North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area. Its capital is Düsseldorf, the most populous city is Cologne, four of Germanys ten largest cities—Cologne, Düsseldorf and Essen—are located within the state, as well as the largest metropolitan area on the European continent, Rhine-Ruhr. North Rhine-Westphalia was formed in 1946 as a merger of the provinces of North Rhine and Westphalia, the state has been run by a coalition of the Social Democrats and Greens since 2010. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior, North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri. By the 8th century the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany. But at the time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south. The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks eventually built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Ottonian dynasty had both Saxon and Frankish ancestry.
As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into small independent principalities, each with its separate vicissitudes. Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military, Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked largely in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the bank of the Rhine was resigned to France. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium, around 1 AD there were numerous incursions through Westphalia and perhaps even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements. The Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in Paderborn and nearby parts and his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today.
Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, Widukind was buried in Enger, which is a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was originally a district of the Duchy of Saxony, in 1180 Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa. The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only an area south of the Lippe River. Parts of Westphalia came under Brandenburg-Prussian control during the 17th and 18th centuries, the Peace of Westphalia of 1648, signed in Münster and Osnabrück, ended the Thirty Years War
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
The Westland Lynx is a British multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland Helicopters at its factory in Yeovil. Originally intended as a utility craft for both civil and naval usage, military interest led to the development of both battlefield and naval variants, the Lynx has the distinction of being the worlds first fully aerobatic helicopter with the ability to perform loops and rolls. In 1986, a specially modified Lynx set the current Fédération Aéronautique Internationales official airspeed record for helicopters at 400.87 km/h, in addition to a wide number of land and naval variants of the Lynx, several major derivatives have been produced. The Westland 30 was produced as a utility helicopter, it did not become a commercial success. The Lynx remains in production by AgustaWestland, the successor to Westland Helicopters, the initial design was started in the mid-1960s as a replacement for the Westland Scout and Wasp, and a more advanced alternative to the UH-1 Iroquois.
The design was to be powered by a pair of Bristol Siddeley BS.360 turboshaft engines, in October 1969, the French Army cancelled its requirement for the Lynx, thus development work of the dedicated armed attack variant was terminated early on. The first Lynx prototype took its flight on 21 March 1971. In 1972, a Lynx broke the speed record over 15 and 25 km by flying at 321.74 km/h. It set a new 100 km closed circuit record shortly afterwards, in 1986, the former company demonstrator Lynx, registered G-LYNX, was specially modified with Gem 60 engines and British Experimental Rotor Programme rotor blades. At this speed, it had a ratio of 2. Deliveries of production began in 1977. An improved Lynx AH.1 with Gem 41-1 or Gem 42 engines, the AH.5 led to the Lynx AH.7, which added a new tail rotor derived from the Westland 30, a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and defensive aids. An improved Lynx for the Royal Navy, the Lynx HAS.3, had Gem 42-1 Mark 204 engines, a transmission, a new flotation system.
The Lynx HAS.3 received various updates in service. A similar upgrade to the French Lynx was known as the Lynx Mk.4, in September 1974, the British and Egyptian governments initiated talks to establish a new Egyptian helicopter manufacturer. A separate agreement was formalised with Rolls-Royce to license manufacture the Lynxs Gem engines at the Helwan facility, this plan was ultimately aborted due to a lack of funds that had resulted from the collapse of the Arab Organization for Industrialization. Both Army and Naval variants were proposed, the project was ended in 1987 due to insufficient orders being placed. Only one Army Lynx-3 prototype was built, a development of the Lynx AH.7 with the wheeled undercarriage of the Lynx-3 was marketed by Westland as the Battlefield Lynx in the late 1980s
3rd Division (United Kingdom)
The 3rd Division, known at various times as the Iron Division, 3rd Division, Montys Iron Sides or as Iron Sides, is a regular army division of the British Army. The division is sometimes referred to as the Iron Division. The divisions other battle honours include, the Battle of Waterloo, the Crimean War, the Second Boer War and it was commanded for a time, during the Second World War, by Bernard Montgomery. The division was to have part of a proposed Commonwealth Corps, formed for a planned invasion of Japan in 1945–46. During the Second World War, the became the pattern of three — a black triangle trisected by an inverted red triangle, created by Bernard Montgomery to instil pride in his troops. The 3rd held their ground and pushed on with other divisions to capture the village of Arinez. The 3rd Division was present at the Battle of Quatre Bras, 5/390 5x9lb guns 1x5.5 inch Howitzer Cleeves Field Brigade Kings German Legion 6/209 5x9lb guns 1x5. The 3rd Division served on the Western Front in France and Belgium for four years, during this time, it was nicknamed The Iron Division.
Its first commander during the war, Major-General Hubert Hamilton, was killed by shellfire near Béthune in October 1914, 2nd Battalion, Royal Irish Regiment 4th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment The following battalions joined the brigade for periods in 1915 and 1916. After the end of the First World War, the division was stationed in southern England where it formed part of Southern Command, in 1937, one of its brigades, the 9th Infantry Brigade, was commanded by Brigadier Bernard Montgomery. He assumed command of the 3rd Division shortly before Britain declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939. The 3rd Infantry Division, under the command of Major General Bernard Montgomery, was sent overseas to France in late September 1939, there the division became part of Lieutenant General Alan Brookes II Corps of the British Expeditionary Force. However, unlike in the First World War, where the division was almost immediately engaged in desperate fighting, Montgomery instantly began training the men of his division in a tough training regime.
As with most of the rest of the BEF, training was hampered by a shortage of modern equipment. In May 1940, after months of relative inactivity, the German Army launched its attack in the west which resulted in the BEF being split up from the French Army. Due to Montgomerys strict training regime, the 3rd Division suffered comparatively few casualties, the 3rd British Infantry Division was the first British formation to land at Sword Beach on D-Day,6 June 1944, as part of the invasion of Normandy, part of the larger Operation Overlord. For the assault landing, 3rd British Division was organised as a Division Group and these included 27th Armoured Brigade and 22nd Dragoons, 1st Special Service Brigade and No. The divisions own artillery were all self-propelled and the SP field guns, after D-Day the 3rd Infantry Division fought through the Battle for Caen, in Operation Charnwood and Operation Goodwood
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdoms naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the medieval period. The modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century, from the middle decades of the 17th century and through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century it was the worlds most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War. The Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the world power during the 19th. Due to this historical prominence, it is common, even among non-Britons, following World War I, the Royal Navy was significantly reduced in size, although at the onset of the Second World War it was still the worlds largest. By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the worlds largest, during the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a primarily anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines, mostly active in the GIUK gap.
The Royal Navy is part of Her Majestys Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the power in the 10th century. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Medieval fleets, in England as elsewhere, were almost entirely composed of merchant ships enlisted into service in time of war. Englands naval organisation was haphazard and the mobilisation of fleets when war broke out was slow, early in the war French plans for an invasion of England failed when Edward III of England destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Sluys in 1340. Major fighting was confined to French soil and Englands naval capabilities sufficed to transport armies and supplies safely to their continental destinations. Such raids halted finally only with the occupation of northern France by Henry V.
Henry VII deserves a large share of credit in the establishment of a standing navy and he embarked on a program of building ships larger than heretofore. He invested in dockyards, and commissioned the oldest surviving dry dock in 1495 at Portsmouth, a standing Navy Royal, with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, emerged during the reign of Henry VIII. Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, the new regimes introduction of Navigation Acts, providing that all merchant shipping to and from England or her colonies should be carried out by English ships, led to war with the Dutch Republic. In the early stages of this First Anglo-Dutch War, the superiority of the large, heavily armed English ships was offset by superior Dutch tactical organisation and the fighting was inconclusive
Belgium national rugby union team
The Belgium national rugby union team represents Belgium in international rugby competitions. Rugby union in Belgium is administered by the Belgian Rugby Federation, Belgium have been ranked in the Top 30 since 2010. Belgium have yet to qualify for the Rugby World Cup, Belgium participates in the European Nations Cup. The Belgium rugby team played their first match on 13 March 1932 against the Netherlands and they contested annual games against the Netherlands for half a decade starting in 1932. They drew the 1932 game, but lost subsequent matches during the 1930s and they played Italy and Germany in 1937, losing both games. During the 1950s, Belgium continued playing the Netherlands, as well as teams like Spain and they managed to obtain a draw in the 1960s against Portugal. In the 1970s they won the majority of their games, as well as playing a range of European nations. This trend continued throughout the 1980s, Belgium had a six-game winning streak in the late 1980s. They began playing games against their regular European opponents as they entered the 1990s.
A Belgium side played the Argentina national rugby union prior to the 2007 Rugby World Cup. A Belgium XV played the Barbarians on 24 May 2008, since their induction to the first 30 rugby nations in the international ranking, they have managed to maintain their place. Belgium had a successful campaign during the 2010-2012 European Nations Cup. They gained promotion to the ENC 1A for the 2012-14 competition, where they play against sides such as Spain, jacques Rogge, the current International Olympic Committee president, was a member of the Belgium national team. 1987 - Not invited 1991 - Did not qualify 1995 - Did not qualify 1999 - Did not qualify 2003 - Did not qualify, finished last in 2001 Round 2 Pool B.2007 - Did not qualify. Finished second behind Germany in 2005-06 Round 3A, finished second behind Ukraine in 2008-2010 ENC 2A. 2016-2017 Rugby union in Belgium http, //www. rugbyevents. be Belgian Rugby Federation Belgium XV Official Games Belgium on rugbydata. com
The Troubles is the common name for the ethno-nationalist conflict in Northern Ireland during the late 20th century. Also known internationally as the Northern Ireland conflict, it is described as a guerrilla war or low-level war. The most recent instalment of violence began in the late 1960s and is deemed to have ended with the Good Friday Belfast Agreement of 1998. Although the Troubles mainly took place in Northern Ireland, violence spilled over at times parts of the Republic of Ireland and mainland Europe. The conflict was political and nationalistic, fuelled by historical events. It had an ethnic or sectarian dimension, although it was not a religious conflict, a key issue was the constitutional status of Northern Ireland. Unionists/loyalists, who are mostly Protestants and consider themselves British, want Northern Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom, Irish nationalists/republicans, who are predominantly Catholics, want Northern Ireland to be reunited with the 26 counties which make up the Republic of Ireland in an independent united Ireland.
This campaign was met with violence by loyalists who viewed the campaign as a stalking horse. This eventually led to the deployment of British troops, initially to protect Catholic civilians, the security forces of the Republic played a smaller role. More than 3,500 people were killed in the conflict, of whom 52% were civilians, 32% were members of the British security forces, there has been sporadic violence since the Good Friday Agreement was signed, including a campaign by anti-ceasefire republicans. The Troubles refers to the recent three-decade conflict between nationalists and unionists, the term the Troubles was previously used to refer to the Irish revolutionary period, it was adopted to refer to the escalating violence in Northern Ireland after 1969. The violence was characterised by the campaigns of Irish republican and Ulster loyalist paramilitary groups. It thus became the focus for the longest major campaign in the history of the British Army, nationalists regard the state forces as forces of occupation or partisan combatants in the conflict.
One part of the Agreement is that Northern Ireland will remain within the United Kingdom unless a majority of the Northern Irish electorate vote otherwise and it established the Northern Ireland Executive, a devolved power-sharing government, which must consist of both unionist and nationalist parties. In 1609, Scottish and English settlers, known as planters, were given land escheated from the native Irish in the Plantation of Ulster. As the Penal Laws started to be phased out in the part of the 18th century, there was more competition for land. With Roman Catholics allowed to buy land and enter trades from which they had formerly been banned, tensions arose resulting in the Protestant Peep ODay Boys and Catholic Defenders. This created polarisation between the communities and a reduction in reformers among Protestants, many of whom had been growing more receptive to democratic reform
Warrior tracked armoured vehicle
The Warrior tracked vehicle family is a series of British armoured vehicles, originally developed to replace the older FV430 series of armoured vehicles. The Warrior started life as the MCV-80 project that was first broached in the 1970s, GKN Defence was subsequently purchased by BAE Systems. A total of 789 FV510 and variants were manufactured for the British Army, the Warrior incorporates several design features in keeping with UK battlefield experience. The absence of firing ports allows additional armour to be fitted to the sides of the vehicle. The cage armour used at one stage was replaced in 2007 by Wrap Two appliqué armour, the basic armour provides all-around protection against small arms ball ammunition. The crew of a Warrior comprises the driver, seated in the front hull, and the gunner and commander, the embarked infantry section can number up to seven soldiers, who are seated facing each other in the rear hull compartment. Passenger access is through a single electric ram powered door at the rear of the hull, rather than a ramp as in the American M113 APC.
The Warrior is driven by a Perkins-Rolls-Royce V8 Condor engine through an automatic gearbox. It is capable of a speed of 46 miles per hour. The Warrior has the speed and performance to keep up with a Challenger 2 main battle tank over the most difficult terrain and it is fitted with two clusters of four defensive grenade launchers. All Warrior Infantry Section Vehicles are now equipped with Bowman radios, when first introduced, the vehicles were fitted with passive Image intensifier night vision sights. These have since been replaced with Thales Optronics Battle Group Thermal Imaging sights to upgrade night fighting capabilities. As of 2007,350 vehicles were fitted with BGTI, Two Warriors were destroyed during the First Gulf War, with nine soldiers killed, in a friendly fire incident when hit by an AGM-65 Maverick launched in error by an American A-10 Thunderbolt II. As of 17 November 2008,22 soldiers had killed while travelling in Warrior IFVs in Afghanistan or Iraq. On 7 March 2012, six British soldiers were killed in an explosion that hit a Warrior IFV in Helmand and this is the principal version operated by the British Army, as described above.
Operated by REME detachments in Armoured Infantry battalions and it is equipped with a 6.5 tonne crane plus power tools and is able to tow a trailer carrying two Warrior power packs or one Challenger power pack. Also operated by REME detachments in Armoured Infantry battalions and it is equipped with a 20 tonne winch and 6.5 tonne crane plus power tools and is able to tow a trailer carrying two Warrior power packs or one Challenger power pack. FV514 Mechanised Artillery Observation Vehicle, the only armament is the 7.62 mm machine gun, as the 30 mm Rarden cannon is replaced by a dummy weapon
The former Royal Air Force Station Brüggen, more commonly known as RAF Brüggen, in Germany was a major station of the Royal Air Force until 15 June 2001. It was situated next to the village of Elmpt, approximately 43 kilometres west of Düsseldorf near the Dutch-German border, the base was named after the village of Brüggen, the nearest rail depot. Construction began in mid-1952, which involved the clearing of dense forest, the station became active in 1953 during the rapid expansion of NATO forces in Europe. In 2002 was handled over to the British Army and renamed Javelin Barracks, in 1953, the 317 Supply and Transport Column arrived at RAF Brüggen from Uetersen. This followed the decision to supply all RAF stations in Germany through the port of Antwerp, in 1954 the unit was redesignated as a Mechanical Transport Squadron and was responsible for equipping and supplying all RAF stations in Germany and The Netherlands. The unit remained at Brüggen until 1963, when it was amalgamated into the 431 Maintenance Unit which continued to operate until 1993.
The demise of 317 MT Squadron marked the end of an era and it had built itself an enviable reputation and following the cessation of hostilities carried out convoys to Prague and Moscow. In the 1950 Review of the Royal Air Force, the unit was described as the Carter Paterson of the autobahns, throughout its life,317 carried out a number of humanitarian operations, the first being medical supplies to Bergen-Belsen. This was followed in 1947 by Operation Woodpecker in which timber and this was followed by the return of displaced persons and POWs to their home towns and cities within the British Zone. -1957 the fighter squadrons at Bruggen were 67, 71E,112 &130, equipped initially with Canadair Sabre F. 4s and these squadrons were either redeployed or disbanded in 1957 with the arrival of 87 Squadron, equipped with Gloster Javelins. The initial strike capability at RAF Brüggen was provided by the English Electric Canberra from the summer of 1957, from 1969 to 1975 the Phantom FGR.2 operated in the strike/attack role and was replaced by the SEPECAT Jaguar from 1975.
The squadron Jaguars were replaced by the Panavia Tornado GR.1 beginning in 1984, with a total of four Tornado GR.1 squadrons at Brüggen, and 2 more at its nearby sister airbase RAF Laarbruch, Brüggen and Laarbruch formed the largest Tornado force in NATO. Hardened Aircraft Shelters were equipped with the U. S, weapon Storage Security System, each able to store up to 4 WE.177 tactical nuclear bombs, for delivery by Tornado aircraft. On the 4 September 2007, the British military admitted that there had been an accident with a weapon at RAF Brüggen on 2 May 1984. The nuclear weapon fell from a truck, as the missile wasnt securely attached to the truck. The weapon was 8 times more powerful than the bomb that was dropped on Hiroshima in 1945, the casing was x-rayed after the incident, and found to have been undamaged, a testament to the inherent strength of nuclear weapons casings. The six people who were responsible for the accident, received a reprimand for their actions in the incident, following reunification of Germany, the RAF announced plans to reduce its presence in the country by half.
One major part of this was the reduction of Tornado squadrons in Germany from seven to four, No.9, No.14, No.17 and No.31 squadrons
Armoured personnel carrier
An armoured personnel carrier is a type of armoured fighting vehicle designed to transport infantry to the battlefield. APCs are colloquially referred to as taxis or battle buses. Armoured personnel carriers are distinguished from infantry fighting vehicles by the weaponry they carry, by convention, they are not intended to take part in direct-fire battle, but are armed for self-defence and armoured to provide protection from shrapnel and small arms fire. Examples include the American M113, the French VAB, the Dutch-German GTK Boxer, the genesis of the armoured personnel carrier was on the Western Front of World War I. In the stage of the war, Allied tanks could break through enemy lines, without infantry support, the tanks were isolated and more easily destroyed. In response, the British experimented with carrying machine-gun crews in the Mark V* tank, britain therefore designed the first purpose built armoured troop transport, the Mark IX, but the war ended before it could be put to use. During World War II, half-tracks like the American M3 and German SdKfz 251 played a similar to post-war APCs.
British Commonwealth forces relied on the full-tracked Universal Carrier, over the course of the war, APCs evolved from simple armoured cars with transport capacity, to purpose built vehicles. Obsolete armoured vehicles were repurposed as APCs, such as the various Kangaroos converted from M7 Priest self-propelled guns and from Churchill, M3 Stuart, during the Cold War, more specialized APCs were developed. Western nations have since retired most M113s, replacing them with newer APCs, the Soviet Union produced the BTR-40, BTR-152, BTR-60, BTR-70, BTR-80 in large numbers. The BTR-60 and BTR-80 remain in production and Poland together developed the universal amphibious OT-64 SKOT. A cold war example of a Kangaroo is the heavily armoured Israeli Achzarit, weight can vary from 6 to 40 tons or more, but 9 to 20 tons is typical. Most have a capacity of between 8 and 12 dismountable troops, although some can carry more than 20, in addition, it has a crew of at least one driver, many with a gunner and/or commander as well.
An APC is either wheeled or tracked, or occasionally a combination of the two, as in a half-track, both systems have advantages and limitations. Tracked vehicles have more traction off-road and more maneuverability, including a turn radius. Wheeled APCs are faster on road, can cross long distances, and are expensive to develop, produce. However, wheeled vehicles have higher pressure than tracked vehicles with a comparable weight. The higher ground pressure increases the likelihood of becoming immobilized by soft terrains such as mud and their tracks can propel the APC in the water
Royal Air Force Germany
The former Royal Air Force Germany was a command of the Royal Air Force and part of British Forces Germany. It consisted of units located in Germany, initially as part of the following the Second World War. From 1954 Canberra bombers equipped 69,102,103,104,149 Squadrons and this force was under Bomber Command control from Britain and had been moved because of overcrowding of suitable airfields in the UK to Germany. With the establishment of the British nuclear bomber forces in the context of NATOs strategy of massive retaliation the Canberra bomber squadrons were withdrawn from Germany. After 1955, the majority of the air bases were handed over to the newly established German Air Force, the number of RAF squadrons were reduced. This was both because of the strategy of NATO and for financial reasons after the fiasco of the Suez crisis. From 1 January 1959, the command was officially called Royal Air Force Germany, at this time the focus was the flying units already on just six main use bases RAF Bruggen, RAF Geilenkirchen, RAF Gutersloh, RAF Jever, RAF Laarbruch and RAF Wildenrath.
Important aircraft types at this time were the Canberra as night fighting-suited fighter bombers to three and the Hunter as a day fighter stationed at two airports, from 1960, around the clock there were two on alert Canberra loaded with tactical nuclear weapons who were ready within 15 minutes. In addition there were two seasons that the Swift used them as scouts and four squadrons of Gloster Javelin all-weather interceptors, two English Electric Lightning squadrons - No.92 Squadron RAF and No.19 Squadron RAF - arrived in Germany from 1965. Jever was transferred in 1961 and Geilenkirchen in 1968, reducing the command to four flying airfields, when Geilenkirchen closed, it appears there were two flying squadrons at the base. No.3 Squadron RAF moved to Laarbruch and No.92 Squadron RAF moved to Gutersloh, RAF Germany was disbanded as a separate command in 1993 as part of the reduction of British Armed Forces presence in Europe at the cessation of the Cold War. The remaining RAF forces in Germany ceased to be a separate command, No.2 Group was disbanded on 1 April 1996 by being absorbed into No.1 Group RAF
It was home to 7th Armoured Brigade and most of its subordinate units. It formed a part of British Forces Germany. The oldest part of the garrison was Heide Kaserne at Celle, a huge red-brick edifice which dates back to 1869, at Celle Station, Seeckt Kaserne was built in 1935 and became Trenchard Barracks after the War. Meanwhile, just to the north of Celle, Freiherr von Fritsch Kaserne was built as a Luftwaffe supply base in the 1930s, hohne was home to the 22nd Armoured Brigade. Both brigades were part of the 1st Armoured Division, which included 12th Armoured Brigade and had its divisional headquarters, some 4, 000-5,000 British soldiers occupied the garrison until it closed in 2015. Facilities under the garrisons control included the Bergen-Hohne Training Area, together with families and civilians the garrison population varied between about 10,000 and 12,000. It was home to 32 Engineer Regiment from 1993 until it closed in 2015 and it was home to 2nd Medical Regiment from 2008 until it closed in 2015.
The station amenities include two swimming pools and hair salons and dental centres and several shops selling goods from sports equipment and crafts, telephones and furniture. The Roberts Roundhouse building located in the garrison was used as a ballroom, as a hospital and it was located next to the NAAFI shop. It was home of 2nd Battalion Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers from 1993 until it closed in 2015, the responsibility for Bergen-Hohne Garrison was held by Commander 7th Armoured Brigade. g. to Iraq and Afghanistan. The British Army in Germany, An Organizational History 1947-2004