapping were pursued as well, though no claims of great value were ever staked. Until the 1960s, this area was without basic infrastructure, there were no sewage facilities, water, or electricity. In 1962, four Vancouver businessmen began to explore the area with the intent of building a ski resort, garibaldi Lift Company was formed, shares were sold, and in 1966, Whistler Mountain opened to the public. Later, the town, known as Alta Lake, was offered the 1976 Winter Olympics after the selected host city Denver declined the games due to funding issues.
Alta Lake Whistler declined as well, after elections ushered in a government less enthusiastic about the Olympics. The 1976 Winter Olympics were ultimately held in Innsbruck, Whistler was the Host Mountain Resort of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympic Games, the first time the IOC has bestowed that designation on a community. The Whistler Olympic and Paralympic Village housed around 2,400 athletes, trainers, post-games, the site has been turned into a new residential neighbourhood Cheakamus Crossing. Whistler is located on British Columbia Highway 99, known as the Sea-to-Sky highway, approximately 58 kilometres north of Squamish, the highway connects Whistler to the British Columbia Interior via Pemberton-Mount Currie to Lillooet and connections beyond to the Trans-Canada and Cariboo Highways
The Rocky Mountains, commonly known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 3,000 miles from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico, in the Southwestern United States. Within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, the Rocky Mountains were initially formed from 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began to slide underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a belt of mountains running down western North America. Since then, further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks, at the end of the last ice age, humans started to inhabit the mountain range. The first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, the Rocky Mountains are commonly defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico.
The United States definition of the Rockies includes the Cabinet and Salish Mountains of Idaho and their counterparts north of the Kootenai River, the Columbia Mountains, are considered a separate system in Canada, lying to the west of the huge Rocky Mountain Trench. This runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the bank of the Liard River. The Rockies vary in width from 70 to 300 miles, west of the Rocky Mountain Trench, farther north and facing the Muskwa Range across the trench, are the Stikine Ranges and Omineca Mountains of the Interior Mountains system of British Columbia. A small area east of Prince George, British Columbia on the side of the Trench. In Canada geographers define three main groups of ranges, the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges and Muskwa Ranges, the Muskwa and Hart Ranges together comprise what is known as the Northern Rockies. The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City, the Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these sub-ranges from distinct ranges further to the west, most prominent among which are the Sierra Nevada, Cascade Range and Coast Mountains.
The Rocky Mountain System within the United States is a United States physiographic region, the Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America. The ranges highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 14,440 feet above sea level, Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 12,972 feet, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies. The Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains, triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water that falls on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific, but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, see Rivers of the Rocky Mountains for a list of rivers. Human population is not very dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer, the human population grew rapidly in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990. The 40-year statewide increases in range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah