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British Indian Army

The British Indian Army was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both the British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could have their own armies; the Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad during the First World War and the Second World War. The term "Indian Army" appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies of the Presidencies of British India after the Indian Rebellion; the first army called the "Indian Army" was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies; the Indian Army should not be confused with the "Army of India", the Indian Army itself plus the "British Army in India". The Indian Army has its origins in the years after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 called the Indian Mutiny in British histories, when in 1858 the Crown took over direct rule of British India from the East India Company.

Before 1858, the precursor units of the Indian Army were units controlled by the Company and were paid for by their profits. These operated alongside units of the British Army, funded by the British government in London; the armies of the East India Company were recruited from Muslims in the Bengal Presidency, which consisted of Bengal and Uttar Pradesh, high caste Hindus recruited from the rural plains of Oudh. Many of these troops took part in the Indian Mutiny, with the aim of reinstating the Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II at Delhi as a result of insensitive treatment by their British officers; the meaning of the term "Indian Army" has changed over time: The officer commanding the Army of India was the Commander-in-Chief, India who reported to the civilian Governor-General of India. The title was used before the creation of a unified British Indian Army. By the early 1900s the Commander-in-Chief and his staff were based at GHQ India. Indian Army postings were less prestigious than British Army positions, but the pay was greater so that officers could live on their salaries instead of having to have a private income.

Accordingly, vacancies in the Indian Army were much sought after and reserved for the higher placed officer-cadets graduating from the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. British officers in the Indian Army were expected to learn to speak the Indian languages of their men, who tended to be recruited from Hindi speaking areas. Prominent British Indian Army officers included Lord Roberts, Sir William Birdwood, Sir Claude Auchinleck and Sir William Slim. Commissioned officers and Indian, held identical ranks to commissioned officers of the British Army. King's Commissioned Indian Officers, created from the 1920s, held equal powers to British officers. Viceroy's Commissioned Officers were Indians holding officer ranks, they were treated in all respects as commissioned officers, but had authority over Indian troops only, were subordinate to all British King's Commissioned Officers and KCIOs. They included Subedar Major or Risaldar-Major, equivalents to a British Major. Recruitment was voluntary. Non-Commissioned Officers included Company Havildar Majors equivalents to a Company Sergeant Major.

Soldier ranks included Sowars, equivalent to a British private. British Army ranks such as gunner and sapper were used by other corps. In the aftermath of the Indian Mutiny of 1857 called the Sepoy Mutiny by the British, the three armies of the former Presidencies of the East India Company passed to the British Crown. After'the Mutiny', recruitment switched to what the British called the "martial races," Sikhs, Awans and other Punjabi Musulmans, Pashtuns, Bunts, Rajputs, Kumaonis, Garhwalis, Maravars, Vellalar, Jats, Gurjar and Sainis; the three Presidency armies remained separate forces, each with its own Commander-in-Chief. Overall operational control was exercised by the Commander-in-Chief of the Bengal Army, formally the Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies. From 1861, most of the officer manpower was pooled in the three Presidential Staff Corps. After the Second Afghan War a Commission of Enquiry recommended the abolition of the presidency armies; the Ordnance and Transport, Pay branches were by unified.

The Punjab Frontier Force was under the direct control of the Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab during peacetime until 1886, when it came under the C-in-C, India. The Hyderabad Contingent and other local corps remained under direct governmental control. Standing higher formations – divisions and brigades – were abandoned in 1889. No divisional staffs were maintained in peacetime, troops were dispersed throughout the sub-continent, with internal security as their main function. In 1891 the three staff corps were merged into one Indian Staff Corps. Two years the Madras and Bombay A

Idrialite

Idrialite, or idrialine, is a soft, orthorhombic hydrocarbon mineral with chemical formula: C22H14. It is greenish yellow to light brown in color with bluish fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy studies indicate that it may be a mixture of complex hydrocarbons including benzonaphthothiophenes and dinaphthothiophenes, it has also been known as branderz and inflammable cinnabar due to its combustibility. When distilled, it produces the mineral wax idrialin, it was first described in 1832 for an occurrence in the Idrija region west of Ljubljana, northwestern Slovenia. It occurs at Skaggs Springs, Sonoma County, western Lake County and the Knoxville Mine in Napa County, California, it has been reported from localities in France and Ukraine. It can be found mixed with clay, pyrite and gypsum associated with cinnabar in the Idrija occurrence and with metacinnabar and opal in the Skaggs Spring location

Heyday (horse)

Heyday was a Thoroughbred gelding that competed in the sport of eventing, ridden by American Bruce Davidson. He was one of the Top Ten All American High Point Horses of the Century in eventing, he stands 16 hands. Heyday was successful at a young age, competing at the advanced level at the age 6, he went on to represent the United States at the Atlanta Olympics in 1996 earning the team silver medal, won the 1995 Pan American Games, came second at the Blenheim Horse Trials in 1997, won team bronze at the World Championships in Rome. However, Heyday was notorious for his inconsistent show jumping rounds. Heyday and owned by Dr. Elinor Jenny, was ridden by her grand-daughter Maisy Grassie, who had great success in the Young Riders with him, taking him to her first Advanced Horse Trials. 2003 8th Fair Hill International HT Advanced 2002 7th North American Young Riders Championship CCI** 4th Menfelt HT OI 13th Plantation Field HT Advanced 4th Morven Park HT OI 2001 34th Radnor Hunt Int'l Three-day Event CCI** 4th Middleburg H.

T. OI 2nd Fair Hill H. T. at Plantation Field OI 5th Seneca Valley PC H. T. OI 17th Fair Hill International H. T. at Fair Hill OI 19th Morven Park H. T. OI 2000 4th Middleburg H. T. OI 1st North American Young Riders Championship CCI* 5th Bromont Three-day Event CCI *** 1998 Team Bronze, Individually 21st at the World Equestrian Games in Rome 8th Rolex Kentucky Three Day 15th Beaulieu North American Classic HT 3rd Morven Park Spring HT 13th Pine Top Spring H. T. 8th Sharpton Winter H. T. AI1997 2nd Blenheim Horse Trials CCI *** 9th Gatcomb Park 20th Punchestown Three-Day Event CCI *** 28th Beaulieu North American Classic H. T. 9th Morven Park Spring HT 1996 Team Silver, 9th Individually at the Atlanta Olympic Games 2nd North Georgia International Open Invitational H. T. 19th Groton House Farm H. T. II 13th Beaulieu North American Classic H. T. 11th Morven Park Spring H. T.(Advanced 14th Sharpton Winter H. T. OI1995 16th Burghley Three Day Event CCI **** 1st Pan American Games ***1994 4th Fair Hill International Three-Day Event CCI *** 2nd Morven Park H.

T. 2nd Bromont Three Day Event HT OI 7th Kentucky Three-Day Event CCI *** 5th Beaulieu North American Classic H. T